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  • Toward full-stack in silico synthetic biology: integrating model specification, simulation, verification, and biological compilation

    Konur, Savas; Mierla, L.M.; Fellermann, H.; Ladroue, C.; Brown, B.; Wipat, A.; Twycross, J.; Dun, B.P.; Kalvala, S.; Gheorghe, Marian; et al. (2021-08-02)
    We present the Infobiotics Workbench (IBW), a user-friendly, scalable, and integrated computational environment for the computer-aided design of synthetic biological systems. It supports an iterative workflow that begins with specification of the desired synthetic system, followed by simulation and verification of the system in high- performance environments and ending with the eventual compilation of the system specification into suitable genetic constructs. IBW integrates modelling, simulation, verification and bicompilation features into a single software suite. This integration is achieved through a new domain-specific biological programming language, the Infobiotics Language (IBL), which tightly combines these different aspects of in silico synthetic biology into a full-stack integrated development environment. Unlike existing synthetic biology modelling or specification languages, IBL uniquely blends modelling, verification and biocompilation statements into a single file. This allows biologists to incorporate design constraints within the specification file rather than using decoupled and independent formalisms for different in silico analyses. This novel approach offers seamless interoperability across different tools as well as compatibility with SBOL and SBML frameworks and removes the burden of doing manual translations for standalone applications. We demonstrate the features, usability, and effectiveness of IBW and IBL using well-established synthetic biological circuits.
  • Toward Improving Confidence in Autonomous Vehicle Software: A Study on Traffic Sign Recognition Systems

    Aslansefat, K.; Kabir, Sohag; Abdullatif, Amr R.A.; Vasudevan, Vinod; Papadopoulos, Y. (IEEE, 2021-08)
    This article proposes an approach named SafeML II, which applies empirical cumulative distribution function-based statistical distance measures in a designed human-in-the loop procedure to ensure the safety of machine learning-based classifiers in autonomous vehicle software. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) and data-driven decision-making systems in autonomous vehicles is growing rapidly. As autonomous vehicles operate in dynamic environments, the risk that they can face an unknown observation is relatively high due to insufficient training data, distributional shift, or cyber-security attack. Thus, AI-based algorithms should make dependable decisions to improve their interpretation of the environment, lower the risk of autonomous driving, and avoid catastrophic accidents. This paper proposes an approach named SafeML II, which applies empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF)-based statistical distance measures in a designed human-in-the-loop procedure to ensure the safety of machine learning-based classifiers in autonomous vehicle software. The approach is model-agnostic and it can cover various machine learning and deep learning classifiers. The German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark (GTSRB) is used to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed approach.
  • Flyback photovoltaic micro-inverter with a low cost and simple digital-analog control scheme

    Yaqoob, S.J.; Obed, A.; Zubo, R.; Al-Yasir, Yasir; Fadhel, H.; Mokryani, Geev; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2021-07)
    The single-stage flyback Photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is considered as a simple and small in size topology but requires expensive digital microcontrollers such as Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to increase the system efficiency, this would increase the cost of the overall system. To solve this problem, based on a single-stage flyback structure, this paper proposed a low cost and simple analog-digital control scheme. This control scheme is implemented using a low cost ATMega microcontroller built in the Arduino Uno board and some analog operational amplifiers. First, the single-stage flyback topology is analyzed theoretically and then the design consideration is obtained. Second, a 120 W prototype was developed in the laboratory to validate the proposed control. To prove the effectiveness of this control, we compared the cost price, overall system efficiency, and THD values of the proposed results with the results obtained by the literature. So, a low system component, single power stage, cheap control scheme, and decent efficiency are achieved by the proposed system. Finally, the experimental results present that the proposed system has a maximum efficiency of 91%, with good values of the total harmonic distortion (THD) compared to the results of other authors
  • Diagnostics and prognostics for complex systems: A review of methods and challenges

