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  • Neural membrane mutual coupling characterisation using entropy-based iterative learning identification

    Tang, X.; Zhang, Qichun; Dai, X.; Zou, Y. (2020-11)
    This paper investigates the interaction phenomena of the coupled axons while the mutual coupling factor is presented as a pairwise description. Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model and the coupling factor matrix, the membrane potentials of the coupled myelinated/unmyelinated axons are quantified which implies that the neural coupling can be characterised by the presented coupling factor. Meanwhile the equivalent electric circuit is supplied to illustrate the physical meaning of this extended model. In order to estimate the coupling factor, a data-based iterative learning identification algorithm is presented where the Rényi entropy of the estimation error has been minimised. The convergence of the presented algorithm is analysed and the learning rate is designed. To verified the presented model and the algorithm, the numerical simulation results indicate the correctness and the effectiveness. Furthermore, the statistical description of the neural coupling, the approximation using ordinary differential equation, the measurement and the conduction of the nerve signals are discussed respectively as advanced topics. The novelties can be summarised as follows: 1) the Hodgkin-Huxley model has been extended considering the mutual interaction between the neural axon membranes, 2) the iterative learning approach has been developed for factor identification using entropy criterion, and 3) the theoretical framework has been established for this class of system identification problems with convergence analysis.
  • Breakage of carbon nanotube agglomerates within polypropylene matrix by solid phase die drawing

    Lin, X.; Gong, M.; Innes, James; Spencer, Paul E.; Coates, Philip D.; Korde, Sachin A. (2020-01)
    Melt blending of polyolefin/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites always leads to serious agglomeration of CNTs and hence inferior properties. Thus, well-dispersed CNTs within matrix are urgently required during processing. In this work, effective breakage of CNT agglomerates was achieved by solid-phase die drawing at a temperature below but near to the melting temperature of the matrix. Experimental results indicate that the incurred extensional stress provides a high orientation degree on the polypropylene (PP) matrix and consequently helps rupture CNT agglomerates, leading to improved alternating current(AC) conductivity by ~5–6 orders in magnitude. The reduced agglomerate ratio, the altered CNT networks (3D→2D), and the improved interfacial morphology between CNT and matrix are suggested to be responsible for the viscoelasticity variation of the composite melt and the improved property of PP/multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) composite. The initial loss of tensile ductility by the incorporation of MWCNTs is recovered by nearly 100%, which was attributed to the low agglomeration rate and improved interfacial morphology. This article provided the potential inspiration for the melt blending of polymer melt and CNTs.
  • Highly improved PP/CNTs sheet prepared by tailoring crystallization morphology through solid-phase die drawing and multilayer hot compression

    Lin, X.; Spencer, Paul E.; Gong, M.; Coates, Philip D. (2020-08)
    Simply melt blended polypropylene/carbon nanotubes composites (PP/CNTs) usually present mechanical deterioration. In this work, multilayered sheet of PP/CNTs with improved tensile property was obtained by solid-phase orientation and hot compression. The initially blended PP/CNTs were highly orientated by employing a constrained slit die and hot compressed under a certain temperature and pressure by stacking eight layers together. The effects of compression temperature and pressure on the tensile property and AC conductivity of the multilayered sheets were examined to explore the evolution of hierarchical crystallization morphology and CNT networks. The multilayered sheet which was hot compressed at 184°C and 5 MPa demonstrated an optimum tensile strength of ∼132.5 MPa and an elongation at break ∼52.7%, respectively, raised by almost 3-fold compared with those initially blended PP/CNTs. By increasing compression temperature and decreasing pressure, the AC conductivity showed an increase of 2 to 4 orders of magnitude.
  • Chatter model for enabling a digital twin in machining

