• The impact of culture and governance on corporate social reporting

      Haniffa, Roszaini M.; Cooke, T.E. (2005)
      Our aim is to increase understanding of the potential effects of culture and corporate governance on social disclosures. The ethnic background of directors and shareholders is used as a proxy for culture. Corporate governance characteristics include board composition, multiple directorships and type of shareholders. The dependent variable, disclosure in annual reports of Malaysian corporations, is measured by an index score as well as in terms of number of words. Our results indicate a significant relationship between corporate social disclosure and boards dominated by Malay directors, boards dominated by executive directors, chair with multiple directorships and foreign share ownership. Four of the control variables (size, profitability, multiple listing and type of industry) were significantly related to corporate social disclosure with the exception of gearing. This study has public policy implications for Malaysia as well as a number of other countries in the Asia¿Pacific region.
    • The impact of culture on best practice production / operations management

      Hope, Christine A.; Mühlemann, A.P. (2002)
      Significant work has been completed in arriving at what have been put forward as `best practices' for a variety of facets of production/operations management (POM). Organizations are becoming global in their operations. In this environment, there is a desire to learn from this 'proven' best practice and to use the generic ideas, concepts and techniques 'world-wide'. However, it is becoming apparent from a range of fragmented evidence that 'best practices' developed and successful in one context are not necessarily directly transferable to a comparable alternative. More detailed examination suggests that national culture has a significant role to play in determining the precise nature of a best practice in POM, and how universal it might be in its application. This paper examines structures within which to view facets of POM in order to identify one that will facilitate exploration of cultural issues. There follows an identification of what might be considered to be an appropriate range of cultural dimensions along which POM best practices may be considered. A review of the evidence from the literature of cultural impacts on aspects of POM is presented. This is used to support the development of a generic framework to examine this interface more comprehensively.
    • The Impact of Equity Ownership Groups on Investment: Evidence from Ukraine

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2017)
      We empirically investigate the impact of different ownership groups on companies’ investment in Ukraine with a novel dynamic investment model where investment is based on present and historical levels of profitability (market-to-book value of equity) and lagged investment. Groups include state, insider, non-domestic, financial and financial and industrial group (FIG) ownership. Contrary to the literature, we find that the past level of profitability significantly affects investment; the presence of and increases in state ownership have a negative impact on firms’ investment, as is the case for non-domestic and financial companies’ ownership. Insider and FIG ownership have no impact on investment. We explain the results by the extent of liquidity concerns (hard and soft budget constraints) and the extent of asset stripping for the corresponding ownership group and relate them to over- and underinvestment, and to the free cash flow or cash constraint hypothesis.
    • The Impact of Football Attendance on Tourist Expenditures for the United Kingdom

      Rudkin, Simon; Sharma, Abhijit (2017-09-14)
      We employ unconditional quantile regression with region of origin fixed effects, whereby we find that attending live football matches significantly increases expenditures by inbound tourist in the UK, and surprisingly we find that such effects are strongest for those who overall spend the least. Higher spending individuals spend significantly more than those who do not attend football matches, even when such individuals are otherwise similar. We analyse the impact of football attendance across the tourism expenditure distribution which is a relatively neglected aspect within previous research.
    • Impact of international financial reporting standards on the profit and equity of AIM listed companies in the UK

      Ali, A.; Akbar, Saeed; Ormrod, P. (2016-03)
      This study examines the extent to which the change from UK GAAP to IFRS has affected companies listed on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM) in the UK. The results suggest that, on average, profit reported under IFRS is higher than that reported under UK GAAP; however, the difference is much smaller for AIM listed companies as compared to what existing literature suggests for firms listed on main stock markets. The Gray's partial analysis results indicate that despite the extensive programmes for improving convergence over time there is still a considerable discrepancy between IFRS and UK GAAP.
    • Impact of internet of things (IoT) in disaster management: a task-technology fit perspective