    Soleimani, Morteza; Campean, I. Felician; Neagu, Daniel (2021)
    Diagnostics and prognostics have significant roles in the reliability enhancement of systems and are focused topics of active research. Engineered systems are becoming more complex and are subjected to miscellaneous failure modes that impact adversely their performability. This everincreasing complexity makes fault diagnostics and prognostics challenging for the system-level functions. A significant number of successes have been achieved and acknowledged in some review papers; however, these reviews rarely focused on the application of complex engineered systems nor provided a systematic review of diverse techniques and approaches to address the related challenges. To bridge the gap, this paper firstly presents a review to systematically cover the general concepts and recent development of various diagnostics and prognostics approaches, along with their strengths and shortcomings for the application of diverse engineered systems. Afterward, given the characteristics of complex systems, the applicability of different techniques and methods that are capable to address the features of complex systems are reviewed and discussed, and some of the recent achievements in the literature are introduced. Finally, the unaddressed challenges are discussed by taking into account the characteristics of automotive systems as an example of complex systems. In addition, future development and potential research trends are offered to address those challenges. Consequently, this review provides a systematic view of the state of the art and case studies with a reference value for scholars and practitioners.
  • Hidden labour: The skilful work of clinical audit data collection and its implications for secondary use of data via integrated health IT

    McVey, Lynn; Alvarado, Natasha; Greenhalgh, J.; Elshehaly, Mai; Gale, C.P.; Lake, J.; Ruddle, R.A.; Dowding, D.; Mamas, M.; Feltbower, R.; et al. (Springer/Biomed Central, 2021-07-16)
    Background: Secondary use of data via integrated health information technology is fundamental to many healthcare policies and processes worldwide. However, repurposing data can be problematic and little research has been undertaken into the everyday practicalities of inter-system data sharing that helps explain why this is so, especially within (as opposed to between) organisations. In response, this article reports one of the most detailed empirical examinations undertaken to date of the work involved in repurposing healthcare data for National Clinical Audits. Methods: Fifty-four semi-structured, qualitative interviews were carried out with staff in five English National Health Service hospitals about their audit work, including 20 staff involved substantively with audit data collection. In addition, ethnographic observations took place on wards, in ‘back offices’ and meetings (102 hours). Findings were analysed thematically and synthesised in narratives. Results: Although data were available within hospital applications for secondary use in some audit fields, which could, in theory, have been auto-populated, in practice staff regularly negotiated multiple, unintegrated systems to generate audit records. This work was complex and skilful, and involved cross-checking and double data entry, often using paper forms, to assure data quality and inform quality improvements. Conclusions: If technology is to facilitate the secondary use of healthcare data, the skilled but largely hidden labour of those who collect and recontextualise those data must be recognised. Their detailed understandings of what it takes to produce high quality data in specific contexts should inform the further development of integrated systems within organisations.
  • Green and Highly Efficient MIMO Transceiver System for 5G Heterogenous Networks

    Al-Yasir, Yasir; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Parchin, Naser O.; Elfergani, I.T.; Rodriguez, J.; Noras, James M.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rayit, A.; Qahwaji, Rami (IEEE, 2021-07-27)
    The paper presents the general requirements and an exemplary design of the RF front-end system that in today´s handset is a key consumer of power. The design is required to minimize the carbon footprint in mobile handsets devices, whilst facilitating cooperation, and providing the energy-efficient operation of multi-standards for 5G communications. It provides the basis of hardware solutions for RF front-end integration challenges and offers design features covering energy efficiency for power amplifiers (PAs), Internet of Things (IoT) controlled tunable filters and compact highly isolated multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antennas. An optimum design requires synergetic collaboration between academic institutions and industry in order to satisfy the key requirements of sub-6 GHz energy-efficient 5G transceivers, incorporating energy efficiency, good linearity and the potential for low-cost manufacturing. A highly integrated RF transceiver was designed and implemented to transmit and receive a picture using compact MIMO antennas integrated with efficient tunable filters and high linearity PAs. The proposed system has achieved a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10-10 at a data rate of 600 Mb/s with a wireless communication distance of more than 1 meter and power dissipation of 18-20 mW using hybrid beamforming technology and 64-QAM modulation.
  • Investigating the compatibility of nickel coated carbon nanotubes and cementitious composites through experimental evidence and theoretical calculations

