Hydration processes in pastes of Roman and American Natural Cements.
Hydration of cements
Calcium aluminate hydrates
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractHydration of five Roman and American natural cements was analyzed using X-ray diffraction, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy of cement pastes. Two cements were prepared in the laboratory by burning marls from geological sources in Poland (Folwark) and Austria (Lilienfeld). The selection of raw materials and burning conditions were optimized so that the hydraulic nature and appearance of the final burnt materials matched as closely as possible historic Roman cements widely used in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries in Europe to decorate buildings. Three other cements are produced commercially: quick setting Prompt cement from Vicat, France, and Rosendale cements from Edison Coatings Inc., USA. The hydration of the cements studied was shown to comprise two distinct stages. The immediate setting and early strength is due to the formation of calcium aluminum oxide carbonate (or sulfate) hydroxide hydrates. The development of long-term strength is brought about by the formation of calcium silicate hydrates. Similarities and differences between the individual cements are discussed.
VersionNo full-text available in the repository
CitationVyskocilova, R., Schwarz, W., Muncha, D and Hughes, D.C. et al. (2007). Hydration processes in pastes of Roman and American Natural Cements. Journal of ASTM International.(JAI). Vol. 4, No. 2, 10 pp.
Link to publisher’s versionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1520/JAI100669
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Investigating mechanical properties of ordinary portland cement. Investigating improvements to the mechanical properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) bodies by utilizing the phase transformation properties of a ceramic (Zirconia).McColm, Ian; Tait, Simon J.; Almadi, Alaa (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2015-07-01)The effects of metastable tetragonal zirconia on the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement were observed during which the effect of crystallite size pH on the preparation solution, precursor salt, and the presence of co-precipitates, Fe(OH)3, SnO2 and SiO2 on the crystallization temperature, enthalpy and crystal structure, immediately following the crystallization exothermic burst phenomenon in ZrO2 were measured. Thermal analysis and x-ray methods were used to determine crystallite sizes and structures immediately following the exothermic burst. Comparisons were made for zirconias prepared from oxychloride, chloride and nitrate solutions. The existence of tetrameric hydroxidecontaining ions in oxychloride precursor is used to rationalise low values of crystallization enthalpy. The position of the crystallization temperature, Tmax was not dependent on crystallite size alone but also on the pH at which the gel was made, the surface pH after washing, and the presence of diluent oxides. Enthalpy v r1/2 and Tmax v (diluent vol)1/3 relationships indicate that surface coverage effects dominate a surface nucleated phenomenon. The data established for ZrO2 systems was used to develop tetragonal-ZrO2-SnO2 powders capable of improving the mechanical properties of Ordinary Portland Cement discs. The ZrO2-OPC discs were prepared by powder mixing, water hydration and uniaxial pressing. Vicat needle tests showed that tetragonal-ZrO2 increases the initial setting rate. Microscopy indicated that porosity distribution changes near to ZrO2 particles. Zirconia has also been introduced into OPC discs by vacuum infiltration methods developed for solutions and colloidal suspensions. Comparisons between OPC discs and the OPCtetragonal ZrO2 composites have been made on the basis of diametral compression strength, Young’s modulus, hardness and toughness (K1c), as estimated by the cracked indentation method. Bell-shaped curves are found for the way the mechanical properties are changed as a function of Zirconia content.
Calcination of Marls to Produce Roman CementHughes, David C.; Jaglin, D.; Kozlowski, R.; Mayr, N.; Mucha, D.; Weber, J. (ASTM, 2006)Marls were identified from a range of European sources and assessed for their Cementation Index, as proposed by Eckel. Two were selected for calcination in a laboratory kiln; one from Folwark in Poland (CI 1.75) and one from Lillienfeld in Austria (CI 2.03). Analysis of historical documents, while not revealing precise kiln conditions, does suggest that they were such as not to yield complete decarbonation of the calcite. Consequently, a series of calcinations was undertaken in which the peak temperature control of the kiln was set in the range 730°C to 1100°C, with residence times in the range 150 to 1250 min. The airflow through the kiln was sufficient to maintain a minimum oxygen content of at least 12 %. The resulting clinker was ground to comply with the 19th century Austrian Norme. Pastes were produced at w/c = 0.65 and assessed for setting time and strength development (6 h to 1 year). Both parameters were highly dependent upon calcination conditions with both ¿low¿ and ¿high¿ calcinations producing slower setting and slower strength development than intermediate conditions. Two strength development profiles were identified; one being the expected continuous increase of strength, albeit with a declining rate of increase with time, while the other showed a three-step sequence of high initial strength, a dormant period which could last for many weeks and a final increase in strength to an age of one year. The cements were compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Considerable variation in the composition was noted and related to the calcination conditions. Of particular interest is the formation of both ¿'-belite and ß-belite under differing calcination conditions. Clinker particles were also compared using the SEM in back-scattered electron imaging mode and the development of morphology observed.
The sound speed and attenuation in loose and consolidated granular formulations of high alumina cementsHoroshenkov, Kirill V.; Hughes, David C.; Cwizen, A. (2003)Clinkers of high alumina cements are separated into three granular formulations with particle sizes in the range 0.6-0.71 mm, 0.71-1.18 mm and greater than 1.18 mm. These are used to manufacture consolidated samples of porous concrete in an autoclave. The acoustic and microscopic properties of loose and consolidated porous samples of concrete are investigated using both experimental methods and mathematical modelling. Values of porosity, flow resistivity, tortuosity and parameters of the pore size distribution are determined and used to predict closely the sound speed, acoustic attenuation and normal incidence absorption coefficient of these materials. It is shown that high alumina cements do not require additional binders for consolidation and that the structural bonds in these cements are developed quickly between individual clinkers in the presence of water. The hydration product build-up during the consolidation process is insignificant which ensures good acoustic performance of the consolidated samples resulting from a sufficient proportion of the open pores. The value of porosity in the consolidated samples was found to be around 40%, which is close to that measured in some commercial acoustic absorbers. This work provides a foundation for the development of acoustically efficient and structurally robust materials, which can be integrated in environmentally sustainable concrete and masonry structures.