• The impact of partner diversity within multiparty international joint ventures

      Mohr, A.; Wang, Chengang; Goerzen, A. (2016-08)
      Despite the significant role that multiparty international joint ventures (MPIJVs) play within multinational enterprises, we know little about the significant challenges associated with the management of these ventures. Therefore, we combine the Resource-based View of the Firm and Transaction Cost Economics to investigate the effects of the key aspects of partner diversity (i.e., variety, balance, and disparity) on MPIJV dissolution. We test our hypotheses using a dataset of 248 MPIJVs in China. We find empirical support for a U-curve shaped effect of variety and a negative linear effect of balance on MPIJV dissolution.
    • The impact of response styles on the stability of cross-national comparisons

      Reynolds, Nina L.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Simintiras, A. (2006)
      Response style effects are a source of bias in cross-national studies, with some nationalities being more susceptible to particular response styles than others. While response styles, by their very nature, vary with the form of the stimulus involved, previous research has not investigated whether cross-national differences in response styles are stable across different forms of a stimulus (e.g., item wording, scale type, response categories). Using a quasi-experimental design, this study shows that response style differences are not stable across different stimulus formats, and that response style effects impact on substantive cross-national comparisons in an inconsistent way.
    • The Impact of Risk Committee on Financial Performance of UK Financial Institutions

      Elamer, Ahmed A.; Benyazid, I. (2018)
      Following the recent financial crisis, Walker (2009) recommended that financial institutions should form a separate board level risk committee (RC) to manage various risks and prevent excessive risk taking. This research focuses on investigating how firms with separate risk committees differ from those that do not have one. The main research question we address is whether RCs have a fundamental influence on financial performance. We measure financial performance by ROA and ROE and we control for firm size, liquidity and gearing. Our sample consists of all listed financial institutions in FTSE-100 index from 2010 through 2014. Results indicate a negative relationship between risk committee characteristics (i.e., existence, size, independence, and meeting frequency) and financial performance. The results also indicate that firms without risk committee (RC) performed considerably well than firms with RC. The results are contradictory to Walker’s (2009) where RCs are recommended for their ability to mitigate and manage risks more expertly. However, we argue that establish strong RC constrain management ability to make excessive risk taking behaviour which may affect financial performance negatively. We contribute to the current research on the impact of risk committee governance attributes on financial performance after banking and governance reforms.
    • The impact of social media on consumer acculturation: current challenges, opportunities, and an agenda for research and practice

      Kizgin, Hatice; Dey, B.L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Hughes, L.; Jamal, A.; Jones, P.; Kronemann, B.; Laroche, M.; Peñaloza, L.; Richard, M-O.; et al. (2020-04)
      The concept of acculturation has been based on the assumption of an adaptation process, whereby immigrants lose aspects of their heritage cultures in favour of aspects of a host culture (i.e. assimilation). Past research has shown that acculturation preferences result in various possibilities and influence consumption behaviour. However, the impact of social media on consumer acculturation is underexplored, although the social purpose and information sharing online is utilized for a variety of social purposes. Recent studies have shown the transformation from an offline to an online context, in which social networks play an integral part in immigrants’ communications, relationships and connections. This study merges the views from a number of leading contributors to highlight significant opportunities and challenges for future consumer acculturation research influenced by social media. The research provides insights into the impact of social media on consumer acculturation.
    • The impact of social media on consumers' acculturation and purchase intentions

      Kizgin, Hatice; Jamal, A.; Dey, B.L.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2018-06)
      Social media has emerged as a significant and effective means of assisting and endorsing activities and communications among peers, consumers and organizations that outdo the restrictions of time and space. While the previous studies acknowledge the role of agents of culture change, it largely remains silent on the role of social media in influencing acculturation outcomes and consumption choices. This study uses self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 514 Turkish-Dutch respondents and examines how their use of social media affects their acculturation and consumption choices. This research makes a significant contribution to consumer acculturation research by showing that social media is a vital means of culture change and a driver of acculturation strategies and consumption choices. This study is the first to investigate the role of social media as an agent of culture change in terms of how it impacts acculturation and consumption. The paper discusses implications for theory development and for practice.
    • The impact of social networking sites on socialization and political engagement: Role of acculturation

      Kizgin, Hatice; Jamal, A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2019-08)
      This research examines the extent to which immigrant consumers' use of social networking sites affect their socialization and political engagement in the Netherlands. The study uses self-administered questionnaires to collect data from 514 Turkish-Dutch respondents of various ages, occupations, levels of education and locations in the Netherlands. The study finds that the propensity to share information, the intensity of use, and privacy concerns positively impact socialization on online social networking sites. In addition, a significant positive relationship between socialization and political involvement positively impacts voting intentions. The study also examines the interaction effects of enculturation and acculturation orientations on the relationship between socialization and political involvement. The study's findings point to a positive moderating role of acculturation in this relationship but a negative one for enculturation. The study is the first to investigate simultaneously the drivers of socialization on social networking sites in the context of immigrant consumers and the impact of their socialization on political involvement and voting intention. The research further contributes to the scholarly work by exploring the interaction effects of acculturation and enculturation orientation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Impairment effects as a career boundary: a case study of disabled academics

      Williams, Jannine; Mavin, Sharon A. (2015)
      Within the academic career literature, disabled academics are under-researched, despite calls for career theory development through the exploration of marginalized groups' career experiences and the boundaries which shape these experiences. Here, boundaries refer to the symbolic resources which become reified to construct social boundaries shaping what is and is not possible in career contexts. This article contributes to the advancement of academic career theory by enabling insights into impairment effects as an embodied career boundary for disabled academics and outlining how experiences of impairment effects and disabled academics' agency are entangled with their career context and organizational members' responses. Impairment effects shape career choices and opportunities, by being negated, and/or influencing expectations of employers to provide inclusive contexts which acknowledge impairment effects as a legitimate organizing principle. However this recognition of impairment as a legitimate organizing principle is not always reciprocated, with implications for disabled academics' careers.
    • Implementation of virtual manufacturing by a technology licensing company

      Webster, Margaret; Sugden, David M. (2003)
      The paper considers the implementation of a virtual manufacturing system as an alternative to outward technology licensing in a high technology industrial sector. Brief theoretical definition and description of the two strategy options is provided to give background and context. This is followed by empirical material from a longitudinal case study of a company that has developed a virtual manufacturing system in addition to its pre-existing outward technology licensing business stream. A summary account of the company history and development is followed by description of the virtual manufacturing proposal. Analysis of this identified a number of competencies that would be required in order to succeed. The final part of the paper describes the company's response to this analysis and discusses early implementation of the virtual system. It is shown that implementation of the proposal has represented a positive response to the business challenges facing the company.
    • Implementing operations strategy through Lean processes within health care – the example of NHS in the UK

      Matthias, Olga; Brown, S. (2016)
      Purpose - This paper is part of a process of ongoing longitudinal cases studies that investigate how Operations Strategy and Lean concepts can be applied within a Healthcare organisation and the degree to which both Lean and Operations Strategy are understood by senior-level NHS personnel. Further interviews and data analysis will examine actual performance of Lean capabilities within the NHS. Design/methodology/approach - For this explanatory multiple-case study project we collected Data through semi-structured interviews with executives in the NHS to understand how operations strategies are developed in the NHS and implemented in NHS hospitals. The Unit of Analysis is the hospital. Multiple (22) interviews took place over 12 months with senior-level personnel responsible for implementing change via Operations Strategy goals, and incorporating Lean initiatives. In addition, to triangulate data, we examined healthcare reports and strategy policy documents from each case hospital. This forms stage 1 of a longitudinal study which will examine the actual performance of Lean within the NHS hospitals across a range of operations parameters and explore links between such capabilities and the role and importance of operations strategy in more detail. Findings - Our Findings lead to the conclusion that operations strategies were not fully developed within the hospitals. In addition, our ongoing data capture shows that ‘Best practice’ was not being disseminated across the NHS, for either patient experience or organisational effectiveness and the role of operations strategy was not fully clear other than as a rather vague ‘umbrella’ term. Despite Lean’s attraction for Healthcare at a micro level, significant operational and cultural hurdles must be overcome for the full strategic benefits of Lean to be realised. A much more holistic approach in providing a full service for the whole of the patient journey is needed. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) - Our sample provides an initial snapshot. A larger number of hospitals and/or further longitudinal research will be needed to deepen understanding of embedding strategic change to improve overall performance. Practical implications (if applicable) - Tackling cultural performance and operational issues at a macro level could help Healthcare providers reconcile the perceived conflicting goals of improving patient care (i.e. service delivery) whilst simultaneously reducing costs. The role of explicit operations strategies could be pivotal in designing and implementing such change. Originality/value - This research builds on and extends the work of Toussaint and Berry (2013), Seddon and O’Donovan (2010) and Carlborg and Kowalkowski (2013). We highlight how some of the apparent contradictions in the requirements of the various stakeholders create operational and strategic tensions. We highlight the multifaceted nature of design and delivery of a multi-touchpoint service within the complexity of a large healthcare provider.
    • Improving the pharmaceutical supply chain: assessing the reality of e-quality through e-commerce application in hospital pharmacy

