• Cell Traction Force Mapping in MG63 and HaCaTs

      Soon, Chin Fhong; Genedy, Mohamed A.; Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C.T. (2013)
      The ability of a cell to adhere and transmit traction forces to a surface reveals the cytoskeleton integrity of a cell. Shear sensitive liquid crystals were discovered with new function in sensing cell traction force recently. This liquid crystal has been previously shown to be non-toxic, linear viscoelastic and sensitive to localized exerted forces. This paper reports the possibility of extending the application of the proposed liquid crystal based cell force sensor in sensing traction forces of osteoblast-like (MG-63) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines exerted to the liquid crystal sensor. Incorporated with cell force measurement software, force distributions of both cell types were represented in force maps. For these lowly contractile cells, chondrocytes expressed regular forces (10 – 90 nN, N = 200) around the circular cell body whereas HaCaT projected forces (0 – 200 nN, N = 200) around the perimeter of poly-hedral shaped body. These forces are associated with the organisation of the focal adhesion expressions and stiffness of the LC substrate. From the results, liquid crystal based cell force sensor system is shown to be feasible in detecting forces of both MG63 and HaCaT.
    • The effect of WIN55, 212-2 on protein S100, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and nitric oxide expression of chondrocyte monolayer

      Abdeldayum, Ali I.A.; Youseffi, Mansour; Sefat, Farshid; Genedy, Mohamed A.; Abdul Jamil, M.M.; Javid, F. (2017-01)
      Studies have been conducted to highlight the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties of synthetic cannabinoids as well as their potential for cartilage repair. Various wound healing techniques can be used to investigate the mechanisms of chondrocyte repair in monolayers or three dimensional tissues constructs. In this work the effect of WIN55, 212-2 (WIN-2) on nitric oxide (NO) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expressed by wounded chondrocyte monolayers was investigated. Moreover, expression of collagen type-I and type-II, fibronectin and S100 proteins were detected using immunofluorescence and quantitatively verified using ELISA based techniques following treatment with 1 μM and 2 μM of WIN-2. Treating chondrocytes with 1 μM of WIN-2 significantly increased expression of collagen type-II, fibronectin and S100, and significantly reduced collagen type-I expressions as compared to the control groups. On the other hand, both concentrations of WIN-2 significantly reduced the expression of the inflammation markers NO and MMP-2 in a dose dependent manner. These findings highlight the potential use of the synthetic cannabinoids for improving cartilage healing properties as well as acting as an anti-inflammatory agent which could be used to enhance tissue engineering protocols aimed at cartilage repair.
    • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) isomers influence cell detachment of MG-63 bone cells

      Sefat, Farshid; Khaghani, Seyed A.; Nejatian, T.; Genedy, Mohamed A.; Abdeldayem, Ali I.A.; Moghaddam, Z.S.; Denyer, Morgan C.T.; Youseffi, Mansour (2015-12)
      Bone repair and wound healing are modulated by different stimuli. There is evidence that Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) super-family of cytokines have significant effects on bone structure by regulating the replication and differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. There is also significant evidence that interactions with extracellular matrix molecules influence cell behaviour. In this study cell surface attachment was examined via a trypsinization assay using various TGF-β isomers in which the time taken to trypsinize cells from the surface provided a means of assessing the strength of attachment. Three TGF-β isomers (TGF-β1, 2 and 3), four combined forms (TGF-β(1 + 2), TGF-β(1 + 3), TGF-β(2 + 3) and TGF-β(1 + 2 + 3)) along with four different controls (BSA, HCl, BSA/HCl and negative control) were investigated in this study. The results indicated that treatment with TGF-β1, 2, 3 and HCl decreased cell attachment, however, this effect was significantly greater in the case of TGF-β3 (p < 0.001) indicating perhaps that TGF-β3 does not act alone in cell detachment, but instead functions synergistically with signalling pathways that are dependent on the availability of hydrogen ions. Widefield Surface Plasmon Resonance (WSPR) microscope was also used to investigate cell surface interactions.