Now showing items 61-80 of 1350

    • When The Spying Stop: Recent Criminalisation Of Cyberstalking In Malaysia

      Hamin, Z.; Kamaruddin, S.; Abd Rani, A.R.; Wan Rosli, Wan R. (2022-11)
      The ubiquity of the ICT and the Internet has made them integral to our daily lives in the past two decades, bringing numerous benefits and the risks of victimisation from various cybercrimes, including cyber harassment and cyberstalking. Stalking is generally understood as unwanted or unsolicited persistent and continuous following, pursuing, contacting, spying, harassing, threatening the victim, and causing fear and apprehension. Unfortunately, given the seriousness of cyberstalking and its severe and traumatic impacts on the victims, the existence of the law and any legal protection for victims remains elusive and vague in the Malaysian legal landscape for decades until August this year.
    • Recent Development in Sexual Harassment Law in Malaysia: Whither the Victim's Protection?

      Hamin, Z.; Hussain, F.; Abdul Rani, A.R.; Kamaruddin, S.; Wan Rosli, Wan R. (2022)
      Before 2012, there was no law on sexual harassment in Malaysia. However, when the Employment Act 1955 was amended in 2012, employers must inquire into sexual harassment complaints, failing which a criminal penalty will be imposed. Unfortunately, the new law did not allow a complainant to claim damages from the harasser or the employer. After more than two decades of campaigns by women's rights groups and NGOs, the Anti-Sexual Harassment Bill 2021 (hereinafter 'the ASHB 2021') was finally enacted and passed in July this year. Given the novelty and absence of any academic research, this paper seeks to examine the provisions of the Bill critically to understand its scope, coverage and broader implications for sexual harassment victims. The paper employs a qualitative research methodology, adopting a doctrinal approach and content analysis of the primary source, the ASHB 2021, that would provide a deeper understanding of the legislation. The authors contend that despite being regarded as a victim-centric law, the Bill is half-baked and inadequate to protect sexual harassment victims due to its failure to include significant provisions on the sexual harassment definition, the protection against victimisation and employers' obligations to prevent and address such conduct.
    • Compliance to GDPR Data Protection and Privacy in Artificial Intelligence Technology: Legal and Ethical Ramifications in Malaysia

      Kamaruddin, S.; Mohammad, A.M.; Mohd Saufi, N.N.; Wan Rosli, Wan R.; Othman, M.B.; Hamin, Z. (IEEE, 2023-05)
      AI is becoming increasingly important in cybersecurity. AI-based products detect risks and secure systems and data. Cybercriminals can use technology to launch more sophisticated attacks. AI-based security is in demand due to cyberattacks. With the adoption of AI technology, GDPR requires most countries to have legal measures to protect their citizens' data and privacy. Data protection and privacy issues arise when using AI technology. AI use must comply with GDPR, including obtaining consent for data processing, ensuring data accuracy, and giving individuals the right to access, correct, or delete their data. Organisations must also be transparent about how their AI makes decisions and not discriminate against individuals or groups. This study examines Malaysia's GDPR compliance on AI usage, data protection, and privacy in light of current concerns. This study analyses primary and secondary sources using doctrinal research. In 2022, Malaysia's banking, healthcare, and telecommunications sectors were hit by data breaches, indicating that AI is increasing data breaches. Thus, the government must examine citizen data protection and privacy concerns and re-examine its governance, including legal and regulatory mechanisms, to see if it conforms to international norms and consider reforms.
    • Cloud-based augmented reality as a disruptive technology for Higher Education