      Breen, Liz; Crawford, H. (2005)
      Purpose – This paper aims to examine the role of e-commerce in hospital pharmacy in the procurement of pharmaceuticals and determine how this has improved the internal pharmaceutical supply chain. Whilst e-commerce is in its infancy in this area it is still considered to be an important facet of supply chain management. E-trading within NHS pharmacies is conducted via electronic data interchange (EDI) offering proven benefits and ensuring the efficient and effective transmission of data between remote parties. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected via a case-study in an NHS trust pharmacy supported and by questionnaires distributed to NHS and community pharmacies in the north-west of England. Findings – The findings support the view that there are benefits to be gained from introducing EDI into a purchasing department as the next logical step towards a total e-commerce solution (internet-based) and instigating quality improvements. It also proposes that the implementation and use of e-commerce in hospital pharmacies can be aligned with progress made in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and questions why, if such benefits can be realised, the use of e-commerce systems are not more widespread. Research limitations/implications – The implications of this research is that it offers a “snap-shot” of progress made-to-date of e-commerce in NHS Pharmacy, which can provide guidance for mangers and healthcare professionals managing their e-commerce/quality improvement agenda. The research conducted was restricted to a specific regional area of the NHS and could be applied to a larger national sample group. Future research within this field should also consider the cost of not introducing e-commerce in pursuing quality improvement. Originality/value – This discussion offers an insight into how a pharmacy approached EDI, and this is further supported by recent research conducted into examining the pharmacy systems in operation in the north-west of England and accompanying EDI systems and an analysis of EDI uptake and use in a sample of pharmacies in the same region, the latter being supported by anecdotal evidence of pros and cons to using EDI and potential barriers to its introduction.
    • An In Vitro Male Germ Cell Assay and Its Application for Detecting Phase Specificity of Genotoxins/Mutagens

      Habas, Khaled S.A.; Brinkworth, Martin H.; Anderson, Diana (2018)
      Genotoxic agents can interact with DNA in germ cells possibly resulting in a heritable trait (germline mutation). Thus, in vitro male germ cell tests, which can detect phase specificity of such agents, could be used by regulatory agencies to help evaluate the potential risk of mutation. The male germ cell system now has a well-established model for studying phase specificity using the STA-PUT velocity sedimentation. On treatment with genotoxic agents, differences in chemical structure and metabolic differences in types of male germ cell lead to differing susceptibilities to genotoxicity, so careful investigation is required for phase specificity. This can yield valuable information about the potential mechanisms involved in the genotoxicity responses and thus increase the significance of the findings. This is especially important because mutations induced in the germline could also affect future generations. In this chapter, we briefly review the field of the male germ cell DNA damage response.
    • An independent audit oversight system in a non-developed market: the case of Egypt

      Eldaly, Mohamed K.A.; Abdel-Kader, M. (2017)
      This study aims to provide a better understanding of oversight the audit profession in Egypt, including its motivations, objectives and its working approach. Further, it reaches a better understanding of the Egyptian Big 4 partners’ perceptions of the new Audit Oversight Board (AOB). Previous studies have frequently examined the audit oversight system in developed countries (US and UK in particular), but little is known on how the system works on developing countries. We believe that facing different problems and challenges demands that audit regulators in developing countries follow different approaches in order to improve the quality of their audit markets. Lack of skilled auditors, lack of transparency and public accountability, and a high level of corruption are the main problems facing the audit profession in Egypt (Awadallah, 2006, Wahdan et. al., 2005: a). Our findings suggest that establishing an audit oversight board in Egypt has been motivated by the need to attract foreign investments and follow the global trend of auditing in developed countries. A number of legal changes are needed in order to improve the AOB’s efficiency.
    • Independent oversight of the auditing profession: A review of the literature

