• Advanced numerical solver for dam-break flow application

      Pu, Jaan H.; Bakenov, Z.; Adair, D. (2012)
    • Analytical modelling of sidewall turbulence effect on streamwise velocity profile using 2D approach: A comparison of rectangular and trapezoidal open channel flows

      Pu, Jaan H.; Pandey, M.; Hanmaiahgari, P.R. (2020-10)
      Natural earth-bounded channel flows usually subject to various sidewall turbulences, i.e. in the form of secondary currents, due to non-constant channel shapes at different sections. This paper investigates an improved Shiono-Knight model (SKM) by combining it with a Multi-Zonal (MZ) method (proposed by Pu, 2019) to represent lateral flow turbulence and secondary currents in different shapes of open channel, i.e. rectangular and trapezoidal. By applying the proposed analytical model to both rectangular and trapezoidal channel flows, we have inspected different streamwise velocity characteristics across transverse direction generated by their sidewalls in order to provide crucial fundamental understanding to real-world natural flow system. The proposed model has also been validated via various experimental data conducted in national UK Flood Channel Facility (UK-FCF). It has been observed that the trapezoidal channel has created a larger sidewall zone where secondary current can affect flow velocity; however, the intensity of the secondary flow in trapezoidal channel has been found lesser than that of the rectangular channel. By improving the modelling of natural flow at sidewall, the studied approach could be adapted into different existing analytical models to improve their accuracy.
    • Assessing Student Attitudes Using a Computer-Aided Approach

      Adair, D.; Jaeger, M.; Pu, Jaan H. (2012-12-05)
      Included in methods commonly used for assessing vocational training are oral assessments (OAs) since, in addition to assessing knowledge to a depth rarely achieved in other forms of testing, they give unique insight into students’ personal attitudes, which are important factors in the workplace. However, OAs require considerable preparation by the assessors, they can be restricted by time and assessor allocation, it is difficult to fully cover the course fairly, and they can put undue stress on the examinees, hence hindering a true expression of their skills and knowledge. OAs can give insight into a student’s personal attitudes, and the purpose here is to find the relationship between OA observed attitudes and those deduced from the computer-aided assessment. For the computer-aided assessments a scheme based on comparing two statements, followed by fuzzy AHP analysis, was used to determine the student’s attitude on such topics as general safety, work area tidiness and cleanliness, care and good use of hand tools and accuracy and testing of equipment. The results from the computer-aided approach were then compared with attitudes on the same topics obtained by oral assessment. For this work the important result was that there were strong correlations between the OA observed attitudes and the computer-aided assessment derived attitudes of the students. It also became clear however that for safety, the attitude of students (and perhaps workers) is more complicated than just having a ‘good’ or ‘bad’ attitude. Social pressure and organisational influence do seem to play a part so influencing or masking the student’s true attitudes. Satisfactory correlations were found between results of students’ attitudes when tested using the OA and computer-aided methods. Further work would need to be done to confirm generalization of substituting OA methods with a computer-aided assessment method.
    • Conceptual hydrodynamic-thermal mapping modelling for coral reefs at south Singapore sea

      Pu, Jaan H. (2016-02)
      Coral reefs are important ecosystems that not only provide shelter and breeding ground for many marine species, but can also control of carbon dioxide level in ocean and act as coastal protection mechanism. Reduction of coral reefs at Singapore coastal waters (SCW) region remains as an important study to identify the environmental impact from its busy industrial activities especially at the surrounding of Jurong Island in the south. This kind of study at SCW was often being related to issues such as turbidity, sedimentation, pollutant transport (from industry activities) effects in literatures, but seldom investigated from the thermal change aspect. In this paper, a computational model was constructed using the Delft3D hydrodynamic module to produce wave simulations on sea regions surrounding Singapore Island. The complicated semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal wave events experienced by SCW were simulated for 2 weeks duration and compared to the Admiralty measured data. To simulate the thermal mapping at the south Singapore coastal waters (SSCW) region, we first adapted a conversion of industrial to thermal discharge; then from the discharge affected area a thermal map was further computed to compare with the measured coral map. The outcomes show that the proposed novel thermal modelling approach has quite precisely simulated the coral map at SSCW, with the condition that the near-field thermal sources are considered (with the coverage area in the limit of 20 km × 20 km).
    • Dominant features in three-dimensional turbulence structure: comparison of non-uniform accelerating and decelerating flows

