• Analysis of gyrobianisotropic media effect on the input impedance, field distribution and mutual coupling of a printed dipole antenna

      Lamine Bouknia, M.; Zebiri, C.; Sayad, D.; Elfergani, Issa; Matin, M.; Alibakhshikenari, M.; Alharbi, A.G.; Hu, Yim Fun; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rodriguez, J.; et al. (Springer, 2022-06-20)
      In this paper, we present an analytical study for the investigation of the effects of the magnetoelectric elements of a reciprocal and nonreciprocal bianisotropic grounded substrate on the input impedance, resonant length of a dipole antenna as well as on the mutual coupling between two element printed dipole array in three configuration geometries: broadside, collinear and echelon printed on the same material. This study examines also the effect of the considered bianisotropic medium on the electric and magnetic field distributions that has been less addressed in the literature for antenna structures. Computations are based on the numerical resolution, using the spectral method of moments, of the integral equation developed through the mathematical derivation of the appropriate spectral Green’s functions of the studied dipole configuration. Original results, for chiral, achiral, Tellegen and general bi-anisotropic media, are obtained and discussed with the electric and magnetic field distributions for a better understanding and interpretation. These interesting results can serve as a stepping stone for further works to attract more attention to the reciprocal and non-reciprocal Tellgen media in-depth studies.
    • Analysis of the combinatory effect of uniaxial electrical and magnetic anisotropy on the input impedance and mutual coupling of a printed dipole antenna

      Bouknia, M.L.; Zebiri, C.; Sayad, D.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Alibakhshikenari, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (IEEE, 2021-06)
      The main objective of this work is to investigate the combinatory effects of both uniaxial magnetic and electrical anisotropies on the input impedance, resonant length and the mutual coupling between two dipoles printed on an anisotropic grounded substrate. Three different configurations: broadside, collinear and echelon are considered for the coupling investigation. The study is based on the numerical solution of the integral equation using the method of moments through the mathematical derivation of the appropriate Green’s functions in the spectral domain. In order to validate the computing method and evaluated Matlab® calculation code, numerical results are compared with available literature treating particular cases of uniaxial electrical anisotropy; good agreements are observed. New results of dipole structures printed on uniaxial magnetic anisotropic substrates are presented and discussed, with the investigation of the combined electrical and magnetic anisotropies effect on the input impedance and mutual coupling for different geometrical configurations. The combined uniaxial (electric and magnetic) anisotropies provide additional degrees of freedom for the input impedance control and coupling reduction.
    • Automated reconfigurable antenna impedance for optimum power transfer

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-12)
      This paper presents an approach to implement an automatically tuning antenna for optimising power transfer suitable for software defined radio (SDR). Automatic tuning is accomplished using a closed loop impedance tuning network comprising of an impedance sensor and control unit. The sensor provides the control unit with data on the transmit or receive power, and the algorithm is used to impedance of a T-network of LC components to optimize the antenna impedance to maximise power transmission or reception. The effectiveness of the proposed tuning algorithm in relation to impedance matching and convergence on the optimum matching network goal is shown to be superior compared with the conventional tuning algorithm.
    • Bandwidth and gain enhancement of composite right/left-handed metamaterial transmission-line planar antenna employing a non foster impedance matching circuit board

