• Analysis of cloud-based e-government services acceptance in Jordan: challenges and barriers

      Alkhwaldi, A.F.A.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R. (2018-06)
      There is increasing evidence that the Cloud Computing services have become a strategic direction for governments' IT work by the dawn of the third-millennium. The inevitability of this computing technology has been recognized not only in the developed countries like the UK, USA and Japan, but also in the developing countries like the Middle East region and Malaysia, who have launched migrations towards Cloud platforms for more flexible, open, and collaborative public services. In Jordan, the cloud-based e-government project has been deemed as one of the high priority areas for the government agencies. In spite of its phenomenal evolution, various governmental cloud-based services still facing adoption challenges of e-government projects like technological, human-aspects, social, and financial which need to be treated and considered carefully by any government agency contemplating its implementation. While there have been extensive efforts to investigate the e-government adoption from the citizens' perspective using different theories and models, none have paid adequate attention to the security issues. This paper explores the different perspectives of the extent in which these challenges inhibit the acceptance and use of cloud computing in Jordanian public sector. In addition to examining the effect of these challenges on the participants’ security perception. The empirical evidence provided a total of 220 valid responses to our online questionnaire from Jordanian citizens including IT- staff from different government sectors. Based on the data analysis some significant challenges were identified. The results can help the policy makers in the public sector to guide successful acceptance and adoption of cloud-based e-government services in Jordan.
    • Bradford Multi-Modal Gait Database: Gateway to Using Static Measurements to Create a Dynamic Gait Signature

      Alawar, Hamad M.M.A.; Ugail, Hassan; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Connah, David (2016-01-06)
      Aims: To create a gait database with optimum accuracy of joint rotational data and an accu-rate representation of 3D volume, and explore the potential of using the database in studying the relationship between static and dynamic features of a human’s gait. Study Design: The study collected gait samples from 38 subjects, in which they were asked to walk, run, walk to run transition, and walk with a bag. The motion capture, video, and 3d measurement data extracted was used to analyse and build a correlation between features. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the University of Bradford. With the ethical approval from the University, 38 subjects’ motion and body volumes were recorded at the motion capture studio from May 2011- February 2013. Methodology: To date, the database includes 38 subjects (5 females, 33 males) conducting walk cycles with speed and load as covariants. A correlation analysis was conducted to ex-plore the potential of using the database to study the relationship between static and dynamic features. The volumes and surface area of body segments were used as static features. Phased-weighted magnitudes extracted through a Fourier transform of the rotation temporal data of the joints from the motion capture were used as dynamic features. The Pearson correlation coefficient is used to evaluate the relationship between the two sets of data. Results: A new database was created with 38 subjects conducting four forms of gait (walk, run, walk to run, and walking with a hand bag). Each subject recording included a total of 8 samples of each form of gait, and a 3D point cloud (representing the 3D volume of the subject). Using a Pvalue (P<.05) as a criterion for statistical significance, 386 pairs of features displayed a strong relationship. Conclusion: A novel database available to the scientific community has been created. The database can be used as an ideal benchmark to apply gait recognition techniques, and based on the correlation analysis, can offer a detailed perspective of the dynamics of gait and its relationship to volume. Further research in the relationship between static and dynamic features can contribute to the field of biomechanical analysis, use of biometrics in forensic applications, and 3D virtual walk simulation.
    • Digital Government Implementation in Chaotic Environment - Case Study of Libya

      Khamallag, Masoud M.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2016)
      Not many studies are available to address whether it is possible to offer and implement e-Government services in places suffer from chaotic situation. This paper is intended to study the opportunity of implementing such services in a chaotic environment. An exploratory study was conducted in March/April 2015 using government officials of the state of Libya that survived a transition period upon the revolt of 2011. The study found that the Libyan government has recently and successfully implemented online services namely: National Identity Number - NID and e-Passport. The finding indicated that there are opportunities to establish e-services in countries regardless of their environmental status and clearly showed similar Critical Success Factors are need to be considered whether in chaotic or stable environment. However, their rank of importance will be differ. Lessons learned from the implementation of both services showed that Government determination has played crucial role in achieving this factual success.
    • Fail Over Strategy for Fault Tolerance in Cloud Computing Environment

      Mohammed, Bashir; Kiran, Mariam; Maiyama, Kabiru M.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Awan, Irfan U. (2017-09)
      Cloud fault tolerance is an important issue in cloud computing platforms and applications. In the event of an unexpected system failure or malfunction, a robust fault-tolerant design may allow the cloud to continue functioning correctly possibly at a reduced level instead of failing completely. To ensure high availability of critical cloud services, the application execution and hardware performance, various fault tolerant techniques exist for building self-autonomous cloud systems. In comparison to current approaches, this paper proposes a more robust and reliable architecture using optimal checkpointing strategy to ensure high system availability and reduced system task service finish time. Using pass rates and virtualised mechanisms, the proposed Smart Failover Strategy (SFS) scheme uses components such as Cloud fault manager, Cloud controller, Cloud load balancer and a selection mechanism, providing fault tolerance via redundancy, optimized selection and checkpointing. In our approach, the Cloud fault manager repairs faults generated before the task time deadline is reached, blocking unrecoverable faulty nodes as well as their virtual nodes. This scheme is also able to remove temporary software faults from recoverable faulty nodes, thereby making them available for future request. We argue that the proposed SFS algorithm makes the system highly fault tolerant by considering forward and backward recovery using diverse software tools. Compared to existing approaches, preliminary experiment of the SFS algorithm indicate an increase in pass rates and a consequent decrease in failure rates, showing an overall good performance in task allocations. We present these results using experimental validation tools with comparison to other techniques, laying a foundation for a fully fault tolerant IaaS Cloud environment.
    • From e-government to cloud-government: challenges of Jordanian citizens’ acceptance for public services