      Pu, Jaan H.; Tait, Simon J.; Guo, Yakun; Huang, Y.; Hanmaiahgari, P.R. (2018-04)
      The results are presented from an experimental study to investigate three-dimensional turbulence structure profiles, including turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress, of different non-uniform open channel flows over smooth bed in subcritical flow regime. In the analysis, the uniform flow profiles have been used to compare with those of the non-uniform flows to investigate their time-averaged spatial flow turbulence structure characteristics. The measured non-uniform velocity profiles are used to verify the von Karman constant κ and to estimate sets of log-law integration constant Br and wake parameter П, where their findings are also compared with values from previous studies. From κ, Br and П findings, it has been found that the log-wake law can sufficiently represent the non-uniform flow in its non-modified form, and all κ, Br and П follow universal rules for different bed roughness conditions. The non-uniform flow experiments also show that both the turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress are governed well by exponential pressure gradient parameter β equations. Their exponential constants are described by quadratic functions in the investigated β range. Through this experimental study, it has been observed that the decelerating flow shows higher empirical constants, in both the turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress compared to the accelerating flow. The decelerating flow also has stronger dominance to determine the flow non-uniformity, because it presents higher Reynolds stress profile than uniform flow, whereas the accelerating flow does not.
    • Drag coefficient modelling study for flexible vegetation in open channel flow

      Hussain, Awesar; Pu, Jaan H.; Hanmaiahgari, P.R. (2018-11)
      Vegetation remains to be an important factor that can hinder the river flow. It needs innovative management scheme, in order to adapt these changes and ensure sustainability of their multiple usages. Vegetation plays an important role in floods and droughts adaptation within river system to alleviate any flood that may propagates from river to its surrounding. Vegetation within river can also retard its flow to cause building-up of deposition, and further adding to uncertainty of water use under extreme droughts. Due to these, it is important to study and understand vegetation drag behaviour toward flow in order to prevent flood risk and water security with hydrological drought in the basin and any other negative impact caused by it. In this study, an analytical approach for river flooding has been studied by improved representation of drag coefficient CD in flow velocity distribution modelling. The analysis of flow parameters, i.e. Reynolds number, on the drag coefficient CD has been conducted. The presented model has been used and analysed in open channel flows with flexible vegetation. In modelling, the flexible vegetated channel layers were divided into vegetation, top of vegetation and water layer zones in the model. The balance of forces for each layer has been established by validation using different reported measured data. The modelling results showed reasonably corresponding prediction of velocity profile in flows with flexible vegetation.
    • Efficient numerical computation and experimental study of temporally long equilibrium scour development around abutment

      Pu, Jaan H.; Lim, S.Y. (2014-02)
      For the abutment bed scour to reach its equilibrium state, a long flow time is needed. Hence, the employment of usual strategy of simulating such scouring event using the 3D numerical model is very time consuming and less practical. In order to develop an applicable model to consider temporally long abutment scouring process, this study modifies the common approach of 2D shallow water equations (SWEs) model to account for the sediment transport and turbulence, and provides a realistic approach to simulate the long scouring process to reach the full scour equilibrium. Due to the high demand of the 2D SWEs numerical scheme performance to simulate the abutment bed scouring, a recently proposed surface gradient upwind method (SGUM) was also used to improve the simulation of the numerical source terms. The abutment scour experiments of this study were conducted using the facility of Hydraulics Laboratory at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore to compare with the presented 2D SGUM-SWEs model. Fifteen experiments were conducted over a total period of 3059.7 hours experimental time (over 4.2 months). The comparison shows that the 2D SGUM-SWEs model gives good representation to the experimental results with the practical advantage.
    • Evaluations of SWEs and SPH numerical modelling techniques for dam break flows

      Pu, Jaan H.; Shao, Songdong; Huang, Y.; Hussain, Khalid (2013)
      The standard shallow water equations (SWEs) model is often considered to provide weak solutions to the dam-break flows due to its depth-averaged shock-capturing scheme assumptions. In this study, an improved SWEs model using a recently proposed Surface Gradient Upwind Method (SGUM) is used to compute dam-break flows in the presence of a triangular hump. The SGUM allows the SWEs model to stably and accurately reproduce the highly complex shock currents caused by the dam-break event, as it improves the treatment of SWEs numerical source terms, which is particularly crucial for simulating the wet/dry front interface of the dam-break flow. Besides, an Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) modeling technique is also employed in this study to compare with the performance of the SGUM-SWEs model. The SPH method is totally mesh free and thus it can efficiently track the large free surface deformation. The ISPH approach uses a strictly incompressible two-step semi-implicit solution method. By reproducing a documented experimental dam-break flow, it has demonstrated that both model simulation results gave good agreement with the experimental data at different measurement locations. However, the ISPH simulations showed a better prediction of the dam-break peak wave building-up time, where its superiority was demonstrated. Furthermore, the ISPH model could also predict more detailed flow surface profiles across the streamwise flow direction and the velocity and pressure structures.
    • Experimental observation of turbulent structure at region surrounding the mid-channel braid bar