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Althuwayb, A.A.; Azpilicueta, L.; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Huynen, I.; Denidni, T.A.; et al. (2021-04)
      The paper demonstrates an effective technique to significantly enhance the bandwidth and radiation gain of an otherwise narrowband composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) antenna using a non-Foster impedance matching circuit (NF-IMC) without affecting the antenna's stability. This is achieved by using the negative reactance of the NF-IMC to counteract the input capacitance of the antenna. Series capacitance of the CRLH-TL unit-cell is created by etching a dielectric spiral slot inside a rectangular microstrip patch that is grounded through a spiraled microstrip inductance. The overall size of the antenna, including the NF-IMC at its lowest operating frequency is 0.335λ0 × 0.137λ0 × 0.003λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at 1.4 GHz. The performance of the antenna was verified through actual measurements. The stable bandwidth of the antenna for |S11|≤ - 18 dB is greater than 1 GHz (1.4-2.45 GHz), which is significantly wider than the CRLH-TL antenna without the proposed impedance matching circuit. In addition, with the proposed technique the measured radiation gain and efficiency of the antenna are increased on average by 3.2 dBi and 31.5% over the operating frequency band.
    • Beam-scanning leaky-wave antenna based on CRLH-metamaterial for millimeter-wave applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Khalily, M.; Shukla, P.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-07-03)
      This paper presents empirical results of an innovative beam scanning leaky-wave antenna (LWA) which enables scanning over a wide angle from -35o to +34.5o between 57 GHz and 62 GHz, with broadside radiation centered at 60 GHz. The proposed LWA design is based on composite right/left-handed transmission-line (CRLH-TL) concept. The single layer antenna structure includes a matrix of 3×9 square slots that is printed on top of the dielectric substrate; and printed on the bottom ground-plane are Π and Tshaped slots that enhance the impedance bandwidth and radiation properties of the antenna. The proposed antenna structure exhibits metamaterial property. The slot matrix provides beam scanning as a function of frequency. Physical and electrical size of the antenna is 18.7×6×1.6 mm3 and 3.43􀣅􀫙×1.1􀣅􀫙×0.29􀣅􀫙, respectively; where 􀣅􀫙 is free space wavelength at 55 GHz. The antenna has a measured impedance bandwidth of 10 GHz (55 GHz to 65 GHz) or fractional bandwidth of 16.7%. Its optimum gain and efficiency are 7.8 dBi and 84.2% at 62 GHz.
    • A comprehensive survey of "metamaterial transmission-line based antennas: design, challenges, and applications"

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Azpilicueta, L.; Naser-Moghadasi, M.; Akinsolu, M.O.; See, C.H.; Liu, B.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Huyen, I.; et al. (2020-08)
      In this review paper, a comprehensive study on the concept, theory, and applications of composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) by considering their use in antenna system designs have been provided. It is shown that CRLH-TLs with negative permittivity (ε <; 0) and negative permeability (μ <; 0) have unique properties that do not occur naturally. Therefore, they are referred to as artificial structures called “metamaterials”. These artificial structures include series left-handed (LH) capacitances (C L ), shunt LH inductances (L L ), series right-handed (RH) inductances (LR), and shunt RH capacitances (CR) that are realized by slots or interdigital capacitors, stubs or via-holes, unwanted current flowing on the surface, and gap distance between the surface and ground-plane, respectively. In the most cases, it is also shown that structures based on CRLH metamaterial-TLs are superior than their conventional alternatives, since they have smaller dimensions, lower-profile, wider bandwidth, better radiation patterns, higher gain and efficiency, which make them easier and more cost-effective to manufacture and mass produce. Hence, a broad range of metamaterial-based design possibilities are introduced to highlight the improvement of the performance parameters that are rare and not often discussed in available literature. Therefore, this survey provides a wide overview of key early-stage concepts of metematerial-based designs as a thorough reference for specialist antennas and microwave circuits designers. To analyze the critical features of metamaterial theory and concept, several examples are used. Comparisons on the basis of physical size, bandwidth, materials, gain, efficiency, and radiation patterns are made for all the examples that are based on CRLH metamaterialTLs. As revealed in all the metematerial design examples, foot-print area decrement is an important issue of study that have a strong impact for the enlargement of the next generation wireless communication systems.
    • Dual-Polarized Highly Folded Bowtie Antenna with Slotted Self-Grounded Structure for Sub-6 GHz 5G Applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Shukla, P.; Moghaddam, S.M.; Zaman, A.U.; Shafqaat, S.; Akinsolu, M.O.; Liu, B.; Yang, J.; et al. (IEEE, 2022-04)
      In this paper, a novel dual-polarized highly-folded self-grounded Bowtie antenna that is excited through I-shaped slots is proposed for applications in sub-6GHz 5G multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems. The antenna consists of two pairs of folded radiation petals whose base is embedded in a double layer of FR-4 substrate with a common ground-plane which is sandwiched between the two substrate layers. The ground-plane is defected with two I-shaped slots located under the radiation elements. Each pair of radiation elements are excited through a microstrip line on the top layer with RF signal that is 180° out of phase with respect to each other. The RF signal is coupled to the pair of feedlines on the top layer through the I-shaped slots from the two microstrip feedlines on the underside of the second substrate. The proposed feed mechanism gets rid of the otherwise bulky balun. The Bowtie antenna is a compact solution with dimensions of 32×32×33.8 mm3. Measured results have verified that the antenna operates over a frequency range of 3.1–5 GHz and exhibits an average gain and antenna efficiency in the vertical and horizontal polarizations of 7.5 dBi and 82.6%, respectively.
    • High-gain metasurface in polyimide on-chip antenna based on CRLH-TL for sub-terahertz integrated circuits