      Sinha, A.; Kumar, P.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-12)
      Disaster management aims to mitigate the potential damage from the disasters, ensure immediate and suitable assistance to the victims, and attain effective and rapid recovery. These objectives require a planned and effective rescue operation post such disasters. Different types of information about the impact of the disaster are, hence, required for planning an effective and immediate relief operation. The IoT technology available today is quite mature and has the potential to be very useful in disaster situations. This paper analyzes the requirements for planning rescue operation for such natural disasters and proposes an IoT based solution to cater the identified requirements. The proposed solution is further validated using the task-technology fit (TTF) approach for analyzing the significance of the adoption of IoT technology for disaster management. Results from the exploratory study established the core dimensions of the task requirements and the TTF constructs. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis using PLS path modelling, further, suggest that both task requirements and IoT technology have significant impact on the IoT TTF in the disaster management scenario. This paper makes significant contributions in the development of appropriate constructs for modeling TTF for IoT Technology in the context of disaster management.
    • The impact of Investors in People on employees: a case study of a hospital trust

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Bevitt, S. (2002)
      This article reports on case study research conducted in a hospital Trust and explores the impact that the Investors in People award had on employees. Investors in People is widely seen as the principal mechanism for increasing workforce skills within a voluntarist system as well as supporting `good¿ employment policies. Yet in this case study, as elsewhere, most of the `soft¿ human resource initiatives had existed prior to accreditation and the internal marketing of corporate value statements was met with both amnesia and cynicism. More worryingly, training activity was focused on business need, and business need was defined in the narrowest sense, with the result that some employees had fewer opportunities for individual development. Motivation and commitment levels were high, staff were enthusiastic about their work and many actively engaged in training and development. But this owed little to Investors in People and its impact here raises questions about its influence on skill levels more broadly.
    • The impact of MENA conflicts (the Arab Spring) on global financial markets

      Mousavi, Mohammad M.; Quenniche, J. (2014)
      It is believed that financial markets are integrated and sensitive to news – including political conflicts in some regions of the world. Furthermore, financial markets seem to react differently to information flows from one region to another. The purpose of this research is to discern the effects of the recent Middle East and North Africa (MENA) conflicts – commonly referred to as the Arab Spring – on the volatility of risks and returns of global and regional stock markets as well as Gold and Oil markets. To be more specific, we consider the main uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen and their impact on financial markets – as measured by the volatility of their risks and returns. In sum, we cluster 53 stock markets into 6 regions; namely, developed, developing, MENA, Asia, Europe, and Latin America countries, and use T-GARCH to assess the reaction of these regions to each uprising event independently. In addition, we use GARCH-M to assess the reaction of these regions stock markets as well as Gold and Oil markets to the uprisings of MENA as a whole. Our empirical findings suggest that the uprising events of MENA have more impact on the volatility of risks and returns of developed, developing, and Europe regions than MENA itself. In addition, although the results show that the volatility of both risks and returns of both developed and MENA regions are significantly affected by general conflicts in MENA, the volatility of MENA is affected during all intervals and with higher significance level. Furthermore, while MENA uprisings as a whole impact on the volatility of risk of oil (after 5 days) and gold (immediately after entering news) significantly, the returns of these markets are not affected by conflicts.
    • The Impact of Multi-Layer Governance on Bank Risk Disclosure in Emerging Markets: The Case of Middle East and North Africa

      Elamer, Ahmed A.; Ntim, C.G.; Abdou, H.A.; Zalata, A.; Elmagrhi, M. (2019)
      This study examines the impact of multi-layer governance mechanisms on the level of bank risk disclosure. Using a large dataset from 14 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries over a period of 8 years, our findings are three-fold. First, our results suggest that the presence of a Sharia supervisory board is positively associated with the level of risk disclosure. Second and at the bank-level, we find that ownership structures have a positive effect on the level of risk disclosure. At the country-level, our evidence suggests that control of corruption has a positive effect on the level of bank risk disclosure. Our study is, therefore, a major departure from much of the existing accounting literature that offers new crucial insights that show that firms’ disclosure choices are not mainly shaped by firm-level (internal) governance arrangements, but also country-level (external) governance and religious factors. Our findings have important implications for corporate boards, investors, regulatory authorities, standards-setters and governments relating to the development, implementation and enforcement of corporate and national governance standards.
    • The impact of national culture on the transfer of `best practice operations management' in hotels in St Lucia