      Khan, M.A.; Sharma, N.; Pu, Jaan H.; Pandey, M.; Azamathulla, H. (Taylor and Francis, 2021)
      River morphological processes are among the most complex and least understood phenomenon in nature. Recent research indicates that the braiding of marine waterways of the estuary zone occurs at an aspect ratio similar to the alluvial braided river. The instability of complex sporadic fluvial processes at river-sea interface is responsible for bar formation in alluvial as well as in marine waterbodies Due to the lack of knowledge of flow characteristics around bar, the flow structure around the sand bar is analyzed. The bursting events play the crucial role in understanding the fluvial characteristics in the vicinity of submerged structure. The study of bursting events around the mid-channel bar is only done by the present author. The effect of submergence ratio on the turbulence behavior in the proximity of bar is analyzed in this study. The flow turbulence generated by the mid-channel bar is also analyzed in detail. The extreme turbulent burst is segregated from low intensity turbulent events by using the hole size concept. The effect of hole size on the parameter Dominance Function is analysed which is not yet studied by any researcher for mid-channel bar. The Momentum Dominance Function (MDF) parameter increases with increase in the Hole Size. This indicates that the magnitude of upward flux increases with increase in the hole size. The effect of bar height on the turbulent burst which is not yet studied by any researchers is analyzed in the present research. The joint probability distribution of bursting events is modeled using the Gram-Charlier bivariate joint probability function. The joint probability distribution gives the details of probabilistic structure of flow in the vicinity of bar. The effect of bar is predominant only in the lower flow layer. The joint probability distribution graph becomes more eccentric toward the dominant quadrants with increase in the submergence ratio. This indicates that the probability of dominant events further increases with increase in the submergence ratio.
    • Flood Suspended Sediment Transport: Combined Modelling from Dilute to Hyper-concentrated Flow

      Pu, Jaan H.; Wallwork, Joseph T.; Khan, M.A.; Pandey, M.; Pourshahbaz, H.; Satyanaga, A.; Hanmaiahgari, P.R.; Gough, Timothy D. (MDPI, 2021-02-01)
      During flooding, the suspended sediment transport usually experiences a wide-range of dilute to hyper-concentrated suspended sediment transport depending on the local flow and ground con-ditions. This paper assesses the distribution of sediment for a variety of hyper-concentrated and dilute flows. Due to the differences between hyper-concentrated and dilute flows, a linear-power coupled model is proposed to integrate these considerations. A parameterised method combining the sediment size, Rouse number, mean concentration, and flow depth parameters has been used for modelling the sediment profile. The accuracy of the proposed model has been verified against the reported laboratory measurements and comparison with other published analytical methods. The proposed method has been shown to effectively compute the concentration profile for a wide range of suspended sediment conditions from hyper-concentrated to dilute flows. Detailed com-parisons reveal that the proposed model calculates the dilute profile with good correspondence to the measured data and other modelling results from literature. For the hyper-concentrated profile, a clear division of lower (bed-load) to upper layer (suspended-load) transport can be observed in the measured data. Using the proposed model, the transitional point from this lower to upper layer transport can be calculated precisely.
    • Health-risk assessment for roof-harvested rainwater via QMRA in Ikorodu area, Lagos, Nigeria

      John, Chukwuemeka K.; Pu, Jaan H.; Moruzzi, R.; Pandey, M. (IWA, 2021-09)
      This paper presents a study to assess the roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) in the Ikorodu area of Lagos state, Nigeria, and recommends guidance to minimise the health risk for its households. The types, design and use of rainwater harvesting systems have been evaluated in the study area to inspect the human risk of exposure to Escherichia coli (E. coli). To achieve these objectives, a detailed survey involving 125 households has been conducted which showed that 25% of them drink RHRW. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) analysis has been used to quantify the risk of exposure to harmful E. coli from RHRW utilised as potable water, based on the ingestion of 2 L of rainwater per day per capita. Results have revealed that the maximum E. coli exposure risk from the consumption of RHRW, without application of any household water treatment technique (HHTTs) and with application of alum only, were 100 and 96 respectively, for the estimated number of infection risk per 10,000 exposed households per year. This estimation has been done based on 7% of E. coli as viable and harmful. Conclusively, it is necessary that a form of disinfectant be applied to the RHRW before use.
    • Impacts of sedimentation on rainwater quality: case study at Ikorodu of Lagos, Nigeria

