• Continuous extraction and destruction of chloro-organics in wastewater using ozone-loaded Volasil (TM) 245 solvent

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Slater, M.J.; Ward, D.B. (2005)
      Extracting waterborne contaminants to ozone-loaded Volasil¿245 (a siloxane solvent in which ozone is ten times more soluble than water) has been studied as a means of enhancing reaction kinetics and thus, providing more rapid wastewater decontamination. Investigation was carried out with respect to 2-chlorophenol and dichloromethane. Using a pilot scale continuous flow liquid¿liquid/ozone water treatment system, 2-chlorophenol was extracted to the ozone-loaded solvent phase and considerable extents of destruction were achieved. However, the approach was demonstrated to yield slightly less destruction than direct gas contact for the same utilization of ozone and enhanced reaction kinetics were not shown to occur. This was suggested to be due to increased interfacial mass transfer resistance and/or the promotion of less destructive reaction pathways. Modification of the existing pilot system, by conversion from co- to counter-current solvent-loading, enabled greater dissolved ozone concentrations to be achieved within the solvent. Increasing the counter-current exchange column height to not, vert, similar2.5 m was suggested for achieving a near optimum level of performance. The liquid¿liquid/ozone approach was demonstrated to be an effective means of indirectly exposing wastewater contaminants to concentrated ozone. As such the technology may be applicable as an alternative to direct gas contact in instances where the avoidance of contaminant sparging is desired (i.e. where contaminants are highly volatile, pungent and/or toxic) or foaming occurs
    • The design of an industrial waste-water treatment process using adsorbed ozone on silica gel

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Slater, M.J. (2003)
      A new technique using ozone loaded on adsorbents for industrial waste-water treatment has been investigated. This is a three-step process: ozone adsorption on a fixed bed column; water treatment on the bed loaded with ozone; and finally drying/ regeneration of the wet bed. Silica gel of mean particle size of 1.5 mm has been tested for ozone loading capacities followed by water treatment, both at ambient temperature. The mechanisms of the mass transfer process during ozone loading and water treatment have been established. The drying of the adsorbent using vacuum and dry air is feasible, but it is a time-consuming operation. A design procedure is described for the whole system.
    • Extraction and destruction of organics in wastewater using ozone-loaded solvent

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Slater, M.J.; Ward, D.B. (2004)
      Originally developed as a heat exchange fluid, Volasil 245 (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) has been found to dissolve 10 times more ozone than water does. This article proposes and investigates the extraction of wastewater contaminants to ozone-loaded Volasil 245 as a means of providing rapid treatment. In a series of bench-scale tests, the effectiveness of ozone-loaded Volasil 245 contact was compared with that of conventional gas contact. Tests were conducted with respect to a range of organic compounds: namely, phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, o-nitrotoluene, and nitrobenzene. Contact with the ozone-loaded solvent was suggested to be the more rapid technique, reducing aqueous concentrations by at least 85% within 30 s. In the case of 2-chlorophenol, Volasil 245 contact was shown to require just ~0.5 min to achieve a residual aqueous fraction of 5%, as opposed to ~4.5 min of gas contact. However, water/solvent interfacial mass transfer resistance was suggested to limit the degree of aqueous decontamination ultimately achieved.
    • Landfill leachate treatment with ozone and ozone/hydrogen peroxide systems.

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Bouselmi, L.; Mansouri, L.; Ghrabi, A. (2007)
      In the search for an efficient and economical method to treat a leachate generated from a controlled municipal solid waste landfill site (Jebel Chakir) in the region of greater Tunis in Tunisia, ozone alone and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide were studied. The leachate was characterised by high COD, low biodegradability and intense dark colour. A purpose-built reactor, to avoid foaming, was used for the study. It was found that ozone efficacy was almost doubled when combined with hydrogen peroxide at 2 g/L but higher H2O2 concentrations gave lower performances. Enhancement in the leachate biodegradability from about 0.1 to about 0.7 was achieved by the O3/H2O2 system. Insignificant changes in pH that may due to buffering effect of bicarbonate was found. A small decrease in sulphate concentrations were also observed. In contrast, chloride concentration declined at the beginning of the experiment then increased to reach its initial value. Estimates of the operating costs were made for comparison purposes and it was found that the O3/H2O2 system at 2 g/L H2O2 gave the lowest cost of about 3.1 TND (2.3 USD)/kg COD removed.
    • Removal of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen during simulated soil aquifer treatment

      Essandoh, Helen M.K.; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H.A. (2013)
      Soil aquifer treatment was simulated in 1 m laboratory soil columns containing silica sand under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions to examine the effect of travel length through the unsaturated zone on the removal of wastewater organic matter, the effect of soil type on dissolved organic carbon removal and also the type of microorganisms involved in the removal process. Dissolved organic carbon removal and nitrification did enhance when the wastewater travelled a longer length through the unsaturated zone. A similar consortium of microorganisms was found to exist in both saturated and unsaturated columns. Microbial concentrations however were lowest in the soil column containing silt and clay in addition to silica sand. The presence of silt and clay was detrimental to DOC removal efficiency under saturated soil conditions due to their negative effect on the hydraulic performance of the soil column and microbial growth.
    • Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

      Essandoh, Helen M.K.; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Amy, G.; Brdjanovic, D. (2011)
      A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L(-)(1)-135 mg L(-)(1)) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d(-)(1)-1780 mg d(-)(1) applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency.