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  • Glucose level detection using millimetre-wave metamaterial-inspired resonator

    Qureshi, S.A.; Abidin, Z.Z.; Elamin, N.I.M.; Majid, H.A.; Ashyap, A.Y.I.; Nebhen, J.; Kamarudin, M.R.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2022-06)
    Millimetre-wave frequencies are promising for sensitive detection of glucose levels in the blood, where the temperature effect is insignificant. All these features provide the feasibility of continuous, portable, and accurate monitoring of glucose levels. This paper presents a metamaterial-inspired resonator comprising five split-rings to detect glucose levels at 24.9 GHz. The plexiglass case containing blood is modelled on the sensor's surface and the structure is simulated for the glucose levels in blood from 50 mg/dl to 120 mg/dl. The novelty of the sensor is demonstrated by the capability to sense the normal glucose levels at millimetre-wave frequencies. The dielectric characteristics of the blood are modelled by using the Debye parameters. The proposed design can detect small changes in the dielectric properties of blood caused by varying glucose levels. The variation in the transmission coefficient for each glucose level tested in this study is determined by the quality factor and resonant frequency. The sensor presented can detect the change in the quality factor of transmission response up to 2.71/mg/dl. The sensor's performance has also been tested to detect diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. The sensor showed a linear shift in resonant frequency with the change in glucose levels, and an R2 of 0.9976 was obtained by applying regression analysis. Thus, the sensor can be used to monitor glucose in a normal range as well as at extreme levels.
  • Biomedical applications of MXene-integrated composites: regenerative medicine, infection therapy, cancer treatment, and biosensing

    Maleki, A.; Ghomi, M.; Nikfarjam, N.; Akbari, M.; Sharifi, E.; Shahbazi, M-A.; Kermanian, M.; Seyedhamzeh, M.; Zare, E.N.; Mehrali, M.; et al. (Wiley-VCH GmbH, 2022)
    MXenes (viz., transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides) have emerged as a new subclass of 2D materials. Due to their outstanding physicochemical and biological properties, MXenes have gained much attention in the biomedical field in recent years, including drug delivery systems, regenerative medicine, and biosensing. Additionally, the incorporation of MXenes into hydrogels has garnered significant interest in biomedical engineering as an electroactive and mechanical nanoreinforcer capable of converting nonconductive scaffolds into excellent conductors of electricity with an impressive effect on mechanical properties for the engineering of electroactive organs and tissues such as cardiac, skeletal muscle, and nerve. However, many questions and problems remain unresolved that need to be answered to usher these 2D materials toward their true destiny. Thus, this review paper aims to provide an overview of the design and applications of MXene-integrated composites for biomedical applications, including cardiac tissue engineering, wound healing, infection therapy, cancer therapy, and biosensors. Moreover, the current challenges and limitations of utilizing MXenes in vivo are highlighted and discussed, followed by its prospects as a guideline toward possible various futuristic biomedical applications. This review article will inspire researchers, who search for properties, opportunities, and challenges of using this 2D nanomaterial in biomedical applications.
  • Development of an efficient nano-fluid cooling/preheating system for PV-RO water desalination pilot plant

    Shalaby, S.M.; Elfakharany, M.K.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Moharram, B.M.; Abosheiasha, H.F. (2022)
    In order to improve the performance of the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant powered by photovoltaic (PV), two cooling systems were proposed in this study to cool the PV and preheating the RO feed water as well. In the cooling design (1), the cooling fluid flows in direct contact with the back surface of the PV through channels of half circular cross-sections. While in the design (2), it flows through channels of squar cross-sections fixed on the PV back surface. Two nano-fluids were also tested as cooling fluid: H2O/CuO and H2O/Al2O3, in addition to distilled water for the purpose of comparison. The effect of changing the weight concentration of the nano-fluid (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15%) on the PV performance was also investigated. The results showed that the PV integrated with the cooling design (1) achieves better performance compared to design (2) at all studied cooling fluids. The improvements in the electric efficiency of the PV integrated with design (1) reached 39.5, 34.8 and 27.3 % when CuO and Al2O3 nano-fluids and distilled water were used as cooling fluid, respectively, compared to the uncooled PV. Based on the obtained experimental results, the PV integrated with design (1) was selected to power the RO with H2O/CuO nano-fluid of weight concentration 0.15% and flow rate 0.15 kg/s being used as the coolant. The RO powered by the improved PV was tested at different salinities of brackish water when the preheating technique was implemented. The results showed that the proposed PV-RO desalination system produces 366 l/day when brackish water of salinity 3000 ppm was used.
  • Production of Green Fuel: A Digital Baffle Batch Reactor for Enhanced Oxidative Desulfurization of Light Gas Oil Using Nano-Catalyst