    Wang, D.; Dong, S.; Wang, X.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Lv, X.; Han, B. (2021-09)
    Nickel coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NiMCNTs) are favorable reinforcing nanofillers for modifying cementitious composites due to their preeminent mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, thermal properties and dispersibility. This paper investigates the mechanical properties and compatibility of NiMCNTs filled cementitious composites, having two different types of cement, two water to cement ratios, and two dosages of five types of NiMCNTs. The results show that 0.06 vol.% NiMCNTs with small aspect ratios can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of cementitious composites, while NiMCNTs with large aspect ratios play a better strengthening effect at 0.03 vol.%. The flexural strength/toughness of cementitious composites containing 0.06 vol.% NiMCNTs with an aspect ratio of 200 can be increased by 19.65%/116.78%. Adding 0.03 vol.% NiMCNTs with an aspect ratio of 1000 enhances the compressive strength/toughness of composites by 18.61%/47.44%. Besides, NiMCNTs have preferable compatibility to cementitious composites prepared by P·O 42.5R cement with a water to cement ratio of 0.3. The enhancement mechanism is related to the denser microstructure and effective suppression of microcracks in the cementitious matrix by NiMCNTs with filling, bridging and pull-out effects, as well as the high interface bond strength between NiMCNTs and matrix. A strength prediction model for NiMCNTs reinforced cementitious composites is also established to estimate the mechanical strength of cementitious composites containing NiMCNTs with different aspect ratios/contents, showing a small relative error within ±6%/±13% for predicted flexural/compressive strength values in comparison with the experimental results.
  • Tranquillity trails – design, implementation and benefits for healthy leisure

    Watts, Gregory R.; Bauer, J. (Taylor and Francis, 2021)
    Tranquillity trails (TTs) are designed to provide a quiet and peaceful walk through mainly leafy lanes and roads and connect green open spaces where visitors can stop for thought and relaxation. There are numerous health benefits from being in close proximity to nature and TTs can facilitate this contact in mainly urban areas. This study involved the design of a trail in Tramore, a coastal town in south east Ireland. The trail links an old coastguard station, now converted to a cultural centre and coffee shop, with a Japanese garden. The trail includes a coastal path with fine views across a bay, wooded areas as well as leafy residential streets. The design of the trail was facilitated by the use of a previous developed tranquillity rating prediction tool (TRAPT) that involved the estimation of the level of man-made noise and the percentage of natural features in view. Participants who had completed the whole of the trail were encouraged to complete a questionnaire to gauge any benefits. As expected, it was reported that there were increased levels of relaxation and reduced stress. It was concluded that the approach can be used elsewhere to improve the well-being of residents and visitors.
  • Bond behaviors between nano-engineered concrete and steel bars

    Wang, X.; Dong, S.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Ding, S.; Han, B. (Elsevier, 2021-09)
    This paper investigated the bond characteristics between eight types of nanofillers modified reactive powder concrete (RPC) and plain steel bars, aiming to explore the modifying mechanisms and establish a bond-slip relationship model for nanofillers modified RPC and steel bar interface. The experimental results indicated that the incorporation of nanofillers can increase the bond strength and reduce the slip between RPC and plain steel bars. It was shown that a 2.15 MPa/20.5% of absolute/relative increase in cracking bond strength, a 1.25 MPa/10.3% of absolute/relative increase in ultimate bond strength, a 2.35 MPa/22.4% of absolute/relative increase in residual bond strength, a 0.592 mm/56.5% of absolute/relative reduction in ultimate bond slip, and a 1.779 mm/52.1% of absolute/relative reduction in residual bond slip were the best achieved due to the addition of various nanofillers. The enhancement of nanofillers on RPC-steel bar interface has been mainly attributed to RPC microstructure improvement, optimization of intrinsic compositions, and elimination of defects in the interface, especially the underside near steel bar, due to the nano-core effect of nanofillers enriched in the interface. In addition, the bond-slip relationship of nanofillers modified RPC-steel bar interface can be accurately described by the proposed model considering an initial branch.
  • Energy-harvesting concrete for smart and sustainable infrastructures