      John, Chukwuemeka K.; Pu, Jaan H.; Pandey, M.; Moruzzi, R. (IWA, 2021)
      This study investigated the impact of sedimentation on rainwater storage system using a case study at the Ikorodu area of Lagos state, a rural area in Nigeria. In this investigation, the proportions of Escherichia coli (E. coli) that were settleable (due to sedimentation) and those that were at the free phase have been studied. Water samples were collected from different depths in the inspected rainwater storage tank at two different periods (i.e. rainy and dry periods) for 20 days. The samples collected from these periods have been analysed for physical and microbial measures before passing it through the serial filters with pore sizes of 500 μm, 100 μm, 10 μm and 1.5 μm to measure the retained particle mass. From the results, it was observed that: (1) the water quality at the free-phase zone was better than that at the tank’s bottom; (2) the settleable bacteria rapidly sinked to bottom; (3) the correlation of turbidity, E. coli and total suspended solids (TSS) for all the rain events showed a relatively high Pearson’s coefficient of 0.9 to one another; and (4) over 70% of settling TSS occurred within first 36 hours. Finally, it has been found that the physical sedimentation process can significantly reduce the microbial measures.
    • Inclusive curriculum design: application to open channel hydraulics module

      Pu, Jaan H. (2017-07)
      This study investigates an inclusive curriculum design based on student-centred approach. This proposed design approach has been applied to Open Channel Hydraulics module (CSE6008-A) at School of Engineering, University of Bradford, United Kingdom. This paper will introduce in step-by-step manner the full curriculum design and how the student-centred approach is being adapted in each step of the design. The required criteria will be designed based on learning outcomes design, curriculum organization, assessment strategies and student achievement evaluation. Besides, a key discussion will also be allocated for the inclusive practice that allows the vastly diverse student group to benefit from this approach, and a separate section will also be utilized to fully discuss this inclusive approach in the proposed curriculum design. This paper proposes a useful student-centred curriculum design concept, which is adaptable for different engineering modules.
    • Laminar and turbulent analytical dam break wave modelling on dry-downstream open channel flow

      Taha, T.; Lateef, A.O.A.; Pu, Jaan H. (2018-09)
      A dam break wave caused by the discontinuity in depth and velocity of a flow is resulted from instantaneous release a body of water from a channel and classified naturally as a rapidly varied unsteady flow. Due to its nature, it is hard to be accurately represented by analytical models. The aim of this study is to establish the modelling differences and complexity echelons between analytically simulated explicit laminar and turbulent dry bed dam break wave free surface profiles. An in-depth solution to the free surface profile has been provided and evaluated by representing the reported dam break flow measurements at various locations. The methodology adopted utilizes the free surface profile formulations presented by Chanson 1,2, which are developed using the method of characteristics. In order to validate the results of the presented analytical models in illustrating the dam break wave under dry bed conditions, published experimental data provided by Schoklitsch 3, Debiane 4 and Dressler 5 are used to compare and analyze the performance of the dam break waves under laminar and turbulent flow conditions.
    • A novel explicit-implicit coupled solution method of SWE for long-term river meandering process induced by dam break

      Zheng, X-G.; Pu, Jaan H.; Chen, R-D.; Liu, X-N.; Shao, Songdong (2016)
      Large amount of sediment deposits in the reservoir area can cause dam break, which not only leads to an immeasurable loss to the society, but also the sediments from the reservoir can be transported to generate further problems in the downstream catchment. This study aims to investigate the short-to-long term sediment transport and channel meandering process under such a situation. A coupled explicit-implicit technique based on the Euler-Lagrangian method (ELM) is used to solve the hydrodynamic equations, in which both the small and large time steps are used separately for the fluid and sediment marching. The main feature of the model is the use of the Characteristic-Based Split (CBS) method for the local time step iteration to correct the ELM traced lines. Based on the solved flow field, a standard Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) finite volume scheme is applied to solve the sediment transportation equation. The proposed model is first validated by a benchmark dambreak water flow experiment to validate the efficiency and accuracy of ELM modelling capability. Then an idealized engineering dambreak flow is used to investigate the long-term downstream channel meandering process with nonuniform sediment transport. The results showed that both the hydrodynamic and morphologic features have been well predicted by the proposed coupled model.