• Aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility in healthy individuals is affected by impaired cerebral venous outflow

      Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, C.R.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Marr, K.; Valnarov, V.; Hojnacki, D.; Bergsland, N.; Belov, P.; Grisafi, S.; Dwyer, Michael G.; et al. (2014-10)
      To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the aqueduct of Sylvius (AoS) in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI)-positive and -negative healthy individuals using cine phase contrast imaging. Materials and Methods Fifty-one healthy individuals (32 CCSVI-negative and 19 age-matched CCSVI-positive subjects) were examined using Doppler sonography (DS). Diagnosis of CCSVI was established if subjects fulfilled ≥2 venous hemodynamic criteria on DS. CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified using a semiautomated method and compared with clinical and routine 3T MRI outcomes. Results CCSVI was associated with increased CSF pulsatility in the AoS. Net positive CSF flow was 32% greater in the CCSVI-positive group compared with the CCSVI-negative group (P = 0.008). This was accompanied by a 28% increase in the mean aqueductal characteristic signal (ie, the AoS cross-sectional area over the cardiac cycle) in the CCSVI-positive group compared with the CCSVI-negative group (P = 0.021). Conclusion CSF dynamics are altered in CCSVI-positive healthy individuals, as demonstrated by increased pulsatility. This is accompanied by enlargement of the AoS, suggesting that structural changes may be occurring in the brain parenchyma of CCSVI-positive healthy individuals
    • Changes of cine cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: a case-control study

      Zivadinov, R.; Magnano, C.R.; Galeotti, R.; Schirda, C.V.; Menegatti, E.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Marr, K.; Bartolomei, I.; Hagemeier, J.; Malagoni, A.M.; et al. (2013)
      The purpose of this article is to investigate characteristics of cine phase contrast-calculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and velocity measures in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving standard medical treatment who had been diagnosed with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). This case-controlled, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-blinded study included 15 patients with RR MS who presented with significant stenoses (>/=50% lumen reduction on catheter venography) in the azygous or internal jugular veins. Eight patients underwent PTA in addition to medical therapy immediately following baseline assessments (case group) and seven had delayed PTA after 6 months of medical therapy alone (control group). CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified over 32 phases of the cardiac cycle by a semiautomated method. Outcomes were compared between groups at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of the study by mixed-effect model analysis. At baseline, no significant differences in CSF flow or velocity measures were detected between groups. At month 6, significant improvement in flow (P<.001) and velocity (P = .013) outcomes were detected in the immediate versus the delayed group, and persisted to month 12 (P = .001 and P = .021, respectively). Within-group flow comparisons from baseline to follow-up showed a significant increase in the immediate group (P = .033) but a decrease in the delayed group (P = .024). Altered CSF flow and velocity measures were associated with worsening of clinical and MR outcomes in the delayed group. PTA in patients with MS with CCSVI increased CSF flow and decreased CSF velocity, which are indicative of improved venous parenchyma drainage.
    • Cine cerebrospinal fluid imaging in multiple sclerosis

      Magnano, C.R.; Schirda, C.V.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Wack, D.S.; Lindzen, E.; Hojnacki, D.; Bergsland, N.; Kennedy, C.; Belov, P.; Dwyer, Michael G.; et al. (2012)
      PURPOSE: To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) using cine phase contrast imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 67 MS patients (48 relapsing-remitting [RR] and 19 secondary-progressive [SP]), nine patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and 35 age- and sex-matched HC were examined. CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified using a semiautomated method and compared with clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease outcomes. RESULTS: Significantly decreased CSF net flow was detected in MS patients compared to HC (-3.7 vs. -7.1 muL/beat, P = 0.005). There was a trend for increased net positive flow between SP, RR, and CIS patients. Altered CSF flow and velocity measures were associated with more severe T1 and T2 lesion volumes, lateral and fourth ventricular volumes, and third ventricular width in MS and CIS patients (P < 0.01 for all). In CIS patients, conversion to clinically definite MS in the following year was related to decreased CSF net flow (P = 0.007). There was a trend between increased annual relapse rate and altered CSF flow/velocity measures in RRMS patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CSF flow dynamics are altered in MS patients. More severe clinical and MRI outcomes in RRMS and CIS patients relate to altered CSF flow and velocity measures.
    • Decreased brain venous vasculature visibility on susceptibility-weighted imaging venography in patients with multiple sclerosis is related to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

