• Enhancement of Natural Convection Heat Transfer within Closed Enclosure Using Parallel Fins

      Gdhaidh, Farouq A.S.; Hussain, Khalid; Qi, Hong Sheng (2015-03)
      A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in water filled cavity has been examined in 3-D for single phase liquid cooling system by using an array of parallel plate fins mounted to one wall of a cavity. The heat generated by a heat source represents a computer CPU with dimensions of 37.5∗37.5mm mounted on substrate. A cold plate is used as a heat sink installed on the opposite vertical end of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer case is created by an exhaust fan. A turbulent air flow is assumed and k-ε model is applied. The fins are installed on the substrate to enhance the heat transfer. The applied power energy range used is between 15 - 40W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the number of the parallel plate fins are investigated. The results illustrate that as the fin number increases the maximum heat source temperature decreases. However, when the fin number increases to critical value the temperature start to increase due to the fins are too closely spaced and that cause the obstruction of water flow. The introduction of parallel plate fins reduces the maximum heat source temperature by 10% compared to the case without fins. The cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 64.68°C when the heat input was at 40W that is much lower than the recommended computer chips limit temperature of no more than 85°C and hence the performance of the CPU is enhanced.
    • Numerical Investigation of Conjugate Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Discrete Heat Sources in Rectangular Enclosure

      Gdhaidh, Farouq A.S.; Hussain, Khalid; Qi, Hong Sheng (2014)
      The coupling between natural convection and conduction within rectangular enclosure was investigated numerically. Three separate heat sources flush mounted on a vertical wall and an isoflux condition was applied at the back of heat sources. Continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations were solved by using control volume formulation and the coupling of velocity and pressure was treated by using the “SIMPLE” algorithm. The modified Rayleigh number and the substrate/fluid thermal conductivity ratio were used in the range 𝑹𝒂𝒍𝒛∗=𝟏𝟎^𝟒−𝟏𝟎^𝟕 and 𝑹𝒔=𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 respectively. The investigation was extended to compare results of FC-77 with Air and also for high values of 𝑹𝒔>𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎. The results illustrated that, when the modified Rayleigh number increases, dimensionless heat flux and local Nusselt number increases for both fluids. Opposite behaviour for the thermal spreading in the substrate and the dimensionless temperature 𝜽, they were decreased when 𝑹𝒂𝒍𝒛∗ is increased. Also with increasing the substrate/fluid thermal conductivity ratio for a given value of the modified Rayleigh number the thermal spreading in the substrate increased which is the reason of the decrease in the maximum temperature value. The present study concluded that, for high values of 𝑹𝒔>𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎, the effect of the substrate is negligible.
    • Numerical Study of Conjugate Natural Convection from Discrete Heat Sources.

      Gdhaidh, Farouq A.S.; Hussain, Khalid; Qi, Hong Sheng (2015)
      The coupling between natural convection and conduction within rectangular enclosure was investigated numerically. Three separate heat sources were flush mounted on a vertical wall and an isoflux condition was applied at the back of heat sources. The governing equations were solved using control volume formulation. A modified Rayleigh number and a substrate/fluid thermal conductivity ratio were used in the range 10^4 −10^7 and 10−10^3 respectively. The investigation was extended to examine high thermal conductivity ratio values. The results illustrated that, when Rayleigh number increased the dimensionless heat flux and local Nusselt number increased and the boundary layers along hot, cold and horizontal walls were reduced significantly. An opposite behaviour for the thermal spreading in the substrate and the dimensionless temperature, were decreased for higher Rayleigh number. Moreover, the thermal spreading in the substrate increased for higher substrate conductivity, which affected the temperature level. However the effect of the substrate is negligible when the thermal conductivity ratio higher than 1,500.
    • Numerical Study of Conjugate Natural Convection Heat Transfer Using One Phase Liquid Cooling

      Gdhaidh, Farouq A.S.; Hussain, Khalid; Qi, Hong Sheng (2014)
      A numerical study in 3-D is performed using water as a cooling fluid to investigate the one phase natural convection heat transfer within enclosure. A heat source representing a computer CPU mounted on one vertical wall of a rectangular enclosure is simulated while a heat sink is installed on the opposite vertical wall of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer compartment is created by using an exhaust fan, and the flow is assumed to be turbulent. The applied power considered ranges from 15 40 W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the dimension of the enclosure are investigated. The results illustrate that as the size of the enclosure increase the chip temperature declined. However the drop in the temperature is very small when the width increased more than 50 mm. When the enclosure was filled with water the temperature was reduced by 38%. Also the cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 71.5 C when the heat input of 40 W was assumed and this is within the current recommended computer electronic chips temperature of no more than 85 degrees C.