      Mohamad, A.M.; Kamaruddin, S.; Hamin, Z.; Wan Rosli, Wan R.; Omar, M.F.; Mohd Saufi, N.N. (IEEE, 2023-06)
      Augmented reality (AR) within the context of higher education is an approach to engage students with experiential learning by utilising AR technology. This paper discusses the process undertaken by a teacher in higher education in designing and implementing cloud-based AR lesson for the students. The methodology engaged was case study at one institution of higher learning in Malaysia. The AR teaching process involves six stages, beginning with the selection of the course, followed by selection of the topic, designing of the AR teaching plan and the implementation of the AR lesson. Upon completion of the implementation of the AR lesson, the teacher and students would provide reflection of their experiences. The process concludes by the improvement of the AR teaching plan by the teacher. The study found that cloud based has indeed disrupted higher education in terms of providing richer learning experiences to the students, as well as enhanced teaching practices for the teachers. Hopefully, this paper would provide insights into the practices of AR teaching and learning approach for teachers in general, and within the context of higher education in particular. It is also intended that the six-steps process outlined in this paper becomes a reference and be duplicated by teachers at large who might be interested to design and implement AR lessons for their own courses.
    • Disruptive AI technology and hate speech: A legal redress in Malaysia

      Mohd Saufi, N.N.; Kamaruddin, S.; Mohammad, A.M.; Jabar, N.A.A.; Wan Rosli, Wan R.; Talib, Z.M. (IEEE, 2023-06)
      Artificial intelligence (AI) technology is becoming increasingly prevalent in society, offering a range of benefits and opportunities. However, with the rise of AI comes new challenges, particularly in hate speech. Hate speech, a type of expression that incites hatred or violence against individuals or groups based on ethnicity, religion, or other characteristics, has become a growing concern in Malaysia, with social media and online platforms becoming a breeding ground for such speech. In this context, AI technology has emerged as a potential solution for monitoring and regulating hate speech, but it also presents legal and ethical challenges that must be addressed. In view of double edge sword roles played by the development of AI, this article analyses the legal recourse available in Malaysia for disruptive AI technology and hate speech. The authors claim that AI systems are prone to errors and biases and that there is a risk of relying too much on such plans at the expense of human judgement. There are also concerns regarding the impact of AI on free expression and privacy rights. In addition, the author suggests that artificial intelligence be appropriately regulated to ensure that it is consistent with international human rights standards and national laws.
    • From Civic Space to the Internet: Legislating rights to peaceful assembly during pandemic

      Mohd Saufi, N.N.; Kamaruddin, S.; Wan Rosli, Wan R.; Mohamad, A.M.; Ahmad, N. (AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK., 2022-12)
      With the social distancing measures implemented during Pandemic Covid 19, many peaceful assemblies have attempted to restructure, equip, and empower themselves creatively for online gathering. This incident emphasises the importance of digital tools, such as the Internet and ICTs, in exercising online rights to peaceful assembly and association. Given the above, this article attempts to deliberate on transforming rights to the peaceful assembly from offline to online and the legal challenges attached. The authors argue that the right to peaceful assembly and association is vital to ensuring enhanced transparency and accountability in implementing human rights policies within countries.
    • The legal protection of e-consumers against e-commerce fraud in Malaysia

      Razali, N.A.H.; Wan Rosli, Wan R.; Othman, M.B. (2022-09)
      In the past decade, E-commerce has developed and plays a vital role in our daily lives. However, fraud in E-commerce has increasingly become more prevalent and causes huge monetary loss, especially to E-consumers which usually results in them being unable to get what they have paid for. Fraudsters use various modus operandi to trick E-consumers such as displaying cheap goods via online platforms to induce them to pay for the goods. Despite considerable concerns about E-commerce fraud in Malaysia, the legislative sanction is still inadequate due to the deficiency of the existing legal framework. This paper examines the nature of E-commerce fraud, understand the modus operandi, and look into the legal protection afforded to E-consumers in Malaysia. It employs doctrinal content analysis and secondary data from the Malaysian Penal Code and the Communication and Multimedia Act 1998, academic journals, books, news articles and online databases. The authors contend that the lack of legal protection for E-consumers is due to the insufficiency of the law and the lack of awareness of the gravity of the such crime. Effective governance of fraud in E-commerce is imperative to facilitate prosecution and investigation and holistic protection for the victims of cyber fraud.
    • Socio-legal enquiry into the motivating factors of cyberbullying in Malaysia