      Alkhwaldi, A.F.A.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R. (2018-05)
      On the inception of the third millennium, there is much evidence that cloud technologies have become the strategic trend for many governments, not only for developed countries (e.g. the UK, Japan and the USA), but also developing countries (e.g. Malaysia and countries in the Middle East region). These countries have launched cloud computing movements for enhanced standardization of IT resources, cost reduction and more efficient public services. Cloud-based e-government services are considered to be one of the high priorities for government agencies in Jordan. Although experiencing phenomenal evolution, government cloud-services are still suffering from the adoption challenges of e-government initiatives (e.g. technological, human, social and financial aspects) which need to be considered carefully by governments contemplating their implementation. While e-government adoption from the citizens’ perspective has been extensively investigated using different theoretical models, these models have not paid adequate attention to security issues. This paper presents a pilot study to investigate citizens’ perceptions of the extent to which these challenges inhibit the acceptance and use of cloud computing in the Jordanian public sector and examine the effect of these challenges on the security perceptions of citizens. Based on the analysis of data collected from online surveys, some important challenges were identified. The results can help to guide successful acceptance of cloud-based e-government services in Jordan.
    • Identifying social roles in a local government's digital community

      Saip, M.A.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2018)
      Social media have become an important interaction channel between the government and citizens in the era of the digital community. The adoption of social media in local government services offers a new channel to encourage citizen engagement in the public policy decision-making process. Moreover, communication with citizens through social media exposes large opportunities for the local government to analyse and appreciate the relationships among social media participants in the digital community to enhance public services. The purpose of this study is to understand the local government’s social media network and identify the social role in the local government’s social media network structure. Thus, this study adopted the social network analysis (SNA) approach on the Twitter data of a local government’s official account in the UK as a case study. The study revealed that the internal local government stakeholders play an important social role in the local government’s social media network. The implication of the study was discussed.
    • The Prospects of E-government Implementation in Chaotic Environment – Government and Citizens’ Perspectives - Case Study of Libya

      Khamallag, Masoud M.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2017)
      Using compulsory e-government services is increasingly difficult and challenging given the impact of corruption, political instability, armed conflict, and a chaotic environment. Post the 2011 uprising, Libya experienced serious and deep-rooted conflicts. The chaos destabilized and dismantled government institutions throughout the country. Utilizing the lens of institutional theory, this paper presents the pressures experienced by the formal institutions in the absence of law and safety, to implement the necessary e-government services and provide it to citizens all over the country. In addition, to explore the role of informal institutions in providing and using the compulsory services offered by the government and to what extent alternative services could be made available. Two qualitative pilot studies, conducted in 2015 and 2016, explored the feasibility of implementing e-government from both the government officials and the citizens’ perspectives, respectively. From the e-services provided during this time period, only the E-passport and National Identity number were found to be the only successful. Critical Success Factors - CSF of e-government implementation were defined from conducting an in-depth literature review; these were compared with our findings. Both the government officials and the citizens found corruption, infrastructure and geographical nature to be influencing factors. The social collaboration between citizens was found to be the driving factor in the success of the e-passport, despite the difficult geographical nature and the limited infrastructure all over the country.
    • The relationship between 2D static features and 2D dynamic features used in gait recognition

      Alawar, Hamad M.M.A.; Ugail, Hassan; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Connah, David (2013)
    • Understanding the Corpus of E-Government Research: An analysis of the literature using co-citation analysis and social network analysis

      Saip, M.A.; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2016-09)
      The growing body of published e-government literature highlights the importance of e-government in society and the need to make sense of e-government by academia. In order to understand the future of e-government, it is important to understand the research that has been conducted and highlight the issues and themes that have been identified as important by empirical study. This paper analyses the corpus of e-government research published from 2000 to 2013 using Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods to develop an intellectual structure of e-government research. Factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and centrality measurement are also applied to the e-government dataset using UCINET to identify the core influential articles in the field. This study identifies three core clusters of e-government research that centre around (i) e-government development models (ii) adoption and acceptance of e-government, and (iii) e-government using social media and highlights areas for future research in the field. Discover the world's research
    • Why Do Users Accept Innovative Technologies? A Critical Review of Models and Theories of Technology Acceptance in The Information System Literature

      Alkhwaldi, A.F.A.; Kamala, Mumtaz A. (2017-08)
      Earlier literature illustrates that the selection of the appropriate theoretical model has always prescribed as a crucial task for the research community in the information systems (IS) field. According to the authors' knowledge, there are few articles aims to review IT acceptance theories and models at the individuals' level. Thus, this paper aims to bridge this gap by presenting a critical review of ten of the most influential models/theories that have been employed in predicting and explaining the human acceptance behavior of different technologies at the individuals' level. This paper also provides a summary of their evolution, pointed out the main constructs, strengths, related fields, and criticisms based on a selected published literature appeared in IS research. This review offers a holistic view for future scholars to select appropriate constructs/models owing to their strengths and criticisms as well explanatory or predictive power. This paper concluded that the well-established and comprehensive theoretical model should consider the parsimony in the term of simplifying the model with the least constructs and the highest predictive power, also the ability to integrate the relevant context's factors (e.g., UTAUT2).