    Hameed, S.A.; Nawaf, A.T.; Mahmood, Q.A.; Abdulateef, L.T.; Jarullah, A.T.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2022)
    A digital baffle batch reactor (DBBR) for oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reactions is designed and applied here in order to reduce the sulfur concentration presented in light gas oil (LGO) based on a novel homemade nano-catalyst (Copper Oxide (CuO)/Activated Carbon (AC)). With efficient impregnation, good pore size distribution, high activity and higher surface area, the designed nano-catalyst (CuO/AC) demonstrated excellent catalytic efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness of nano catalyst (prepared experimentally), several experiments related to ODS reactions using the digital baffle batch reactor are carried out under moderate process conditions (reaction temperature (100, 120 and 140 °C), contact time (15, 30 and 45 min) and oxidant (H2O2) amount (2, 3 and 5 ml)). The experimental outcomes indicated that increasing the reaction temperature, batch time and oxidant amount lead to reduced sulfur concentration of oil feedstock leading to a greener fuel. The efficiency of sulfur conversion is reported to be 83.1 % using the modified nano-catalysts and new reactor (DBBR) at reaction temperature 140 oC, batch time 45 min and H2O2 amount of 5 ml. So, such new results using DBBR for ODS reactions based on CuO/AC as a new modified nano catalyst has not been reported in the public domain and it is considered as new results.
  • Effect of compressibility factor on the hydrodynamics of naphtha catalytic‑reforming reactors

    Zakari, A.Y.; John, Yakubu M.; Aderemi, B.O.; Patel, Rajnikant; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2019-07)
    A detailed steady-state catalytic-reforming unit (CRU) reactor process model is simulated in this work, and for the first time, different compressibility Z factor correlations have been applied using gPROMS software. The CRU has been modeled and simulated with the assumption that the gas phase behaves like an ideal gas. This is assumed for the four reactors in series and for different conditions of hydrogen–hydrocarbon ratio (HHR), operating temperature, and pressure. The results show that the Z factor varies at every point along the height of the reactors depending on reaction operating pressure, temperature, and HHR ratio. It also shows that the magnitude of deviation from ideal gas behaviour can be measured over the reactor height. The Z factor correlation of Mahmoud (J Energy Resour Technol Trans ASME 136:012903, 2014) is found to be suitable for predicting the Z factor distribution in the reactors.
  • Modelling the chlorophenol removal from wastewater via reverse osmosis process using a multilayer artificial neural network with genetic algorithm

    Mohammad, A.T.; Al-Obaidi, Mudhar A.A.R.; Hameed, E.M.; Basheer, B.N.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2020-02)
    Reverse Osmosis (RO) can be considered as one of the most widely used technologies used to abate the existence of highly toxic compounds from wastewater. In this paper, a multilayer artificial neural network (MLANN) with Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been considered to build a comprehensive mathematical model, which can be used to predict the performance of an individual RO process in term of chlorophenol removal from wastewater. The MLANN model has been validated against 70 observational experimental datasets collected from the open literature. The MLANN model predictions have outperformed the predictions of several structures developed for the same chlorophenol removal using RO process based on performance in terms of coefficient of correlation, coefficient determination (R2) and average error (AVE). In this respect, two structures (4-2-2-1) and (4-8-8-1) were also used to study the effect of a number of neurons in the hidden layers based on the difference between the measured and ANN predicted values. The model responses clearly confirm the successfulness of estimating the chlorophenol rejection for network structure 4-8-8-1 based on a wide range of the control variables. This also represents a high consistency between the ANN model predictions and the experimental data.
  • Design of Novel Synthetic Iron Oxide Nano-Catalyst Over Homemade Nano-Alumina for an Environmentally Friendly Fuel: Experiments and Modelling

    Jarullah, A.T.; Al-Tabbakh, B.A.; Ahmed, M.A.; Hameed, S.A.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2022)
    Achieving an environmentally friendly fuel with respect to minimum sulfur compounds has recently became a significant issue for petroleum refining industries. This paper focuses on investigating oxidative desulfurization (ODS) process for removal of sulfur compounds found in light gas oil (LGO) in a batch reactor (at different reaction temperatures and batch time) using a novel nano-catalyst based on 4% iron oxide (Fe2O3) as an active component. Precipitation and Impregnation methods are used to prepare the nano-gamma alumina (γ-alumina) and to generate the new synthetic homemade nanocatalyst. A mathematical model is formulated for the ODS process to estimate the optimal kinetic parameters within gPROMS package. An excellent consistency with the experimental data of all runs with error less than 5% have obtained. The optimization results display that the new nanocatalyst prepared here is effective in removing more than 97% of the sulfur compounds from LGO resulting in a cleaner fuel.
  • Mold temperature- and molar mass-dependent structural formation in micro-injection molding of isotactic polypropylene