      Hope, Christine A. (2004)
      This article briefly outlines the convergence vs. divergence debate before describing research into the potential impact of national culture on the transfer of ''best practice operations management'' to hotels in St. Lucia. The main focus of the paper is on the findings of fieldwork, which supports the contention that national culture does potentially create a barrier to the successful transposition of approaches developed elsewhere. In the case of St. Lucia high uncertainty avoidance and leanings towards high power distance appeared to hinder the adoption of teamworking, empowerment and communication. In addition, attitude towards time and punctuality also mitigated against the provision of a reliable service as and when required. However, with training and supportive HR practices, the end results achieved by International Chains did demonstrate the value of operating ''people friendly'' policies in line with ''best practice''. This article briefly outlines the convergence vs. divergence debate before describing research into the potential impact of national culture on the transfer of ''best practice operations management'' to hotels in St. Lucia. The main focus of the paper is on the findings of fieldwork, which supports the contention that national culture does potentially create a barrier to the successful transposition of approaches developed elsewhere. In the case of St. Lucia high uncertainty avoidance and leanings towards high power distance appeared to hinder the adoption of teamworking, empowerment and communication. In addition, attitude towards time and punctuality also mitigated against the provision of a reliable service as and when required. However, with training and supportive HR practices, the end results achieved by International Chains did demonstrate the value of operating ''people friendly'' policies in line with ''best practice''.
    • The Impact of Online vs. Offline Acculturation on Purchase Intentions: A Multigroup Analysis of the Role of Education

      Kizgin, Hatice; Jamal, A.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2020)
      The aim of this research is to determine the extent of online and offline acculturation preferences affecting purchase intentions within a minority ethnic community. This study investigates the role of social media as an agent in terms of how it influences acculturation and consumption. It also investigates the moderating role of education level. The findings highlight the significance of investigating language and friendship orientations and subsequent acculturation preferences. Empirical results confirm the impact of language and friendship orientations on enculturation/acculturation, which in turn impact purchase intentions. The results suggest differences among three groups in terms of their education level. The study discusses contribution to theory and provides future research directions, while offering useful practical implications for marketers.
    • Impact of openness on economic growth in different country groups.

      Wang, Chengang; Liu, X.; Wei, Yingqi (2004)
      This paper evaluates the impact of openness on growth in different country groups using a panel of 79 countries over the period 1970-98. It distinguishes itself from many existing studies in three aspects: Firstly, both trade and FDI are included as measures of openness. Secondly, countries are classified into high-, middle- and low-income groups to compare the roles of trade and FDI in these groups. Thirdly, the possible problems of endogeneity and multicollinearity of trade and FDI are carefully dealt with in a panel data setting. The main findings are as follows. Total trade has a general positive impact on growth in all country groups, although the impact from imports is not significant in high-income countries. FDI has a positive impact on growth in high- and middle-income countries, but not in low-income countries. With the existing absorptive capabilities, low-income countries can benefit from both exports and imports, but not from FDI. These findings suggest that trade and FDI affect growth through different channels and under different conditions. The paper also discusses important policy implications.
    • The impact of organisational justice on ethical behaviour

      Shah, N.; Anwar, S.; Irani, Zahir (2017)
      Within the workplace, justice is influenced by the interpersonal relationships between colleagues and/or management among other things. The main reason for this research is to examine the correlation between organisational justice and the ethical behaviour of employees. Based on the literature, the conceptual model developed in this paper integrates distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justice in relation to ethical behaviour. By applying an adapted survey questionnaire, data were collected from teaching staff at public sector higher education institutions. Multiple regression analysis was applied to 360 samples and this showed that distributive and procedural justice have a more positive and significant impact than informational and interpersonal justice on the ethical behaviour of employees. This is an empirical study which may contribute to the literature on ethical behaviour, organisational development and employee development.
    • The Impact of Ownership on Companies' Investment Rates Using Present and Past Values of Profitability

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2016)
      We empirically analyze the impact of different ownership groups on companies’ investment rates in Ukraine allowing investment rates to depend on present and past market-to-book values of equity. We relate the impact to the presence of soft and hard budget constraints, to the free cash flow and the cash constraint hypothesis and discuss over- and under-investment. Several robustness checks, in particular, the potential endogeneity of ownership variables are considered.
    • The Impact of Ownership on Companies’ Investment Rates in Ukraine

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2016)
      In this paper, we empirically analyze the impact of ownership groups on companies’ investment rates in Ukraine using a new dynamic Tobin’s Q model allowing investment rates to depend on present and lagged Q. We find that the presence of a majority in and increases in state, non-domestic and financial companies’ ownership has a significantly negative impact on investment rates. State and insider ownership are associated with soft budget constraints whereas non-domestic, financial companies’ and financial and industrial groups’ ownership with hard budget constraints. The dynamic model shows persistence in the market-to-book value of equity, the proxy for Q.
    • The impact of partner diversity within multiparty international joint ventures

