• Flow-induced crystallization of long chain aliphatic polyamides under a complex flow field: Inverted anisotropic structure and formation mechanism

      Gao, Y.; Dong, X.; Wang, L.; Liu, G.; Liu, X.; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina-Luminita; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Coates, Philip D.; Wang, D.; Han, C.C. (2015-09-02)
      The present work deals with the flow-induced multiple orientations and crystallization structure of polymer melts under a complex flow field. This complex flow field is characteristic of the consistent coupling of extensional “pulse” and closely followed shear flow in a narrow channel. Utilizing an ingenious combination of an advanced micro-injection device and long chain aliphatic polyamides (LCPA), the flow-induced crystallization morphology was well preserved for ex-situ synchrotron micro-focused wide angle X-ray scattering (μWAXS) as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). An inverted anisotropic crystallization structure was observed in two directions: perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction (FD). The novel anisotropic morphology implies the occurrence of wall slip and “global” fountain flow under the complex flow field. The mechanism of structure formation is elucidated in detail. The experimental results clearly indicate that the effect of extensional pulse on the polymer melt is restrained and further diminished due to either the transverse tumble of fountain flow or the rapid retraction of stretched high molecular weight tails. However, the residual shish-kebab structures in the core layer of the far-end of channel suggest that the effect of extensional pulse should be considered in the small-scaled geometries or under the high strain rate condition.
    • Laboratory experimental study of ocean waves propagating over a partially buried pipeline in a trench layer

      Sun, K.; Zhang, J.; Gao, Y.; Jeng, D.; Guo, Yakun; Liang, Z. (2019-02-01)
      Seabed instability around a pipeline is one of the primary concerns in offshore pipeline projects. To date, most studies focus on investigating the wave/current-induced response within a porous seabed around either a fully buried pipeline or a thoroughly exposed one. In this study, unlike previous investigations, a series of comprehensive laboratory experiments are carried out in a wave flume to investigate the wave-induced pore pressures around a partially embedded pipeline in a trench layer. Measurements show that the presence of the partially buried pipeline can significantly affect the excess pore pressure in a partially backfilled trench layer, which deviates considerably from that predicted by the theoretical approach. The morphology of the trench layer accompanied with the backfill sediments, especially the deeper trench and thicker backfill (i.e.,b≥1D,e≥0.5D), provides a certain degree of resistance to seabed instability. The amplitude of excess pore pressure around the trench layer roughly exhibits a left-right asymmetric distribution along the periphery of the pipeline, and decays sharply from the upper layer of the trench to the lower region. Deeper trench depth and thicker buried layer significantly weaken the pore-water pressures in the whole trench area, thus sheltering and protecting the submarine pipeline against the transient seabed liquefaction.