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2020-03)
      This paper presents a novel on-chip antenna using standard CMOS-technology based on metasurface implemented on two-layers polyimide substrates with a thickness of 500 μm. The aluminium ground-plane with thickness of 3 μm is sandwiched between the two-layers. Concentric dielectric-rings are etched in the ground-plane under the radiation patches implemented on the top-layer. The radiation patches comprise concentric metal-rings that are arranged in a 3 × 3 matrix. The antennas are excited by coupling electromagnetic energy through the gaps of the concentric dielectric-rings in the ground-plane using a microstrip feedline created on the bottom polyimide-layer. The open-ended feedline is split in three-branches that are aligned under the radiation elements to couple the maximum energy. In this structure, the concentric metal-rings essentially act as series left-handed capacitances CL that extend the effective aperture area of the antenna without affecting its dimensions, and the concentric dielectric rings etched in the ground-plane act as shunt left-handed inductors LL, which suppress the surface-waves and reduce the substrates losses that leads to improved bandwidth and radiation properties. The overall structure behaves like a metasurface that is shown to exhibit a very large bandwidth of 0.350–0.385 THz with an average radiation gain and efficiency of 8.15dBi and 65.71%, respectively. It has dimensions of 6 × 6 × 1 mm3 that makes it suitable for on-chip implementation.
    • High-Gain On-Chip Antenna Design on Silicon Layer with Aperture Excitation for Terahertz Applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Khalily, M.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Denidni, T.A.; Limiti, E. (2020-09)
      This letter investigates the feasibility of designing a high gain on-chip antenna on silicon technology for subterahertz applications over a wide-frequency range. High gain is achieved by exciting the antenna using an aperture fed mechanism to couple electromagnetics energy from a metal slot line, which is sandwiched between the silicon and polycarbonate substrates, to a 15-element array comprising circular and rectangular radiation patches fabricated on the top surface of the polycarbonate layer. An open ended microstrip line, which is orthogonal to the metal slot-line, is implemented on the underside of the silicon substrate. When the open ended microstrip line is excited it couples the signal to the metal slot-line which is subsequently coupled and radiated by the patch array. Measured results show the proposed on-chip antenna exhibits a reflection coefficient of less than-10 dB across 0.290-0.316 THz with a highest gain and radiation efficiency of 11.71 dBi and 70.8%, respectively, occurred at 0.3 THz. The antenna has a narrow stopband between 0.292 and 0.294 THz. The physical size of the presented subterahertz on-chip antenna is 20 × 3.5 × 0.126 mm3.
    • High-isolation antenna array using SIW and realized with a graphene layer for sub-terahertz wireless applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Salekzamankhani, S.; Aïssa, S.; Soin, N.; Fishlock, S.J.; Althuwayb, A.A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Huynen, I.; McLaughlin, J.A.; et al. (2021-05-13)
      This paper presents the results of a study on developing an effective technique to increase the performance characteristics of antenna arrays for sub-THz integrated circuit applications. This is essential to compensate the limited power available from sub-THz sources. Although conventional array structures can provide a solution to enhance the radiation-gain performance however in the case of small-sized array structures the radiation properties can be adversely affected by mutual coupling that exists between the radiating elements. It is demonstrated here the effectiveness of using SIW technology to suppress surface wave propagations and near field mutual coupling effects. Prototype of 2 × 3 antenna arrays were designed and constructed on a polyimide dielectric substrate with thickness of 125 μm for operation across 0.19-0.20 THz. The dimensions of the array were 20 × 13.5 × 0.125 mm3. Metallization of the antenna was coated with 500 nm layer of Graphene. With the proposed technique the isolation between the radiating elements was improved on average by 22.5 dB compared to a reference array antenna with no SIW isolation. The performance of the array was enhanced by transforming the patch to exhibit metamaterial characteristics. This was achieved by embedding the patch antennas in the array with sub-wavelength slots. Compared to the reference array the metamaterial inspired structure exhibits improvement in isolation, radiation gain and efficiency on average by 28 dB, 6.3 dBi, and 34%, respectively. These results show the viability of proposed approach in developing antenna arrays for application in sub-THz integrated circuits.
    • High-Performance 50μm Silicon-Based On-Chip Antenna with High Port-To-Port Isolation Implemented by Metamaterial and SIW Concepts for THz Integrated Systems