    Afazov, S.; Scrimieri, Daniele (2020-09)
    This paper presents the development of a new chatter model using measured cutting forces instead of a mathematical model with empirical nature that describes them. The utilisation of measured cutting forces enables the prediction of real-time chatter conditions and stable machining. The chatter model is validated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses for detection of chatter. The key contribution of the developed chatter model is that it can be incorporated in digital twins for process monitoring and control in order to achieve greater material removal rates and improved surface quality in future industrial applications involving machining processes.
  • Self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials enabled smart and multifunctional cement-based composites

    Dong, S.; Li, L.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Dong, X.; Han, B. (2020)
    In this paper, two types of nano carbon materials including 0D nano carbon black and 2D graphene are assembled through electrostatic adsorption to develop smart cement-based composites. Owing to their excellent mechanical, electrical properties and synergistic effect, self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials can form toughening and conductive networks in cement-based materials at low content level and without changing the preparation process of conventional cement-based materials, thus endowing cement-based materials with smart and multifunctional properties including high toughness, self-sensing property to stress/strain and damage, shielding/absorbing property to electromagnetic wave. The developed smart cement-based composites with self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials have promising application in the fields of oil well cementing, structural health monitoring, and electromagnetic protection and anti-electromagnetic pollution. It can therefore conclude that electrostatic self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials provide a simple preparation method and excellent composite effect for developing nano cement-based materials, which can be applied in large-scale infrastructures.
  • The effect of materials' rheology on process energy consumption and melt thermal quality in polymer extrusion

    Abeykoon, C.; Pérez, P.; Kelly, Adrian L. (2020-06)
    Polymer extrusion is an important but an energy intensive method of processing polymeric materials. The rapid increase in demand of polymeric products has forced manufactures to rethink their processing efficiencies to manufacture good quality products with low-unit-cost. Here, analyzing the operational conditions has become a key strategy to achieve both energy and thermal efficiencies simultaneously. This study aims to explore the effects of polymers' rheology on the energy consumption and melt thermal quality (ie, a thermally homogeneous melt flow in both radial and axil directions) of extruders. Six commodity grades of polymers (LDPE, LLDPE, PP, PET, PS, and PMMA) were processed at different conditions in two types of continuous screw extruders. Total power, motor power, and melt temperature profiles were analyzed in an industrial scale single-screw extruder. Moreover, the active power (AP), mass throughput, torque, and power factor were measured in a laboratory scale twin-screw extruder. The results confirmed that the specific energy consumption for both single and twin screw extruders tends to decrease with the processing speed. However, this action deteriorates the thermal stability of the melt regardless the nature of the polymer. Rheological characterization results showed that the viscosity of LDPE and PS exhibited a normal shear thinning behavior. However, PMMA presented a shear thickening behavior at moderate-to-high shear rates, indicating the possible formation of entanglements. Overall, the findings of this work confirm that the materials' rheology has an appreciable correlation with the energy consumption in polymer extrusion and also most of the findings are in agreement with the previously reported investigations. Therefore, further research should be useful for identifying possible correlations between key process parameters and hence to further understand the processing behavior for wide range of machines, polymers, and operating conditions.
  • Injection moulded controlled release amorphous solid dispersions: Synchronized drug and polymer release for robust performance

    Deshmukh, Shivprasad S.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Abrahmsén-Alami, S.; Govender, R.; Viridén, A.; Winge, F.; Matic, H.; Booth, J.; Kelly, Adrian L. (2020-02)
    A study has been carried out to investigate controlled release performance of caplet shaped injection moulded (IM) amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) tablets based on the model drug AZD0837 and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The physical/chemical storage stability and release robustness of the IM tablets were characterized and compared to that of conventional extended release (ER) hydrophilic matrix tablets of the same raw materials and compositions manufactured via direct compression (DC). To gain an improved understanding of the release mechanisms, the dissolution of both the polymer and the drug were studied. Under conditions where the amount of dissolution media was limited, the controlled release ASD IM tablets demonstrated complete and synchronized release of both PEO and AZD0837 whereas the release of AZD0837 was found to be slower and incomplete from conventional direct compressed ER hydrophilic matrix tablets. Results clearly indicated that AZD0837 remained amorphous throughout the dissolution process and was maintained in a supersaturated state and hence kept stable with the aid of the polymeric carrier when released in a synchronized manner. In addition, it was found that the IM tablets were robust to variation in hydrodynamics of the environment and PEO molecular weight.
  • Silicon-based 0.450-0.475 THz series-fed double dielectric resonator on-chip antenna array based on metamaterial properties for integrated-circuits