    Zhao, X.; Liao, T.; Yang, X.; Coates, Philip D.; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Barker, D.; Thompson, Glen P.; Jiang, Z.; Men, Y. (Elsevier, 2022-05)
    The structural formation and development of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) upon the micro-injection molding process was investigated at different mold temperatures and molecular weights utilizing a real-time synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique combined with a customized micro-injection molding apparatus. Shish-kebab structure and parent-daughter lamellae were found to be formed during micro-injection molding for all iPP samples. In the case of kebab lamellae, a considerable growth in the long period and in the average thickness of lamellar crystallites and amorphous domains is observed at initial stages of crystallization for samples molded at varying temperatures. This effect is caused by the successive formation of thin lamellae in the outer layer and thick lamellae in the inner layer during the manufacturing process as evidenced by the spatial distribution of the crystalline lamellae across the thickness. In addition, the length of the shish formation increases remarkably at the onset of crystallization, the extent of which is dependent on the mold temperature. Despite the large changes of the lamellar stacks and the shish misorientation, the final length of the shish remains essentially unchanged when varying mold temperature. Since there is a critical orientation molecular weight above which the chains are stretched and oriented to form stable shish, the iPP sample with a low molar mass exhibits an overall decrease in the scattering intensity of SAXS patterns compared to the high molecular weight polypropylene.
  • The Use of Function Modelling Methods in Industry: Insights from a Large Scale Study with an Automotive OEM

    Yildirim, Unal; Campean, I. Felician; Uddin, Amad (Cambridge University Press, 2022-05)
    This paper presents an evaluation study for the System State Flow Diagram function modeling framework based on a large-scale study with an automotive OEM. Technical reports are used to evaluate the usage of the framework within the organization. The paper also introduces a list of the type of problems that engineers are interested in in practical function modelling. The findings suggest that there is a widespread uptake of the framework across the organization and it supports the usage of relevant key engineering tools within the context of a broader model-based Failure Mode Analysis methodology.
  • Towards a Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach for Robotic Manufacturing Process Modelling with Automatic FMEA Generation

    Korsunovs, Aleksandrs; Doikin, Aleksandr; Campean, I. Felician; Kabir, Sohag; Hernandez, E.M.; Taggart, D.; Parker, S.; Mills, G. (Cambridge University Press, 2022-05)
    The process of generating FMEA following document-centric approach is tedious and susceptible to human error. This paper presents preliminary methodology for robotic manufacturing process modelling in MBSE environment with a scope of automating multiple steps of the modelling process using ontology. This is followed by the reasoning towards automatic generation of process FMEA from the MBSE model. The proposed methodology allows to establish robust and self-synchronising links between process-relevant information, reduce the likelihood of human error, and scale down time expenses.
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Collaborative Research on Robust Design Methodologies: A Large Scale Empirical Case Study with an Automotive OEM

    Campean, I. Felician; Uddin, Amad; Bridges, J.; Fannon, S.R.; Yildirim, Unal (Cambridge University Press, 2022-05)
    The evaluation of impact of collaborative research on robust design methodologies and methods is important to both academic and industry stakeholders. This paper introduces a framework for impact evaluation which combines the broader framework adopted for the academic research impact assessment with the organisation viewpoint centred on business results, process improvement and product development teams capability improvement. A large scale empirical study conducted with evidence from technical reports on workplace projects from an automotive OEM proved the validity of the proposed framework.
  • A New Beamforming Approach Using 60 GHz Antenna Arrays for Multi–Beams 5G Applications

    Al-Sadoon, M.A.G.; Patwary, M.N.; Zahedi, Y.; Parchin, N.O.; Aldelemy, Ahmad; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2022-05-30)
    Recent studies and research have centred on new solutions in different elements and stages to the increasing energy and data rate demands for the fifth generation and beyond (B5G). Based on a new-efficient digital beamforming approach for 5G wireless communication networks, this work offers a compact-size circular patch antenna operating at 60 GHz and covering a 4 GHz spectrum bandwidth. Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (M–MIMO) and beamforming technology build and simulate an active multiple beams antenna system. Thirty-two linear and sixty-four planar antenna array configurations are modelled and constructed to work as base stations for 5G mobile communication networks. Furthermore, a new beamforming approach called Projection Noise Correlation Matrix (PNCM) is presented to compute and optimise the fed weights of the array elements. The key idea of the PNCM method is to sample a portion of the measured noise correlation matrix uniformly in order to provide the best representation of the entire measured matrix. The sampled data will then be utilised to build a projected matrix using the pseudoinverse approach in order to determine the best fit solution for a system and prevent any potential singularities caused by the matrix inversion process. The PNCM is a low-complexity method since it avoids eigenvalue decomposition and computing the entire matrix inversion procedure and does not require including signal and interference correlation matrices in the weight optimisation process. The suggested approach is compared to three standard beamforming methods based on an intensive Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate its advantage. The experiment results reveal that the proposed method delivers the best Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) augmentation among the compared beamformers
  • A Security-enabled Safety Assurance Framework for IoT-based Smart Homes

