• Mechanical and microstructural characterization of geopolymers from assorted construction and demolition waste-based masonry and glass

      Ulugöl, H.; Kul, A.; Yildirim, G.; Şahmaran, M.; Aldemir, A.; Figueira, D.; Ashour, Ashraf F. (2021-01)
      Geopolymers are mostly produced with main-stream precursors such as fly ash and slag. These precursors are successfully used and competitively demanded by the cement industry. Development of geopolymers from alternative precursors is appealing. The main aim of this work is the development of geopolymers with construction and demolition waste-based precursors including masonry units (red clay brick, roof tile, hollow brick) and glass. Different curing temperatures (50, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105, 115, 125 oC), curing periods (24, 48, 72 h), and Na concentrations (10, 12, 15%) of alkaline activator (NaOH) were employed. Compressive strength testing and microstructural investigations were performed including X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that depending on the type of precursor (hollow brick), curing temperature/period (115 oC/24 h) and concentration of alkaline activator (12%), it is possible to obtain compressive strength results more than 45 MPa. Hollow brick is the most successful precursor resulting in higher compressive strength results thanks to a more compact microstructure. The strength performance of red clay brick and roof tile is similar. The compressive strength results of geopolymers with glass precursor are lower, most probably due to significantly coarser particles of glass used. The main reaction products of red clay brick-, roof tile- and hollow brick-based geopolymers are sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H) gels with zeolite-like structures while they are sodium silicate gels in the case of glass-based geopolymers. Our findings showed that CDW-based materials can be used successfully in producing geopolymers. Current research is believed to help raise awareness in novel routes for the effective utilization of such wastes which are realistically troublesome and attract further research on the utilization of CDW-based materials in geopolymer production.