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-09)
    The antenna array designed to operate over 0.450-0.475 Terahertz comprises two dielectric resonators (DRs) that are stacked vertically on top of each other and placed on the surface of the slot antenna fabricated on a silicon substrate using standard CMOS technology. The slot created in the silicon substrate is meandering and is surrounded by metallic via-wall to prevent energy dissipation. The antenna has a maximum gain of 4.5dBi and radiation efficiency of 45.7% at 0.4625 THz. The combination of slot and vias transform the antenna to a metamaterial structure that provides a relatively small antenna footprint. The proposed series-fed double DRs on-chip antenna array is useful for applications in THz integrated circuits.
  • Study on isolation improvement between closely-packed patch antenna arrays based on fractal metamaterial electromagnetic bandgap structures

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Ali, Ammar H.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2018-11)
    A decoupling metamaterial (MTM) configuration based on fractal electromagnetic-bandgap (EMBG) structure is shown to significantly enhance isolation between transmitting and receiving antenna elements in a closely-packed patch antenna array. The MTM-EMBG structure is cross-shaped assembly with fractal-shaped slots etched in each arm of the cross. The fractals are composed of four interconnected-`Y-shaped' slots that are separated with an inverted-`T-shaped' slot. The MTM-EMBG structure is placed between the individual patch antennas in a 2 × 2 antenna array. Measured results show the average inter-element isolation improvement in the frequency band of interest is 17, 37 and 17 dB between radiation elements #1 & #2, #1 & #3, and #1 & #4, respectively. With the proposed method there is no need for using metallic-via-holes. The proposed array covers the frequency range of 8-9.25 GHz for X-band applications, which corresponds to a fractional-bandwidth of 14.5%. With the proposed method the edge-to-edge gap between adjacent antenna elements can be reduced to 0.5λ 0 with no degradation in the antenna array's radiation gain pattern. Across the array's operating band, the measured gain varies between 4 and 7 dBi, and the radiation efficiency varies from 74.22 and 88.71%. The proposed method is applicable in the implementation of closely-packed patch antenna arrays used in SAR and MIMO systems.
  • High-Performance 50μm Silicon-Based On-Chip Antenna with High Port-To-Port Isolation Implemented by Metamaterial and SIW Concepts for THz Integrated Systems

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-09-16)
    A novel 50μm Silicon-based on-chip antenna is presented that combines metamaterial (MTM) and substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technologies for integration in THz circuits operating from 0.28 to 0.30 THz. The antenna structure comprises a square patch antenna implemented on a Silicon substrate with a ground-plane. Embedded diagonally in the patch are two T-shaped slots and the edges of the patch is short-circuited to the ground-plane with metal vias, which convert the structure into a substrate integrated waveguide. This structure reduces loss resulting from surface waves and Silicon dielectric substrate. The modes in the structure can be excited through two coaxial ports connected to the patch from the underside of the Silicon substrate. The proposed antenna structure is essentially transformed to exhibit metamaterial properties by realizing two T-shaped slots, which enlarges the effective aperture area of the miniature antenna and significantly enhances its impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics between 0.28 THz to 0.3 THz. It has an average gain and efficiency of 4.5dBi and 65%, respectively. In addition, it is a self-isolated structure with high isolation of better than 30dB between the two ports. The on-chip antenna has dimensions of 800×800×60 μm3.
  • A comprehensive survey of "metamaterial transmission-line based antennas: design, challenges, and applications"