    Kabir, Sohag; Gope, P.; Mohanty, S.P. (2022)
    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) has paved the way for safety-critical cyber-physical systems to enter our everyday activities. While such systems have changed the way of our life, they brought new challenges that can adversely affect our life and the environment. Safety and security are two such challenges that can hamper the widespread adoption of new IoT applications. Due to a large number of connected devices and their ability to control critical physical assets, intended attacks on them and/or unintended failure events such as mechanical failure of devices, communication failure and unforeseen bad interactions between connected devices may cause an IoT-based system to enter into unsafe and dangerous physical states. By considering the importance of safety and security of IoT systems, in this article, we present a security-enabled safety monitoring framework for IoT-based systems. In the proposed framework, we utilise design-time system analysis to create an executable monitoring model that enables run-time safety assurance provision for a system via collecting and analysing operational data and evidence to determine the safety status of the system and then taking appropriate actions and securely communicating the safety status and recommended actions to the system users to minimise the risk of the system entering into an unsafe state.
  • Single-Element and MIMO Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas with Negligible Back Radiation for 5G Mid-Band Handsets

    Alnahwi, F.M.; Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2022-04)
    In this paper, single-element and MIMO microstrip antenna with two pairs of unequal slits is proposed as a circularly polarized antenna with negligible back radiation for 5G mid-band handsets. The unequal pairs of slits are engraved on the antenna patch to guarantee the presence of the circular polarization (CP). The proximity-coupled feeding technique is used to excite the proposed microstrip antenna in order to provide larger antenna -10 dB bandwidth which approaches 10.8% (3.48-3.87 GHz). A novel analysis technique is proposed in this paper that demonstrates the 3D axial ratio pattern in order to generate CP in the broadside direction without affecting the structure of the ground plane which ensures weak back radiation. The 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) is found to be equal to 4.1% extended along the range (3.58-3.73 GHz). To make the design more compatible with the 5G mid-band handsets, the 2 × 2 MIMO structure of the proposed antenna with reduced mutual coupling (less than -20 dB) is also presented in this work. The simulation and measured results are in good agreement, and both verify the CP characteristics and the weak back radiation of the proposed antenna.
  • Analysis of gyrobianisotropic media effect on the input impedance, field distribution and mutual coupling of a printed dipole antenna

    Lamine Bouknia, M.; Zebiri, C.; Sayad, D.; Elfergani, Issa; Matin, M.; Alibakhshikenari, M.; Alharbi, A.G.; Hu, Yim Fun; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rodriguez, J.; et al. (Springer, 2022-06-20)
    In this paper, we present an analytical study for the investigation of the effects of the magnetoelectric elements of a reciprocal and nonreciprocal bianisotropic grounded substrate on the input impedance, resonant length of a dipole antenna as well as on the mutual coupling between two element printed dipole array in three configuration geometries: broadside, collinear and echelon printed on the same material. This study examines also the effect of the considered bianisotropic medium on the electric and magnetic field distributions that has been less addressed in the literature for antenna structures. Computations are based on the numerical resolution, using the spectral method of moments, of the integral equation developed through the mathematical derivation of the appropriate spectral Green’s functions of the studied dipole configuration. Original results, for chiral, achiral, Tellegen and general bi-anisotropic media, are obtained and discussed with the electric and magnetic field distributions for a better understanding and interpretation. These interesting results can serve as a stepping stone for further works to attract more attention to the reciprocal and non-reciprocal Tellgen media in-depth studies.
  • A New mm-Wave Antenna Array with Wideband Characteristics for Next Generation Communication Systems