      Zivadinov, R.; Poloni, G.U.; Marr, K.; Schirda, C.V.; Magnano, C.R.; Carl, E.; Bergsland, N.; Hojnacki, D.; Kennedy, C.; Beggs, Clive B.; et al. (2011)
      BACKGROUND: The potential pathogenesis between the presence and severity of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and its relation to clinical and imaging outcomes in brain parenchyma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between CCSVI, and altered brain parenchyma venous vasculature visibility (VVV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in patients with MS and in sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 59 MS patients, 41 relapsing-remitting and 18 secondary-progressive, and 33 HC were imaged on a 3T GE scanner using pre- and post-contrast SWI venography. The presence and severity of CCSVI was determined using extra-cranial and trans-cranial Doppler criteria. Apparent total venous volume (ATVV), venous intracranial fraction (VIF) and average distance-from-vein (DFV) were calculated for various vein mean diameter categories: < .3 mm, .3-.6 mm, .6-.9 mm and > .9 mm. RESULTS: CCSVI criteria were fulfilled in 79.7% of MS patients and 18.2% of HC (p < .0001). Patients with MS showed decreased overall ATVV, ATVV of veins with a diameter < .3 mm, and increased DFV compared to HC (all p < .0001). Subjects diagnosed with CCSVI had significantly increased DFV (p < .0001), decreased overall ATVV and ATVV of veins with a diameter < .3 mm (p < .003) compared to subjects without CCSVI. The severity of CCSVI was significantly related to decreased VVV in MS (p < .0001) on pre- and post-contrast SWI, but not in HC. CONCLUSIONS: MS patients with higher number of venous stenoses, indicative of CCSVI severity, showed significantly decreased venous vasculature in the brain parenchyma. The pathogenesis of these findings has to be further investigated, but they suggest that reduced metabolism and morphological changes of venous vasculature may be taking place in patients with MS.
    • Dirty-Appearing White Matter in the Brain is Associated with Altered Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility and Hypertension in Individuals without Neurologic Disease

      Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, C.R.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Belov, P.; Ramasamy, D.P.; Hagemeier, J.; Zivadinov, R. (2016-02)
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Aging of the healthy brain is characterized by focal or nonfocal white matter (WM) signal abnormality (SA) changes, which are typically detected as leukoaraiosis (LA). Hypertension is a risk factor for WM lesion formation. This study investigated whether LA might be associated with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility linked to arterial hypertension. METHODS A total of 101 individuals without neurologic diseases (53 females and 48 males) aged between 18 and 75 years underwent 3T brain MRI with cine phase contrast imaging for CSF flow estimation, after providing their informed consent. LA was defined as the presence of focal T2 WM SA changes and/or nonfocal uniform areas of signal increase termed dirty appearing white matter (DAWM). Relevant information relating to cardiovascular risk factors was also collected. RESULTS When controlled for age and hypertension, significant partial correlations were observed between: DAWM volume and: net negative flow (r = –.294, P = .014); net positive flow (NPF) (r = .406, P = .001); and peak positive velocity (r = .342, P = .004). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed DAWM volume to be significantly correlated with CSF NPF (P = .019) and hypertension (P = .007), whereas T2 WM SA volume was only significantly correlated with age (P = .002). Combined DAWM and T2 WM SA volumes were significantly related with age (P = .001) and CSF peak negative velocity (P = .041). CONCLUSIONS Rarefaction of WM leading to LA is a multifactorial process, in which formation of DAWM induced by hypertension and increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, may play a contributory role. These two factors appear to act independently of each other in a process that is independent of age.