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Azpilicueta, L.; Naser-Moghadasi, M.; Akinsolu, M.O.; See, C.H.; Liu, B.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Huyen, I.; et al. (2020-08)
    In this review paper, a comprehensive study on the concept, theory, and applications of composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) by considering their use in antenna system designs have been provided. It is shown that CRLH-TLs with negative permittivity (ε <; 0) and negative permeability (μ <; 0) have unique properties that do not occur naturally. Therefore, they are referred to as artificial structures called “metamaterials”. These artificial structures include series left-handed (LH) capacitances (C L ), shunt LH inductances (L L ), series right-handed (RH) inductances (LR), and shunt RH capacitances (CR) that are realized by slots or interdigital capacitors, stubs or via-holes, unwanted current flowing on the surface, and gap distance between the surface and ground-plane, respectively. In the most cases, it is also shown that structures based on CRLH metamaterial-TLs are superior than their conventional alternatives, since they have smaller dimensions, lower-profile, wider bandwidth, better radiation patterns, higher gain and efficiency, which make them easier and more cost-effective to manufacture and mass produce. Hence, a broad range of metamaterial-based design possibilities are introduced to highlight the improvement of the performance parameters that are rare and not often discussed in available literature. Therefore, this survey provides a wide overview of key early-stage concepts of metematerial-based designs as a thorough reference for specialist antennas and microwave circuits designers. To analyze the critical features of metamaterial theory and concept, several examples are used. Comparisons on the basis of physical size, bandwidth, materials, gain, efficiency, and radiation patterns are made for all the examples that are based on CRLH metamaterialTLs. As revealed in all the metematerial design examples, foot-print area decrement is an important issue of study that have a strong impact for the enlargement of the next generation wireless communication systems.
  • Mutual-coupling isolation using embedded metamaterial EM bandgap decoupling slab for densely packed array antennas

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Khalily, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Limiti, E. (2019-04)
    This article presents a unique technique to enhance isolation between transmit/receive radiating elements in densely packed array antenna by embedding a metamaterial (MTM) electromagnetic bandgap (EMBG) structure in the space between the radiating elements to suppress surface currents that would otherwise contribute towards mutual coupling between the array elements. The proposed MTM-EMBG structure is a cross-shaped microstrip transmission line on which are imprinted two outward facing E-shaped slits. Unlike other MTM structures there is no short-circuit grounding using via-holes. With this approach, the maximum measured mutual coupling achieved is -60 dB @ 9.18 GHz between the transmit patches (#1 & #2) and receive patches (#3 & #4) in a four-element array antenna. Across the antenna’s measured operating frequency range of 9.12 to 9.96 GHz, the minimum measured isolation between each element of the array is 34.2 dB @ 9.48 GHz, and there is no degradation in radiation patterns. The average measured isolation over this frequency range is 47 dB. The results presented confirm the proposed technique is suitable in applications such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems.
  • Effective mechanical specific energy: A new approach for evaluating PDC bit performance and cutters wear

    Mazen, Ahmed Z.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Hassanpour, A. (Elsevier, 2021-01)
    Predicting the PDC bit performance during drilling operation is important for the cost effectiveness of the operation. The majority of PDC bits are assessed based on their performance that are relative to offset wells. Determination of mechanical specific energy (MSE) in real time and compare it with the known MSE for a sharp bit to assess the bit life has been utilized by several operators in the past. However, MSE still cannot be used to predict the bit performance in exploration wells and also it cannot assess the bit efficiency in the inner and outer cones. A more precise approach needs to be devised and applied to improve the prediction of bit life and the decision when to pull the bit out of the hole. Effective mechanical specific energy (EMSE) developed in this work is a new wear and performance predictive model that is to measure the cutting efficiency based on number of cutters, which contact the rock as a function of weight on bit (WOB), rotary speed (RPM), torque, and depth of cut (DOC). This model modifies the previous MSE model by incorporating such parameters and including detailed design of the bit, number of blades, cutter density, cutter size, and cutting angle. Using this approach together with the analysis of rock hardness, a level of understanding of how the drilling variables influence the bit performance in the inner and outer cone is improved, and a convenient comparison of the bit condition in the frame of the standard bit record is achieved. This work presents a new simple model to predict the PDC cutters wear using actual data from three sections drilled in three oil wells in Libya. It is found that the obtained results are in well agreement with the actual dull grading shown in the bit record.
  • A crack closure system for cementitious composite materials using knotted shape memory polymer (k-SMP) fibres