    Wang, X.; Dong, S.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Han, B. (A Springer Nature Publication, 2021)
    Concrete with smart and functional properties (e.g., self-sensing, self-healing, and energy-harvesting) represents a transformative direction in the field of construction materials. Energy-harvesting concrete has the capability to store or convert the ambient energy (e.g., light, thermal, and mechanical energy) for feasible uses, alleviating global energy and pollution problems as well as reducing carbon footprint. The employment of energy-harvesting concrete can endow infrastructures (e.g., buildings, railways, and highways) with energy self-sufficiency, effectively promoting sustainable infrastructure development. This paper provides a systematic overview on the principles, fabrication, properties, and applications of energy-harvesting concrete (including light-emitting, thermal-storing, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric concretes). The paper concludes with an outline of some future challenges and opportunities in the application of energy-harvesting concrete in sustainable infrastructures.
  • Flow analysis of melted urea in a perforated rotating bucket

    Muhammad, A.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Pendyala, R. (2013-10)
    A comprehensive study of the internal flow field for the prilling application in a perforated rotating bucket has been carried out. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate the flow field of urea melt inside the perforated rotating bucket. The bucket is mounted at the top of the prilling tower. In prilling process, urea melt is sprayed by the perforated rotating bucket to produce the urea droplets, which falls down due to gravity. These drops fall down through a cooling medium and solidify into prills. The velocity field in the bucket is very important to study, as it has great effect on the heat and mass transfer performance in prilling process. ANSYS 14.0 CFD package is used to simulate and Design Modeler and Catia V5 are used for geometrical model of the perforated prilling bucket. Velocity distribution on different planes are obtained and discussed.
  • Heat exchanger network optimization by differential evolution method

    Thuy, N.T.P.; Pendyala, R.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Marneni, N. (2014)
    The synthesis of heat exchanger network (HEN) is a comprehensive approach to optimize energy utilization in process industry. Recent developments in HEN synthesis (HENS) present several heuristic methods, such as Simulated Annealing (SA), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and Differential Evolution (DE). In this work, DE method for synthesis and optimization of HEN has been presented. Using DE combined with the concept of super-targeting, the ΔTmin optimization is determined. Then DE algorithm is employed to optimize the global cost function including the constraints, such as heat balance, the temperatures of process streams. A case study has been optimized using DE, generated structure of HEN and compared with networks obtained by other methods such as pinch technology or mathematical programming. Through the result, the proposed method has been illustrated that DE is able to apply in HEN optimization, with 16.7% increase in capital cost and 56.4%, 18.9% decrease in energy, global costs respectively.
  • An experimental investigation into the permeability and selectivity of PTFE membrane: a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide

    Gilassi, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat (Taylor & Francis, 2016)
    Research and technology innovations in the 1970s led to the significant commercial practice of gas separation by membranes that exists today. These advances involved developing membrane structures that could produce high fluxes and modules for packing a large amount of membrane area per unit volume (Murphy et al., 2009). At present, the share of using a polymeric membrane in the capture of CO2 is increasing and gradually the membrane technology is considered as the promising method in separation units, although the number of commercial membranes is not high. CO2 capture from natural gas is one of the controversial topics that many researchers and engineers try to find the best method satisfying both high efficiency and low capital cost. In common, chemical physical absorption towers are applied to remove CO2 from natural gas in order to prevent pipeline corrosion, even though the other component such as H2S gives rise to operating problems. The obscure angle of a conventional unit is related to the high energy consumption while the absorbent needs to be purified by the regeneration units which implement the temperature as a unique manipulating parameter for separating amine groups. The great advantages of using the membrane in gas industry are the low capital cost, easy installation and maintenance so that for this simple reason, new membranes come to the market for different types of processes. Capture of CO2 from natural gas accounts for one of the major difficulties so that the engineers try to employ membrane modules as to alter the process efficiency. However, there are only a limited number of membranes that can be used in real industry and the research still continues over this interesting topic (Burggraaf and Cot, 1996).
  • Investigation of Effect of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal Properties of Water-Based Fluids in a Double Tube Heat Exchanger