      Mohr, A.; Wang, Chengang; Goerzen, A. (2016-08)
      Despite the significant role that multiparty international joint ventures (MPIJVs) play within multinational enterprises, we know little about the significant challenges associated with the management of these ventures. Therefore, we combine the Resource-based View of the Firm and Transaction Cost Economics to investigate the effects of the key aspects of partner diversity (i.e., variety, balance, and disparity) on MPIJV dissolution. We test our hypotheses using a dataset of 248 MPIJVs in China. We find empirical support for a U-curve shaped effect of variety and a negative linear effect of balance on MPIJV dissolution.
    • The impact of response styles on the stability of cross-national comparisons

      Reynolds, Nina L.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Simintiras, A. (2006)
      Response style effects are a source of bias in cross-national studies, with some nationalities being more susceptible to particular response styles than others. While response styles, by their very nature, vary with the form of the stimulus involved, previous research has not investigated whether cross-national differences in response styles are stable across different forms of a stimulus (e.g., item wording, scale type, response categories). Using a quasi-experimental design, this study shows that response style differences are not stable across different stimulus formats, and that response style effects impact on substantive cross-national comparisons in an inconsistent way.
    • The Impact of Risk Committee on Financial Performance of UK Financial Institutions

      Elamer, Ahmed A.; Benyazid, I. (2018)
      Following the recent financial crisis, Walker (2009) recommended that financial institutions should form a separate board level risk committee (RC) to manage various risks and prevent excessive risk taking. This research focuses on investigating how firms with separate risk committees differ from those that do not have one. The main research question we address is whether RCs have a fundamental influence on financial performance. We measure financial performance by ROA and ROE and we control for firm size, liquidity and gearing. Our sample consists of all listed financial institutions in FTSE-100 index from 2010 through 2014. Results indicate a negative relationship between risk committee characteristics (i.e., existence, size, independence, and meeting frequency) and financial performance. The results also indicate that firms without risk committee (RC) performed considerably well than firms with RC. The results are contradictory to Walker’s (2009) where RCs are recommended for their ability to mitigate and manage risks more expertly. However, we argue that establish strong RC constrain management ability to make excessive risk taking behaviour which may affect financial performance negatively. We contribute to the current research on the impact of risk committee governance attributes on financial performance after banking and governance reforms.
    • The impact of social media on consumer acculturation: current challenges, opportunities, and an agenda for research and practice

      Kizgin, Hatice; Dey, B.L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Hughes, L.; Jamal, A.; Jones, P.; Kronemann, B.; Laroche, M.; Peñaloza, L.; Richard, M-O.; et al. (2020-04)
      The concept of acculturation has been based on the assumption of an adaptation process, whereby immigrants lose aspects of their heritage cultures in favour of aspects of a host culture (i.e. assimilation). Past research has shown that acculturation preferences result in various possibilities and influence consumption behaviour. However, the impact of social media on consumer acculturation is underexplored, although the social purpose and information sharing online is utilized for a variety of social purposes. Recent studies have shown the transformation from an offline to an online context, in which social networks play an integral part in immigrants’ communications, relationships and connections. This study merges the views from a number of leading contributors to highlight significant opportunities and challenges for future consumer acculturation research influenced by social media. The research provides insights into the impact of social media on consumer acculturation.
    • The impact of social media on consumers' acculturation and purchase intentions

      Kizgin, Hatice; Jamal, A.; Dey, B.L.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2018-06)
      Social media has emerged as a significant and effective means of assisting and endorsing activities and communications among peers, consumers and organizations that outdo the restrictions of time and space. While the previous studies acknowledge the role of agents of culture change, it largely remains silent on the role of social media in influencing acculturation outcomes and consumption choices. This study uses self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 514 Turkish-Dutch respondents and examines how their use of social media affects their acculturation and consumption choices. This research makes a significant contribution to consumer acculturation research by showing that social media is a vital means of culture change and a driver of acculturation strategies and consumption choices. This study is the first to investigate the role of social media as an agent of culture change in terms of how it impacts acculturation and consumption. The paper discusses implications for theory development and for practice.