    Maddalena, R.; Bonanno, L.; Balzano, B.; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina-Luminita; Sweeney, John; Mihai, I. (2020-11)
    Formation of cracks represents one of the major causes of concrete deterioration, which can lead to durability and safety issues. In this work, a novel crack closure system is developed, using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer fibres embedded in a mortar mix. The PET polymer has shape memory properties and shrinks upon thermal activation, if free to do so, or otherwise exerts shrinkage restraint forces. A single knot was manufactured at each end of the PET fibres to provide mechanical anchorage into the mortar matrix. Mortar samples with embedded knotted fibres were pre-cracked and subsequently placed in an oven to thermally activate the polymers and induce the shrinkage mechanism into the fibres. Crack closure was measured in the range 45–100%, depending on the geometry, dimension and distribution of the fibres, and the size of the initial crack.
  • Surface wave reduction in antenna arrays using metasurface inclusion for MIMO and SAR systems

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-11)
    An effective method is presented for suppressing mutual coupling between adjacent radiating elements which is based on metasurface isolation for MIMO and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. This is achieved by choking surface current waves induced over the patch antenna by inserting a cross-shaped metasurface structure between the radiating elements. Each arm of the cross-shaped structure constituting the metasurface is etched with meander-line slot (MLS). Effectiveness of the metasurface is demonstrated for a2×2antenna array that operates over six frequency sub-bands in X, Ku and K-bands. With the proposed technique, the maximum improvement achieved in attenuating mutual coupling between neighbouring antennas is: 8.5 dB (8-8.4 GHz), 28 dB (9.6-10.8 GHz), 27 dB (11.7-12.6 GHz), 7.5 dB (13.4-14.2 GHz), 13 dB (16.5-16.8 GHz) and 22.5 dB (18.5-20.3 GHz). Furthermore, with the proposed technique (i) minimum center-to-center separation between the radiating elements can be reduced to 0.26λ0, where λ0 is 8.0 GHz; (ii) use of ground-plane or defected ground structures are unnecessary; (iii) use of short-circuited via-holes are avoided; (iv) it eliminates the issue with poor front-to-back ratio; and (v) it can be applied to existing arrays retrospectively.
  • Study on antenna mutual coupling suppression using integrated metasurface isolator for SAR and MIMO applications

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Andujar, A.; Anguera, J.; Limiti, E. (2018-09-27)
    A metasurface based decoupling structure that is composed of a square-wave slot pattern with exaggerated corners that is implemented on a rectangular microstrip provides high-isolation between adjacent patch antennas for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. The proposed 1×2 symmetric array antenna integrated with the proposed decoupling isolation structure is designed to operate at ISM bands of X, Ku, K, and Ka. With the proposed mutual coupling suppression technique (i) the average isolation in the respective ISM bands listed above is 7 dB, 10 dB, 5 dB, and 10 dB; and (ii) edge-to-edge gap between adjacent radiation elements is reduced to 10 mm (0.28λ). The average antenna gain improvement with the metasurface isolator is 2 dBi.
  • High performance on-chip array antenna based on metasurface feeding structure for terahertz integrated circuits