    Porgar, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2021-06-24)
    The thermal behavior of aluminium oxide-water nanofluid in a double pipe carbon steel heat exchanger was investigated in the present study. The overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt, and heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid were compared with the base fluid. The volume fraction of the nanoparticles was 1%. By adding nanoparticles to the fluid, the thermal properties of the base fluid improved significantly. The hot and cold fluid flow was considered counter-current, and the nanofluid was pumped into the inner tube and once into the outer tube, and the flow rate of each fluid was 0.05 kg/s. The convective heat transfer and the overall heat transfer coefficient enhanced 94% and 253% for the hot fluid flow in the outer tube and 308 % and 144% for the hot fluid flow in the inner tube, respectively. The pressure drop calculations also showed that the pressure drop would not change significantly when using nanofluid.
  • A New No Equilibrium Fractional Order Chaotic System, Dynamical Investigation, Synchronization and Its Digital Implementation

    Rahman, Z.-A.S.A.; Jasim, B.H.; Al-Yasir, Yasir; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Alhasnawi, B.N. (MDPI, 2021-07-06)
    In this paper, a new fractional order chaotic system without equilibrium is proposed, analyti-cally and numerically investigated, and numerically and experimentally tested. The analytical and numerical investigation were used to describe the system dynamical behaviors including, the system equilibria, the chaotic attractors, the bifurcation diagrams and the Lyapunov expo-nents. Based on the obtained dynamical behaviors, the system can excite hidden chaotic attrac-tors since it has no equilibrium. Then, a synchronization mechanism based on the adaptive con-trol theory has been developed between two identical new systems (master and slave). The adaptive control laws are derived based on synchronization error dynamics of the state varia-bles for the master and slave. Consequently, the update laws of the slave parameters are ob-tained, where the slave parameters are assumed to be uncertain and estimate corresponding to the master parameters by the synchronization process. Furthermore, Arduino Due boards were used to implement the proposed system in order to demonstrate its practicality in real-world applications. The simulation experimental results are obtained by MATLAB and the Arduino Due boards respectively, where a good consistent between the simulation results and the ex-perimental results. indicating that the new fractional order chaotic system is capable of being employed in real-world applications.
  • 8-Port Semi-Circular Arc MIMO Antenna with an Inverted L-Strip Loaded Connected Ground for UWB Applications

    Addepalli, T.; Desai, A.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Anveshkumar, N.; Kulkarni, J.; Zebiri, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2021-06)
    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas with four and eight elements having connected grounds are designed for ultra-wideband applications. Careful optimization of the lines connecting the grounds leads to reduced mutual coupling amongst the radiating patches. The proposed antenna has a modified substrate geometry and comprises a circular arc-shaped conductive element on the top with the modified ground plane geometry. Polarization diversity and isolation are achieved by replicating the elements orthogonally forming a plus shape antenna structure. The modified ground plane consists of an inverted L strip and semi ellipse slot over the partial ground that helps the antenna in achieving effective wide bandwidth spanning from (117.91%) 2.84–11 GHz. Both 4/8-port antenna achieves a size of 0.61 λ × 0.61 λ mm2 (lowest frequency) where 4-port antenna is printed on FR4 substrate. The 4-port UWB MIMO antenna attains wide impedance bandwidth, Omni-directional pattern, isolation >15 dB, ECC 4.5 dB making the MIMO antenna suitable for portable UWB applications. Four element antenna structure is further extended to 8-element configuration with the connected ground where the decent value of IBW, isolation, and ECC is achieved.
  • Integration of Hidden Markov Modelling and Bayesian Network for Fault Detection and Prediction of Complex Engineered Systems

    Soleimani, Morteza; Campean, I. Felician; Neagu, Daniel (2021-05)
    This paper presents a methodology for fault detection, fault prediction and fault isolation based on the integration of hidden Markov modelling (HMM) and Bayesian networks (BN). This addresses the nonlinear and non-Gaussian data characteristics to support fault detection and prediction, within an explainable hybrid framework that captures causality in the complex engineered system. The proposed methodology is based on the analysis of the pattern of similarity in the log-likelihood (LL) sequences against the training data for the mixture of Gaussians HMM (MoG-HMM). The BN model identifies the root cause of detected/predicted faults, using the information propagated from the HMM model as empirical evidence. The feasibility and effectiveness of the presented approach are discussed in conjunction with the application to a real-world case study of an automotive exhaust gas Aftertreatment system. The paper details the implementation of the methodology to this case study, with data available from real-world usage of the system. The results show that the proposed methodology identifies the fault faster and attributes the fault to the correct root cause. While the proposed methodology is illustrated with an automotive case study, its applicability is much wider to the fault detection and prediction problem of any similar complex engineered system.
  • Solution processed PVB/mica flake coatings for the encapsulation of organic solar cells