      Elshendidy, T.; Eldaly, Mohamed K.A.; Abdel-Kader, M. (2021-07)
      This paper reviews the literature on the independent oversight of auditing from 2003 to 2018 and provides several research opportunities for filling the identified gaps in that literature. Our review classifies the literature into three themes: (1) the development of independent audit oversight; (2) the effects of independent audit oversight; and (3) the interface between the independent audit oversight authorities and the global audit networks. The paper finds different effects of the independent audit oversight. Positively, it enhances the capital markets by adding more credibility to the published information. Auditors become more conservative about accepting or continuing to work with high-risk clients. At the same time, while audit fees have increased as a result of the additional requirements of independent audit regulation, non-audit fees from audit clients have decreased significantly. Negatively, independent oversight has increased audit concentration and resulted in insufficient choice of auditors in most audit markets.
    • Indian Travellers’ Adoption of Airbnb Platform

      Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Rana, Nripendra P.; Nunkoo, R.; Raghavan, V.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      Much of the existing scholarly debate on sharing economy to date has focused on the use of technology in developed countries. However, the recent upsurge of mobile technology adoption in developing countries has provided suitable breeding ground for sharing economy. The lack of native theories in tourism and hospitality sector with scare utilization of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) provide necessity for this research. This study adapted meta-UTAUT model as theoretical lens and extended the model with hedonic motivation, trust, and self-efficacy. Based on data from 301 potential Indian consumers, the results underscored the central role of attitude that significantly mediated the effects of effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions on consumer intention to use Airbnb. Meanwhile, performance expectancy emerged as significant direct determinant of intention alongside attitude, trust, and self-efficacy. The proposed model explained as much as 65% variance on Indian consumer’s intention to use Airbnb.
    • Indices for the Betterment of the Public

      Vincent, Charles; Emrouznejad, A.; Johnson, M.P. (2020-01)
      Over the years, the quest for a better society has led to the birth of a variety of composite indices of development, from the gross domestic product to the happiness index. These indices usually integrate various social, cultural, psychological, and political aspects and are considered of vital importance for evaluating a country’s level of development and for assessing the impact of policy especially in the public sector. Overall, they consist of numerical measures that describe the well-being of both the individual and the society as a whole. This Special Issue on Indices for the Betterment of the Public of Socio-Economic Planning Sciences includes thirteen research articles by authors from Belgium, Colombia, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Peru, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
    • Industrial Nationalism versus European Partnerships: An Analysis of State-led Franco-German Inter-firm Linkages

      Trouille, Jean-Marc (2014-12)
      This paper examines the impact of state intervention in French-German inter-firm linkages and discusses the implications of conflicting national interests for the furthering of single market integration. It demonstrates that despite initial success in launching large-scale cross-border alliances in strategic sectors, France and Germany have remained divided by their own industrial nationalism. It argues that their respective attitudes towards industrial policy are less contradictory than would appear at first sight, but that transcending industrial nationalism by Europeanising the notion of economic patriotism would be an essential pre-condition for a more efficient EU-wide industrial policy within a better integrated internal market.
    • Industrial relations in European hypermarkets: Home and host country influences

      Geppert, M.; Williams, K.; Wortmann, M.; Czarzasty, J.; Kağnıcıoğlu, D.; Köhler, H-D.; Royle, Tony; Rückert, Y.; Uckan, B. (2014)
      In this article we examine the industrial relations practices of three large European food retailers when they transfer the hypermarket format to other countries. We ask, first, how industrial relations in hypermarkets differ from those in other food retailing outlets. Second, we examine how far the approach characteristic of each company’s country-of-origin (Germany, France and the UK) shapes the practices adopted elsewhere. Third, we ask how they respond to the specific industrial relations systems of each host country (Turkey, Poland, Ireland and Spain).
    • Inflation linkages within the Eurozone: core vs. periphery

      Magkonis, Georgios; Sharma, Abhijit (2019-05)
      We examine the process of inflation transmission among GIIPS countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) and Germany. Our findings suggest that inflation spillovers have increased since 2001. We also find that peripheral economies are (dis‐)inflation transmitters to the core. This finding is significant for policy formulation, given the very low inflation environment that currently exists in the Euro area and the macroeconomic implications that arise from this.
    • Inflation targeting and inflation convergence: International evidence

      Arestis, P.; Chortareas, G.; Magkonis, Georgios; Moschos, D. (2014-04)
      We examine whether the inflation rates of the countries that pursueinflation targeting policies have converged as opposed to the expe-rience of the OECD non-inflation targeters. Using a methodologyintroduced by Pesaran (2007a), we examine the stationarity prop-erties of the inflation differentials. This approach has the advantageof avoiding setting arbitrarily a specific country as the benchmarkeconomy. Our results indicate that the inflation rates converge irre-spective of the monetary policy framework.