      Mohamad, A.M.; Md Isa, Y.; Aziz, A.S.A.; Mohd Noor, N.A.; Ibrahim, H.; Ghazali, O.; Kamaruddin, S.; Wan Rosli, Wan R. (2022)
      Cyberbullying is the act of bullying or causing harassment or intimidation on another person by using technological means, such as devices, social media or networks. Despite the numerous efforts being carried out by both government and non-government organizations, cyberbullying continues to be on the rise and has become a national concern. This study highlights the motivating factors of cyberbullying in Malaysia. First, the study aims to investigate the factors motivating persons becoming cyberbullying perpetrators. Second, the study aims to examine the factors enhancing the susceptibility of persons becoming victims of cyberbullying. Engaging in both qualitative and quantitative approaches, this study adopts socio-legal approach in understanding and enquiring 19 interview experts and 120 survey respondents. The study found various factors that motivates perpetrators of cyberbullying, which could be divided into internal and external factors. Similarly, the factors that enhance the susceptibility of victims of cyberbullying could also be internal and external. The implication of the study is deeper understanding of the various factors motivating cyberbullying in Malaysia. Inherently, risk management strategies could be proposed could be developed to minimize the factors hence reducing the likelihood of cyberbullying occurrences in Malaysia. Hopefully, the findings of the study would contribute to the body of knowledge on the area of cybercrimes in general, and cyberbullying in particular. It is also hoped that this study would assist the general public to better manage the risk of cyberbullying, within the wider agenda of safe nation in Malaysia.
    • Mystalk Alert: A Response to Cyberstalking in Malaysia

      Wan Rosli, Wan R.; Kamaruddin, S.; Abd Rani, A.R.; Mohd Saufi, N.N.; Husain, N.M. (2022)
      The Internet has become a vital part of our daily lives in the last two decades. However, as a double-edged sword, such reliance has increased the chance of being targeted by various cybercrimes, including cyberstalking. Furthermore, when the crime transcends into the real world, it can result in rape and even murder. Hence, the MYStalk Alert application aims at helping and facilitating the victims of stalking and victims of harassment generally to understand, cope, and document their experience on the crime for a compelling trail of evidence in the criminal justice process. This Application aims to remedy the circumstances by giving access to users to the features that make it easy to document the evidence and provides them with available information on the crime and the legal landscape of stalking in Malaysia. Furthermore, MYStalk Alert also focused on the user’s physical and psychological by providing self-assessment and tips for the wellbeing including mental health test under the feature of victims’ support. The Application is a first of its kind in Malaysia and aims to support victims of stalking in getting the justice they deserved. The preliminary findings revealed contradictory views on the effective response of the criminal justice system towards cyberstalking, which explains the under-reporting of such crime. Significantly, the findings illustrate that the current Malaysian legal framework on cyberstalking is deficient in protecting cyberstalking victims, which calls for an urgent need for a review in the Malaysian laws.
    • Bank crisis management and resolution after SVB and Credit Suisse: Perspectives from India and the European Union

      Shikha, Neeti; Kapsis, I. (2023)
      The March 2023 bank failures of SVB, Signature and Credit Suisse, which caused turmoil in financial markets and led to regulatory and central bank intervention, revived the debate about the effectiveness of the bank crisis management, resolution and deposit insurance legal framework established after the Great Financial Crisis (GFC). Although the March 2023 events did not escalate into a full-blown financial crisis, they drew attention to certain areas of the current framework where improvements may be needed. These areas include the need of financial regulation and supervision to focus more on small and medium size banks as potential sources of systemic market events; to review the adequacy of the current deposit insurance regime and the treatment of uninsured deposits; and to provide more clarity about the order of creditor claims in case of bank resolution/insolvency. The article reviews the events of March 2023, the key lessons from these events and discusses how these lessons could shape the frameworks for Bank crisis management and resolution in India and the European Union. The two jurisdictions are in the process of updating their laws in this area and the March 2023 events could influence the relevant decisions.
    • Challenges for regionalism in South Asia: The role of institutions and human development

