• Effects of Soil Resistance Damping on Wave-induced Pore Pressure Accumulation around a Composite Breakwater

      Zhang, J.; Tong, L.; Zheng, J.; He, R.; Guo, Yakun (2018-07)
      It is important to consider the potential instability of the seabed due to the accumulation of wave-induced pore pressure in the design of a composite breakwater as the pore pressure within the seabed can considerably build-up under waves loading and eventually leads to a sharp decrease of the effective stress. Due to the importance in practical engineering, many theoretical models have been developed to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of the residual pore pressure. However, most of these studies treat the soil skeleton as an invariant medium, which ignores the damping of the soil strength due to the reduction of the effective stress. In this study, a two-dimensional poro-elastoplastic model, in which the influence of the reduction of the effective stress on the soil strength has been considered, is proposed to investigate the accumulation of pore water pressure around a composite breakwater and its effect on the soil characteristics. The simulation results show that the liquefaction is likely to occur around the toe of the breakwater due to the accumulation of pore water pressure there. The liquefaction leads to the decrease of soil resistance, which has great effect on the development of the residual pore pressure. Analysis shows that the development of residual pore pressure is also greatly affected by both the wave height and soil permeability. The simulation demonstrates that if the decrease of soil resistance is not considered, the soil liquefaction depth will be overestimated.
    • Experimental study on soil response and wave attenuation in a silt bed

      Tong, L.; Zhang, J.; Sun, K.; Guo, Yakun; Zheng, J.; Jeng, D. (2018-07-15)
      When ocean waves propagate over porous seabed, they cause variations of the pore pressure within seabed, leading to the possible wave attenuation and soil liquefaction. In order to advance and improve our understanding of the process of wave-induced seabed liquefaction and its impact on wave propagation, systematical experiments are carried out in a wave flume with a soil basin filled with silt. Both the pore pressures and water surface elevations are measured simultaneously, while the seabed liquefaction is videotaped using a high-speed camera. Laboratory measurements show that the pore pressure in surface layer mainly oscillates over time, while the wave period averaged pore pressure has little change. In the deep layer, however, the wave period averaged value of the pore pressure builds up dramatically. The results show that the wave height decreases rapidly along the direction of wave propagation when seabed liquefaction occurs. Such a wave attenuation is greatly enhanced when the liquefaction depth further increases. The experiments also demonstrate that the conditions (wave height and wave period) of incident waves have significant impacts on the wave-induced pore pressures, liquefaction depth and wave attenuation in a silt bed.
    • Investigation of array layout of tidal stream turbines on energy extraction efficiency

      Zhang, C.; Zhang, J.; Tong, L.; Guo, Yakun; Zhang, P. (2020-01)
      A two-dimensional model based on OpenTidalFarm is applied to simulate tidal stream flow around turbines. The model is governed by shallow water equations and is able to optimize the layout of the deployed turbine array in terms of maximizing the energy outputs. Three turbine array layouts including two structured layouts (regular and staggered) and one unstructured layout (optimized) are simulated to investigate the effect of turbine layouts on energy extraction. The present study shows that more energy could be extracted when lateral spacing decreases and longitudinal spacing increases within the same domain, namely the effective turbine layout is to deploy more turbines in the first row to extract energy from undisturbed tidal stream, while larger longitudinal spacing will make it possible for tidal stream to recover more before reaching the next turbines row. Taking the tidal stream turbines array around Zhoushan Islands as a case study, results show that the optimized layout can extract 106.8% energy of that extracted by the regular and staggered layout for a full tide in the same marine area. Additionally, the turbine array has a great influence on tidal stream velocities immediately behind the array and has little effect on far-field wake flow.
    • Modelling study of wave damping over a sandy and a silty bed

      Tong, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, L.; Zheng, J.; Guo, Yakun (2020-10)
      Laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate wave damping over the seabed, in which the excess pore pressure and free surface elevations are synchronously measured for examining the wave-induced soil dynamics and wave kinematics. Two types of soil, namely fine sand and silt, are tested to examine the role of soil in the wave damping. Observation of experiments shows that (i) soil liquefaction takes place for some tests with silty bed and soil particles suspend into the water layer when the bed is made of silt; (ii) sand ripples can be generated for experiments with sand bed. Measurements reveal that the wave damping greatly depends on the soil dynamic responses to wave loading and the wave damping mechanism over the silty seabed differs from that over the sand bed. On the one hand, the wave damping rate is greatly increased, when soil liquefaction occurs in the silty bed. On the other hand, the presence of sand ripples generated by oscillatory flow in the sand bed experiments also increases the wave damping to some extent. Furthermore, experimental results show that soil particle suspension in the silt bed test contributes to the wave damping. Theoretical analysis is presented to enhance discussions on the wave damping. The theoretical calculations demonstrate that the wave damping is mainly induced by the shear stress in the boundary layer for the cases when no liquefaction occurs. While for the cases when soil liquefaction takes place, the viscous flow in the liquefied layer contributes most towards to the wave damping.
    • Wave induced silty seabed response around a trenched pipeline

      Gao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Tong, L.; Guo, Yakun; Lam, Dennis (2022-02)
      Most previous studies on seabed liquefaction around offshore pipelines focused on investigating the wave-induced pore pressure variation in sandy seabed, while limited studies have been conducted for silty seabed. In this study, laboratory experiments are conducted to investigate wave-induced pore pressure within silty bed around the buried or partially/fully backfilled pipeline. Results show that residual pore pressure is the dominant factor that causes the liquefaction in silty soil. For buried pipeline, liquefaction first occurs at the pipeline bottom, then propagates upwards and downwards vertically. Comparing with the buried pipeline, the liquefaction potential is reduced when the pipeline is placed in a trench. To protect pipeline from liquefaction, backfill is recommended. Experiments show that the residual pore pressure significantly decreases as backfill depth increases. Fully backfilled pipeline is the best choice for silty seabed. Furthermore, backfill material with coarser particle size than native soil provides better protection for pipeline. In this study, there is no residual pore pressure around the pipeline periphery for three backfill soils (d50 = 0.15 mm; 0.3 mm; and 0.5 mm) tested. Results indicate that for the range of this experimental study, d50 = 0.15 mm is the best backfill material that provides the most protection for the underneath pipeline.