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-09-16)
      A novel 50μm Silicon-based on-chip antenna is presented that combines metamaterial (MTM) and substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technologies for integration in THz circuits operating from 0.28 to 0.30 THz. The antenna structure comprises a square patch antenna implemented on a Silicon substrate with a ground-plane. Embedded diagonally in the patch are two T-shaped slots and the edges of the patch is short-circuited to the ground-plane with metal vias, which convert the structure into a substrate integrated waveguide. This structure reduces loss resulting from surface waves and Silicon dielectric substrate. The modes in the structure can be excited through two coaxial ports connected to the patch from the underside of the Silicon substrate. The proposed antenna structure is essentially transformed to exhibit metamaterial properties by realizing two T-shaped slots, which enlarges the effective aperture area of the miniature antenna and significantly enhances its impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics between 0.28 THz to 0.3 THz. It has an average gain and efficiency of 4.5dBi and 65%, respectively. In addition, it is a self-isolated structure with high isolation of better than 30dB between the two ports. The on-chip antenna has dimensions of 800×800×60 μm3.
    • Impedance Bandwidth Improvement of a Planar Antenna Based on Metamaterial-Inspired T-Matching Network

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Shukla, P.; Wang, Y.; Azpilicueta, L.; Naser-Moghadasi, M.; See, Chan H.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Zebiri, C.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; et al. (IEEE, 2021-05-03)
      In this paper a metamaterial-inspired T-matching network is directly imbedded inside the feedline of a microstrip antenna to realize optimum power transfer between the front-end of an RF wireless transceiver and the antenna. The proposed T-matching network, which is composed of an arrangement of series capacitor, shunt inductor, series capacitor, exhibits left-handed metamaterial characteristics. The matching network is first theoretically modelled to gain insight of its limitations. It was then implemented directly in the 50-Ω feedline to a standard circular patch antenna, which is an unconventional methodology. The antenna’s performance was verified through measurements. With the proposed technique there is 2.7 dBi improvement in the antenna’s radiation gain and 12% increase in the efficiency at the center frequency, and this is achieved over a significantly wider frequency range by a factor of approximately twenty. Moreover, there is good correlation between the theoretical model, method of moments simulation, and the measurement results.
    • Interaction between closely packed array antenna elements using metasurface for applications such as MIMO systems and synthetic aperture radars

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Shukla, P.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Khalily, M.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2018-11)
      The paper presents a technique to enhance the isolation between adjacent radiating elements which is common in densely packed antenna arrays. Such antennas provide frequency beam-scanning capability needed in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs). The method proposed here uses a metamaterial decoupling slab (MTMDS), which is located between radiating elements, to suppress mutual-coupling between the elements that would otherwise degrade the antenna efficiency and performance in both the transmit and receive mode. The proposed MTM-DS consists of mirror imaged Eshaped slits engraved on a microstrip patch with inductive stub. Measured results confirm over 9–11 GHz with no MTM-DS the average isolation (S12) is -27 dB; however, with MTM-DS the average isolation improves to -38 dB. With this technique the separation between the radiating element can be reduced to 0.66λo, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 10 GHz. In addition, with this technique there is 15% improvement in operating bandwidth. At frequencies of high impedance match of 9.95 GHz and 10.63 GHz the gain is 4.52 dBi and 5.40 dBi, respectively. Furthermore, the technique eliminates poor front-to-back ratio encountered in other decoupling methods. MTM-DS is also relatively simple to implement. Assuming adequate space is available between adjacent radiators the MTM-DS can be fixed retrospectively on existing antenna arrays, which makes the proposed method versatile.
    • Optimum power transfer in RF front end systems using adaptive impedance matching technique