      Arora, Rashmi (World Scientific Publishing, 2023)
      A large body of literature exists in the area of trade integration in various regions of the world (for instance Mongelli, Dorrucci & Agur 2005 for EU; Chen and Nory 2011 for EU; Bouet, Cosnard & Laborde, 2017 for Africa, Athukorala & Yamashita 2006 for East Asia; Bussiere, Fidrmuc and Schnatz 2005 for Central and Eastern European countries). However, not much literature is available on South Asia trade and economic integration. Intra-regional trade just formed only 5% (in absolute terms 23$ billion) of South Asia’s total trade in comparison with the ASEAN region (25%) (World Bank). This is indeed perplexing as the countries within the region even though heterogeneous in terms of size and governed by different political ideologies, yet share similar cultural and historical closeness, high level of poverty and low level of human development (Arora and Ratnasari 2014). Among the factors influencing low formal intra-regional trade are high trade barriers, high level of mistrust among the countries leading to several conflicts especially between India and Pakistan. This chapter examines some of these issues and especially examines the association between low human development, institutional development and regional integration.
    • Is firm-level political risk priced in the equity option market?

      Ho, Thang; Kagkadis, A.; Wang, G. (Oxford University Press, 2024-03)
      We find a negative relation between firm-level political risk and future delta-hedged equity option returns. A quasi-natural experiment based on Brexit corroborates this finding since after the referendum there is a decrease in the option returns of the positive-Brexit exposure firms. The predictability is driven by the jump risk component of political uncertainty, is more pronounced in periods of high intermediary constraints and is stronger among high-demand pressure options but weaker among politically active firms. Finally, consistent with a risk-based explanation, investors of options on politically risky firms get compensated with high returns when major unexpected political shocks take place.
    • How and when does big data analytics capability contribute to market performance

      Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Boso, N.; Hultman, Magnus; Leonidou, C.N. (2022-02)
      This study looks at the relationship between big data analytics capability and market performance and how this relationship can be facilitated by adopting disruptive business models in competitive environments.
    • Disruptive Business Models and Market Performance: The Roles of Technological Turbulence and Adaptive Marketing Capability

      Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Hultman, M.; Boso, N.; Leonidou, C.N. (2023-02)
      This study examines the antecedents and market performance outcomes of disruptive business models on one hand and the boundary conditions of the disruptive business model–market performance relationship on the other hand.
    • Challenges in using a Mixed-Method approach to explore the relationship between big data analytics capabilities and market performance

      Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Boso, N.; Hultman, M.; Leonidou, C.N. (SAGE, 2023)
      This case study is based on a research study that examined the relationship between big data analytics capability and market performance. The study investigated the intervening role of disruptive business models and the contingency role of competitive intensity on the relationship between big data analytics capability and market performance using both qualitative and quantitative methods. This case-study will focus on the qualitative and quantitative methods utilised including NVivo and IBM SPSS to conduct qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. You will learn the factors to consider when conducting a mixed-methods study and develop the ability to apply similar analytical techniques to your research context.
    • Strategy Creation Behaviour and ‘Last Gasp’ Digitalisation as Predictors of Sales Performance and Cash Flow

      Onjewu, A.E.; Nyuur, Richard B.; Paul, S.; Wang, Y. (2023)
      Purpose - Although recent literature has examined diverse measures adopted by SMEs to navigate the COVID-19 turbulence, there is a shortage of evidence on how crisis-time strategy creation behaviour and digitalization activities increase (1) sales and (2) cash flow. Thus, predicated on novel strategy creation perspective, this inquiry investigates the crisis behaviour, sales and cash flow performance of 528 SMEs in Morocco. Design/Methodology/Approach - Novel links between (1) aggregate wage cuts, (2) variable operating hours, (3) deferred payment to suppliers, (4) deferred payment to tax authorities and (5) sales performance are developed and tested. A further link between sales performance and cash flow is also examined and the analysis is performed using a non-linear structural equation modelling technique. Findings - While there is a significant association between the strategy creation behaviours and sales performance, only variable operating hours have a positive effect. Also, sales performance increases cash flow and this relationship is substantially strengthened by e-commerce digitalization and innovation. Originality/Value – Theoretically, this is one of the first inquiries to espouse the strategy creation view to explain SMEs’ crisis-time behaviour and digitalization. For practical use, to supplement Moroccan SMEs’ propensity to seek tax deferrals, it is argued that debt and equity support measures are also needed to boost sales performance and cash flow.
    • Political uncertainty, corruption, and corporate cash holdings