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Limiti, E. (2019-09-01)
    In this letter a novel on-chip array antenna is investigated which is based on CMOS 20μm Silicon technology for operation over 0.6-0.65 THz. The proposed array structure is constructed on three layers composed of Silicon-Ground-Silicon layers. Two antennas are implemented on the top layer, where each antenna is constituted from three sub-antennas. The sub-antennas are constructed from interconnected dual-rings. Also, the sub-antennas are interconnected to each other. This approach enhances the aperture of the array. Surface waves and substrate losses in the structure are suppressed with metallic via-holes implemented between the radiation elements. To excite the structure, a novel feeding mechanism is used comprising open-circuited microstrip lines that couple electromagnetic energy from the bottom layer to the antennas on the top-layer through metasurface slot-lines in the middle ground-plane layer. The results show the proposed on-chip antenna array has an average radiation gain, efficiency, and isolation of 7.62 dBi, 32.67%, and -30 dB, respectively.
  • Behaviours of circular CFDST with stainless steel external tube: Slender columns and beams

    Zhao, H.; Wang, R.; Lam, Dennis; Hou, C-C; Zhang, R. (Elsevier, 2021-01)
    In this work, experimental and numerical investigations were performed on the behaviours of circular concrete filled double steel tubular (CFDST) slender columns and beams, in which the external tube employed stainless steel tube. Eighteen specimens, 12 slender columns and 6 beams, were tested to obtain the failure patterns, load versus deflection relationships and strain developments of stainless steel tube. A finite element (FE) model was developed and verified by experimental results. The validated FE model was then employed to investigate the effects of key parameters, including hollow ratio, eccentric ratio and material strength, on the load-carrying capacity. The load distribution among the components and contact stress between steel tube and sandwiched concrete were also analyzed. Finally, the design methods for CFDST, hollow CFST and solid CFST members with carbon steel external tube respectively suggested by Han et al. (2018), Chinese GB 50936-2014 (2014) and AISC 360-16 (2016) were employed to evaluate their applicability for the circular CFDST slender columns and beams with stainless steel outer tube.
  • Overcome the Limitations of Performance Parameters of On-Chip Antennas Based on Metasurface and Coupled Feeding Approaches for Applications in System-on-Chip for THz Integrated-Circuits

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-12-10)
    This paper proposes a new solution to improve the performance parameters of on-chip antenna designs on standard CMOS silicon (Si.) technology. The proposed method is based on applying the metasurface technique and exciting the radiating elements through coupled feed mechanism. The on-chip antenna is constructed from three layers comprising Si.-GND-Si. layers, so that the ground (GND) plane is sandwiched between two Si. layers. The silicon and ground-plane layers have thicknesses of 20μm and 5μm, respectively. The 3×3 array consisting of the asterisk-shaped radiating elements has implemented on the top silicon layer by applying the metasurface approach. Three slot lines in the ground-plane are modelled and located directly under the radiating elements. The radiating elements are excited through the slot-lines using an open-circuited microstrip-line constructed on the bottom silicon layer. The proposed method to excite the structure is based on the coupled feeding mechanism. In addition, by the proposed feeding method the on-chip antenna configuration suppresses the substrate losses and surface-waves. The antenna exhibits a large impedance bandwidth of 60GHz from 0.5THz to 0.56THz with an average radiation gain and efficiency of 4.58dBi and 25.37%, respectively. The proposed structure has compact dimensions of 200×200×45μm3. The results shows that, the proposed technique is therefore suitable for on-chip antennas for applications in system-on-chip for terahertz (THz) integrated circuits.
  • A secure IoT-based modern healthcare system with fault-tolerant decision making process

    Gope, P.; Gheraibia, Y.; Kabir, Sohag; Sikdar, B. (2020)
    The advent of Internet of Things (IoT) has escalated the information sharing among various smart devices by many folds, irrespective of their geographical locations. Recently, applications like e-healthcare monitoring has attracted wide attention from the research community, where both the security and the effectiveness of the system are greatly imperative. However, to the best of our knowledge none of the existing literature can accomplish both these objectives (e.g., existing systems are not secure against physical attacks). This paper addresses the shortcomings in existing IoT-based healthcare system. We propose an enhanced system by introducing a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF)-based authentication scheme and a data driven fault-tolerant decision-making scheme for designing an IoT-based modern healthcare system. Analyses show that our proposed scheme is more secure and efficient than existing systems. Hence, it will be useful in designing an advanced IoT-based healthcare system.

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