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Azpilicueta, L.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Althuwayb, A.A.; Falcone, F.; Huyen, I.; Denidni, T.A.; Limiti, E. (Nature Publishing Group, 2021-06)
      Matching the antenna’s impedance to the RF-front-end of a wireless communications system is challenging as the impedance varies with its surround environment. Autonomously matching the antenna to the RF-front-end is therefore essential to optimize power transfer and thereby maintain the antenna’s radiation efficiency. This paper presents a theoretical technique for automatically tuning an LC impedance matching network that compensates antenna mismatch presented to the RF-front-end. The proposed technique converges to a matching point without the need of complex mathematical modelling of the system comprising of non-linear control elements. Digital circuitry is used to implement the required matching circuit. Reliable convergence is achieved within the tuning range of the LC-network using control-loops that can independently control the LC impedance. An algorithm based on the proposed technique was used to verify its effectiveness with various antenna loads. Mismatch error of the technique is less than 0.2%. The technique enables speedy convergence (< 5 µs) and is highly accurate for autonomous adaptive antenna matching networks.
    • Overcome the Limitations of Performance Parameters of On-Chip Antennas Based on Metasurface and Coupled Feeding Approaches for Applications in System-on-Chip for THz Integrated-Circuits

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-12-10)
      This paper proposes a new solution to improve the performance parameters of on-chip antenna designs on standard CMOS silicon (Si.) technology. The proposed method is based on applying the metasurface technique and exciting the radiating elements through coupled feed mechanism. The on-chip antenna is constructed from three layers comprising Si.-GND-Si. layers, so that the ground (GND) plane is sandwiched between two Si. layers. The silicon and ground-plane layers have thicknesses of 20μm and 5μm, respectively. The 3×3 array consisting of the asterisk-shaped radiating elements has implemented on the top silicon layer by applying the metasurface approach. Three slot lines in the ground-plane are modelled and located directly under the radiating elements. The radiating elements are excited through the slot-lines using an open-circuited microstrip-line constructed on the bottom silicon layer. The proposed method to excite the structure is based on the coupled feeding mechanism. In addition, by the proposed feeding method the on-chip antenna configuration suppresses the substrate losses and surface-waves. The antenna exhibits a large impedance bandwidth of 60GHz from 0.5THz to 0.56THz with an average radiation gain and efficiency of 4.58dBi and 25.37%, respectively. The proposed structure has compact dimensions of 200×200×45μm3. The results shows that, the proposed technique is therefore suitable for on-chip antennas for applications in system-on-chip for terahertz (THz) integrated circuits.
    • Silicon-based 0.450-0.475 THz series-fed double dielectric resonator on-chip antenna array based on metamaterial properties for integrated-circuits

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-09)
      The antenna array designed to operate over 0.450-0.475 Terahertz comprises two dielectric resonators (DRs) that are stacked vertically on top of each other and placed on the surface of the slot antenna fabricated on a silicon substrate using standard CMOS technology. The slot created in the silicon substrate is meandering and is surrounded by metallic via-wall to prevent energy dissipation. The antenna has a maximum gain of 4.5dBi and radiation efficiency of 45.7% at 0.4625 THz. The combination of slot and vias transform the antenna to a metamaterial structure that provides a relatively small antenna footprint. The proposed series-fed double DRs on-chip antenna array is useful for applications in THz integrated circuits.
    • Singular Integral Formulations for Electrodynamic Analysis of Metamaterial-Inspired Antenna Array