    Channa, I.A.; Chandio, A.D.; Rizwan, M.; Shah, A.A.; Bhatti, J.; Shah, A.K.; Hussain, F.; Shar, Muhammad A.; AlHazaa, A. (2021-05-12)
    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) die due to their interactions with environmental gases, i.e., moisture and oxygen, the latter being the most dangerous, especially under illumination, due to the fact that most of the active layers used in OPVs are extremely sensitive to oxygen. In this work we demonstrate solution-based effective barrier coatings based on composite of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)and mica flakes for the protection of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based organic solar cells (OSCs)against photobleaching under illumination conditions. In the first step we developed a protective layer with cost effective and environmentally friendly methods and optimized its properties in terms of transparency, barrier improvement factor, and bendability. The developed protective layer maintained a high transparency in the visible region and improved oxygen and moisture barrier quality by the factor of ~7. The resultant protective layers showed ultra-flexibility, as no significant degradation in protective characteristics were observed after 10 K bending cycles. In the second step, a PVB/mica composite layer was applied on top of the P3HT film and subjected to photo-degradation. The P3HT films coated with PVB/mica composite showed improved stability under constant light irradiation and exhibited a loss of <20% of the initial optical density over the period of 150 h. Finally, optimized barrier layers were used as encapsulation for organic solar cell (OSC) devices. The lifetime results confirmed that the stability of the OSCs was extended from few hours to over 240 h in a sun test (65◦C, ambient RH%) which corresponds to an enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to devices encapsulated with pristine PVB.
  • Design of a self-learning multi-agent framework for the adaptation of modular production systems

    Scrimieri, Daniele; Afazov, S.M.; Ratchev, S.M. (2021)
    This paper presents the design of a multi-agent framework that aids engineers in the adaptation of modular production systems. The framework includes general implementations of agents and other software components for self-learning and adaptation, sensor data analysis, system modelling and simulation, as well as human-computer interaction. During an adaptation process, operators make changes to the production system, in order to increase capacity or manufacture a product variant. These changes are automatically captured and evaluated by the framework, building an experience base of adjustments that is then used to infer adaptation knowledge. The architecture of the framework consists of agents divided in two layers: the agents in the lower layer are associated with individual production modules, whereas the agents in the higher layer are associated with the entire production line. Modelling, learning, and adaptations can be performed at both levels, using a semantic model to specify the structure and capabilities of the production system. An evaluation of a prototype implementation has been conducted on an industrial assembly system. The results indicate that the use of the framework in a typical adaptation process provides a significant reduction in time and resources required.
  • Optimum power transfer in RF front end systems using adaptive impedance matching technique

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Azpilicueta, L.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Althuwayb, A.A.; Falcone, F.; Huyen, I.; Denidni, T.A.; Limiti, E. (Nature Publishing Group, 2021-06)
    Matching the antenna’s impedance to the RF-front-end of a wireless communications system is challenging as the impedance varies with its surround environment. Autonomously matching the antenna to the RF-front-end is therefore essential to optimize power transfer and thereby maintain the antenna’s radiation efficiency. This paper presents a theoretical technique for automatically tuning an LC impedance matching network that compensates antenna mismatch presented to the RF-front-end. The proposed technique converges to a matching point without the need of complex mathematical modelling of the system comprising of non-linear control elements. Digital circuitry is used to implement the required matching circuit. Reliable convergence is achieved within the tuning range of the LC-network using control-loops that can independently control the LC impedance. An algorithm based on the proposed technique was used to verify its effectiveness with various antenna loads. Mismatch error of the technique is less than 0.2%. The technique enables speedy convergence (< 5 µs) and is highly accurate for autonomous adaptive antenna matching networks.

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