    Munir, M.E.; Al Harbi, A.G.; Kiani, S.H.; Marey, M.; Parchin, N.O.; Khan, J.; Mostafa, H.; Iqbal, J.; Khan, M.A.; See, C.H.; et al. (MDPI, 2022-05-13)
    This paper presents a planar multi-circular loop antenna with a wide impedance bandwidth for next generation mm-wave systems. The proposed antenna comprises three circular rings with a partial ground plane with a square slot. The resonating structure is designed on a 0.254 mm thin RO5880 substrate with a relative permittivity of 2.3. The single element of the proposed design showed a resonance response from 26.5 to 41 GHz, with a peak gain of 4 dBi and radiation efficiency of 96%. The proposed multicircular ring antenna element is transformed into a four-element array system. The array size is kept at 18.25 × 12.5 × 0.254 mm3 with a peak gain of 11 dBi. The antenna array is fabricated and measured using the in-house facility. The simulated and measured results are well agreed upon and are found to be suitable for mm-wave communication systems.
  • Demonstrating the Potential of Using Bio-Based Sustainable Polyester Blends for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Ramos-Rodriguez, D.H.; Pashneh-Tala, S.; Bains, A.K.; Moorehead, R.D.; Kassos, Nikolaos; Kelly, Adrian L.; Paterson, T.E.; Orozco-Diaz, C.A.; Gill, A.A.; Ortega Asencio, I. (2022-04)
    Healthcare applications are known to have a considerable environmental impact and the use of bio-based polymers has emerged as a powerful approach to reduce the carbon footprint in the sector. This research aims to explore the suitability of using a new sustainable polyester blend (Floreon™) as a scaffold directed to aid in musculoskeletal applications. Musculoskeletal problems arise from a wide range of diseases and injuries related to bones and joints. Specifically, bone injuries may result from trauma, cancer, or long-term infections and they are currently considered a major global problem in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have manufactured a series of 3D-printed constructs from a novel biopolymer blend using fused deposition modelling (FDM), and we have modified these materials using a bioceramic (wollastonite, 15% w/w). We have evaluated their performance in vitro using human dermal fibroblasts and rat mesenchymal stromal cells. The new sustainable blend is biocompatible, showing no differences in cell metabolic activity when compared to PLA controls for periods 1-18 days. FloreonTM blend has proven to be a promising material to be used in bone tissue regeneration as it shows an impact strength in the same range of that shown by native bone (just under 10 kJ/m2) and supports an improvement in osteogenic activity when modified with wollastonite.
  • Reduction of scour around circular piers using collars

    Pandey, M.; Pu, Jaan H.; Pourshahbaz, H.; Khan, M.A. (2022-03)
    River dynamics and sediment transport play an important role in river bed morphology. Building a bridge pier along the river alters the cross-section of the river and causes the change in flow processes. These changes are mainly responsible for pier scour. In this paper, the usage of collars to reduce scour around circular piers has been investigated. The collars with different diameters and depth positions have been studied using previous data and additional data collected in the present study to assess their effectiveness in reducing scour. Using a wide range of measured data, an empirical equation to compute the maximum scour depth around the circular piers in the presence of collars has been proposed. The proposed equation has been validated and proven to be applicable to a wide range of pier layouts. It has been found that the maximum efficiency can be achieved by fixing the collar at bed level and adopting a collar diameter 1.5–2.5 times of pier diameter.
  • Improving bond of fiber-reinforced polymer bars with concrete through incorporating nanomaterials  

    Wang, X.; Ding, S.; Qiu, L.; Ashour, Ashraf A.; Wang, Y.; Han, B.; Ou, J. (Elsevier, 2022-06)
    The bond between FRP bars and concrete, the foremost performance for implementation of such reinforcements to corrosion-free concrete structures, is still unsatisfied due to the weak nature of duplex film in the interface. The existing approaches show low efficiency in improving the microstructures and bond between FRP bars and concrete. To address these issues, this paper provided a new approach for improving the bond between FRP bars and concrete by incorporating nanomaterials, as well as explored the modifying mechanisms and established the bond-slip models. For these purposes, the pull-out test, scanning electron microscope observation, as well as energy dispersive spectrometry analysis were performed. The experimental results demonstrated that the presence of nanomaterials increased the ultimate bond strengths between glass/carbon FRP bars and concrete by up to 16.2% and 37.8%, while the corresponding slips decreased by 28.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Such modification effects can be attributed to the optimized intrinsic composition and the reduced pore content of hydration products in the interface, especially in the duplex film, through the nanomaterial enrichment and nano-core effects. The bond-slip relationship between FRP bars and concrete with nanomaterials can be accurately predicted by the mBPE model.
  • Editorial: Catalysis in Iberoamerica: Recent Trends

    Alvarez Moreno, A.; Arcelus-Arrillaga, Pedro; Ivanova, S.; Ramirez Reina, T. (2022-03-08)

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