      Alibakhshikenari, M; Virdee, B.S.; Aissa, S.; See, C.H.; Althuwayb, A.A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Huynen, I.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2021-02)
      In this paper, a set of singular integral formulations are derived to calculate the surface impedance matrix on the antenna array elements. The proposed mathematical model enables electrodynamic analysis of antenna arrays designed using metamaterial-inspired structures. The formulations allow the determination of the array’s impedance, spatial and polarization characteristics at significantly low computational cost compared to conventional electromagnetic solvers based on method-of-moments (MoM) numerical technique. The accuracy of the surface impedance results obtained from the theoretical formulations are verified using the full wave EM software. It is shown that there is excellent agreement between the proposed formulations and EM software. The accuracy of the theoretical model presented is valid for single layer structures.
    • Study on antenna mutual coupling suppression using integrated metasurface isolator for SAR and MIMO applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Andujar, A.; Anguera, J.; Limiti, E. (2018-09-27)
      A metasurface based decoupling structure that is composed of a square-wave slot pattern with exaggerated corners that is implemented on a rectangular microstrip provides high-isolation between adjacent patch antennas for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. The proposed 1×2 symmetric array antenna integrated with the proposed decoupling isolation structure is designed to operate at ISM bands of X, Ku, K, and Ka. With the proposed mutual coupling suppression technique (i) the average isolation in the respective ISM bands listed above is 7 dB, 10 dB, 5 dB, and 10 dB; and (ii) edge-to-edge gap between adjacent radiation elements is reduced to 10 mm (0.28λ). The average antenna gain improvement with the metasurface isolator is 2 dBi.
    • Study on isolation improvement between closely-packed patch antenna arrays based on fractal metamaterial electromagnetic bandgap structures

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Ali, Ammar H.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2018-11)
      A decoupling metamaterial (MTM) configuration based on fractal electromagnetic-bandgap (EMBG) structure is shown to significantly enhance isolation between transmitting and receiving antenna elements in a closely-packed patch antenna array. The MTM-EMBG structure is cross-shaped assembly with fractal-shaped slots etched in each arm of the cross. The fractals are composed of four interconnected-`Y-shaped' slots that are separated with an inverted-`T-shaped' slot. The MTM-EMBG structure is placed between the individual patch antennas in a 2 × 2 antenna array. Measured results show the average inter-element isolation improvement in the frequency band of interest is 17, 37 and 17 dB between radiation elements #1 & #2, #1 & #3, and #1 & #4, respectively. With the proposed method there is no need for using metallic-via-holes. The proposed array covers the frequency range of 8-9.25 GHz for X-band applications, which corresponds to a fractional-bandwidth of 14.5%. With the proposed method the edge-to-edge gap between adjacent antenna elements can be reduced to 0.5λ 0 with no degradation in the antenna array's radiation gain pattern. Across the array's operating band, the measured gain varies between 4 and 7 dBi, and the radiation efficiency varies from 74.22 and 88.71%. The proposed method is applicable in the implementation of closely-packed patch antenna arrays used in SAR and MIMO systems.
    • Super-Wide Impedance Bandwidth Planar Antenna for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-05-19)
      A feasibility study of a novel configuration for a super-wide impedance planar antenna is presented based on a 2 × 2 microstrip patch antenna (MPA) using CST Microwave Studio. The antenna comprises a symmetrical arrangement of four-square patches that are interconnected to each other with cross-shaped high impedance microstrip lines. The antenna array is excited through a single feedline connected to one of the patches. The proposed antenna array configuration overcomes the main drawback of conventional MPA with a narrow bandwidth that is typically <5%. The antenna exhibits a super-wide frequency bandwidth from 20 GHz to 120 GHz for S11 < −15 dB, which corresponds to a fractional bandwidth of 142.85%. The antenna’s performance of bandwidth, impedance match, and radiation gain were enhanced by etching slots on the patches. With the inclusion of the slot, the maximum radiation gain and efficiency of the MPA increased to 15.11 dBi and 85.79% at 80 GHz, which showed an improvement of 2.58 dBi and 12.54%, respectively. The dimension of each patch antenna was 4.3 × 5.3 mm2 . The results showed that the proposed MPA is useful for various existing and emerging communication systems such as ultra-wideband (UWB) communications, RFID systems, massive multiple-output multiple-input (MIMO) for 5G, and radar systems.