• Auto-Parameterized Shape Grammar for Constructing Islamic Geometric Motif-Based Structures

      Sayed, Zahra; Ugail, Hassan; Palmer, Ian J.; Purdy, J.; Reeve, Carlton (2016-07-21)
      The complex formation of Islamic Geometric Patterns (IGP) is one of the distinctive features in Islamic art and architecture. Many have attempted to reproduce these patterns in digital form, using various pattern generation techniques, in 2D. Shape grammars are an e ective pattern generation method, providing good aesthetic results. In this pa- per we describe a novel approach in generating 3D IGP using the shape grammar method. The particular emphasis here is to generate the motifs (repeated units with the pattern) in 3D using parameterization. These can then be manipulated within the 3D space to construct architec- tural structures. In this work we have developed two distinctive Shape Grammars in 3D namely Parameterized Shape Grammar (PSG) and Auto-Parameterized Shape Grammar (APSG). Here the PSG generates the motifs and the APSG enables construction of the structures using the generated motifs. Both grammars are practically implemented as a 3D modelling tool within Autodesk Maya. The parameterization within each grammar is the key to generate both Islamic geometric motifs and Islamic geometric motif-based structures.
    • Interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) for amblyopia: results of a pilot study of 3D shutter glasses system

      Herbison, N.; Cobb, S.; Gregson, R.; Ash, I.; Eastgate, R.; Purdy, J.; Hepburn, T.; MacKeith, D.; Foss, A.; I. BiT study group (2013)
      PURPOSE: A computer-based interactive binocular treatment system (I-BiT) for amblyopia has been developed, which utilises commercially available 3D 'shutter glasses'. The purpose of this pilot study was to report the effect of treatment on visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia. METHODS: Thirty minutes of I-BiT treatment was given once weekly for 6 weeks. Treatment sessions consisted of playing a computer game and watching a DVD through the I-BiT system. VA was assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, at the end of treatment, and at 4 weeks post treatment. Standard summary statistics and an exploratory one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. RESULTS: Ten patients were enrolled with strabismic, anisometropic, or mixed amblyopia. The mean age was 5.4 years. Nine patients (90%) completed the full course of I-BiT treatment with a mean improvement of 0.18 (SD=0.143). Six out of nine patients (67%) who completed the treatment showed a clinically significant improvement of 0.125 LogMAR units or more at follow-up. The exploratory one-way ANOVA showed an overall effect over time (F=7.95, P=0.01). No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSION: This small, uncontrolled study has shown VA gains with 3 hours of I-BiT treatment. Although it is recognised that this pilot study had significant limitations-it was unblinded, uncontrolled, and too small to permit formal statistical analysis-these results suggest that further investigation of I-BiT treatment is worthwhile.
    • Parameterized Shape Grammar for n-fold Generating Islamic Geometric Motifs

      Sayed, Zahra; Ugail, Hassan; Palmer, Ian J.; Purdy, J.; Reeve, Carlton (2015)
      The complex formation of Islamic geometric Patterns (IGP) is one of the distinctive features in Islamic art and architecture. Many have attempted to reproduce these patterns in digital form, using various pattern generation techniques. Shape grammars are an effective pattern generation method, providing good aesthetic results. In this paper we present a novel approach in generating 3D IGP using an extended shape grammar: Parametrized Shape Grammar (PSG). PSG allows a user to generate both original and novel forms of Islamic geometric motifs (a repeated unit of a pattern). PSG is generalized to generate n-fold Islamic geometric motifs in a 3D environment, practically implemented as a 3D modeling tool within Autodesk Maya. The parametrization within each grammar rule is the key to generating numerous original and novel Islamic geometric motifs.