• Effect of polymer matrix on the rheology of hydroxapatite filled polyethylene composites.

      Martyn, Michael T.; Joseph, R.; McGregor, W.J.; Tanner, K.E.; Coates, Philip D. (2002)
      The effect of matrix polymer and filler content on the rheological behavior of hydroxyapatite-filled injection molding grade high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been studied. Studies of the flow curves revealed that the matrix and the composite exhibit three distinct regions in the flow curve, namely, a pseudoplastic region at low to moderate shear rates, a plateau and a second pseudoplastic region at high shear rates. The shear stress corresponding to the plateau (Tc) is dependent on both the filler concentration and the melt temperature. Addition of HA in the HDPE matrix increases the value of Tc and decreases compressibility of the melt. An increase in temperature also raises the value of Tc. From the nature of flow curves it is concluded that the matrix polymer largely decides the rheology of the composite.
    • Rheological characterisation of hydroxapatite filled polyethylene composites. Part I - Shear and extensional behaviour.

      Joseph, R.; Martyn, Michael T.; Tanner, K.E.; Coates, Philip D.; Bonfield, W. (Maney, 2001)
      The shear and extensional properties of injection moulding grade hydroxyapatite¿polyethylene composites developed for orthopaedic applications have been studied. The composite was prepared without processing aids owing to concerns over the potential biological responses to such additives. The composite containing 20 vol.-% hydroxyapatite filler showed typical pseudoplastic behaviour. However, that containing 40 vol.-% hydroxyapatite filler tended to exhibit yield. The Maron¿Pierce equation was found to be useful in predicting the viscosities of the composite systems. The activation energy of the composite and the unfilled polymer were equal, indicating that the 20 vol.-% system exhibits the same flow mechanism as the unfilled polymer. A qualitative assessment of extensional properties was made following Cogswell's method. The extensional stress of the unfilled polymer decreases with increasing temperature whereas the composites behave in a complex manner. For all the systems the Trouton ratios tend to increase with apparent shear rates. The Trouton ratio also indicates that at higher temperatures the flow of these composites is dominated by extensional properties.
    • Rheological characterisation of hydroxapatite filled polyethylene composites. Part II - Isothermal compressibility and wall slip

      Martyn, Michael T.; Coates, Philip D.; Joseph, R.; Tanner, K.E.; Bonfield, W. (2001)
      Rheological characterisation of hydroxyapatite -high density polyethylene (HA-HDPE) composites has been performed in terms of isothermal compressibility and wall slip. Addition of HA to the polymer melt decreases the compressibility of the melt. The unfilled HDPE was found to exhibit wall slip at shear stresses as low as 0.10 MPa. The flow curves of the composites showed three distinct regions: a gradient at low shear rates; a plateau region; and a gradient at higher shear rate. An increase in rheometer pressure seems to suppress the slip in composites. The 40 vol.-% HA-HDPE composite exhibited two critical shear stresses, one corresponding to wall slip, which occurs in the lower shear rate region of the flow curve, and the other corresponding to a plateau, which is identified with the stick-slip behaviour of unfilled HDPE reported in the literature. The plateau shear stress increased with filler volume fraction and this effect is attributed to the decreased compressibility of the melt. A good correlation with a negative correlation coefficient was found to exist between compressibility and shear stress in the plateau region. The slip observed in unfilled HDPE and at low shear rates in the 40 vol.-% HA- HDPE systems has been explained in terms of a low molecular weight polymer layer formed at the melt/wall interface. The large interfacial slip observed in the plateau region is attributed to complete disentanglement of adsorbed chains from free chains at the melt/wall interface at and beyond the plateau region.