      Jayakody, Shashitha; Morellid, D.; Oberoi, J. (2023)
      Exposure to political corruption and political uncertainty separately demands opposing risk management responses: to reduce cash to minimize expropriation and to increase cash to hedge policy risk. We study how local political corruption and political uncertainty interact in their impact on corporate cash holdings within the United States. We find robust evidence that firms located in states with higher corruption scores react to increases in local political uncertainty by increasing cash holdings more than those in less corrupt settings. This behavior suggests that firms in more corrupt settings find it expedient to raise cash to facilitate influence of officials in the face of local political risk. We find further support for this conclusion by showing that politically engaged firms respond to our measure of political risk by increasing cash and increasing spending on campaign contributions. Our findings point to a potential channel through which different jurisdictions experience the entrenchment and persistence of corruption.
    • Locked down in distress: a quasi-experimental estimation of the mental-health fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic

      Anaya, Lina; Howley, P.; Waqas, Muhammad; Yalonetzky, G. (2023)
      An extensive literature documents the economic impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic, while a nascent one is beginning to detail the mental health impact. A limitation of existing work is that reported findings generally cannot be taken as causal estimates. In this study, we use a large-scale longitudinal survey coupled with a differences-in-differences research design to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the United Kingdom. We report substantial increases in psychological distress for the population overall during the first wave. These impacts were, however, not uniformly distributed with the costs in terms of mental health being much more pronounced for females, younger cohorts, the BAME community, and migrants. We also looked beyond socio-demographics to identify characteristics of the individual and their living environment which can predict who was least resilient to the mental health effects associated with the first wave. We find that people with financial worries, feeling lonely or living in overcrowded dwellings experienced significantly worse mental health deterioration during the first wave, ceteris paribus.
    • Assessing the impact of big data analytics on decision-making processes, forecasting, and performance of a firm

      Chatterjee, S.; Chaudhuri, R.; Gupta, S.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Bag, S. (2023-11)
      There are various kinds of applications of BDA in the firms. Not many studies are there which deal with the impact of BDA towards issues like forecasting, decision-making, as well as performance of the firms simultaneously. So, there exists a gap in the research. In such a background, this study aims at examining the impacts of BDA on the process of decision-making, forecasting, as well as firm performance. Using resource-based view (RBV) as well as dynamic capability view (DCV) and related research studies, a research model was proposed conceptually. This conceptual model was validated taking help of PLS-SEM approach considering 366 respondents from Indian firms. This study has highlighted that smart decision making and accurate forecasting process can be achieved by using BDA. This research has demonstrated that there is a considerable influence of adoption of BDA on decision making process, forecasting process, as well as overall firm performance. However, the present study suffers from the fact that the study results depend on the cross-sectional data which could invite defects of causality and endogeneity bias. The present research work also found that there is no impact of different control variables on the firm's performance.
    • Which product description phrases affect sales forecasting? An explainable AI framework by integrating WaveNet neural network models with multiple regression

      Chen, S.; Ke, S.; Han, S.; Gupta, S.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2024-01)
      The rapid rise of many e-commerce platforms for individual consumers has generated a large amount of text-based data, and thus researchers have begun to experiment with text mining techniques to extract information from the large amount of textual data to assist in sales forecasting. The existing literature focuses textual data on product reviews; however, consumer reviews are not something that companies can directly control, here we argue that textual product descriptions are also important determinants of consumer choice. We construct an artificial intelligence (AI) framework that combines text mining, WaveNet neural networks, multiple regression, and SHAP model to explain the impact of product descriptions on sales forecasting. Using data from nearly 200,000 sales records obtained from a cross-border e-commerce firm, an empirical study showed that the product description presented to customers can influence sales forecasting, and about 44% of the key phrases greatly affect sales forecasting results, the sales forecasting models that added key product description phrases had improved forecasting accuracy. This paper provides explainable results of sales forecasting, which can provide guidance for firms to design product descriptions with reference to the market demand reflected by these phrases, and adding these phrases to product descriptions can help win more customers.