• Identifying reputation collectors in community question answering (CQA) sites: Exploring the dark side of social media

      Roy, P.K.; Singh, J.P.; Baabdullah, A.M.; Kizgin, Hatice; Rana, Nripendra P. (2018-10)
      This research aims to identify users who are posting as well as encouraging others to post low-quality and duplicate contents on community question answering sites. The good guys called Caretakers and the bad guys called Reputation Collectors are characterised by their behaviour, answering pattern and reputation points. The proposed system is developed and analysed over publicly available Stack Exchange data dump. A graph based methodology is employed to derive the characteristic of Reputation Collectors and Caretakers. Results reveal that Reputation Collectors are primary sources of low-quality answers as well as answers to duplicate questions posted on the site. The Caretakers answer limited questions of challenging nature and fetches maximum reputation against those questions whereas Reputation Collectors answers have so many low-quality and duplicate questions to gain the reputation point. We have developed algorithms to identify the Caretakers and Reputation Collectors of the site. Our analysis finds that 1.05% of Reputation Collectors post 18.88% of low quality answers. This study extends previous research by identifying the Reputation Collectors and 2 how they collect their reputation points.
    • Identifying the relative importance of stock characteristics in the UK market

      French, D.; Wu, Yuliang; Li, Y. (2016-03)
      There is no consensus in the literature as to which stock characteristic best explains returns. In this study, we employ a novel econometric approach better suited than the traditional characteristic sorting method to answer this question for the UK market. We evaluate the relative explanatory power of market, size, momentum, volatility, liquidity and book-to-market factors in a semiparametric characteristic-based factor model which does not require constructing characteristic portfolios. We find that momentum is the most important factor and liquidity is the least important based on their relative contribution to the fit of the model and the proportion of sample months for which factor returns are significant. Our evidence supports the view that irrational investor behaviour may drive stock returns.
    • Identifying the trends and impact of graduate attributes on employability: a literature review

      Osmani, M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Hindi, N.; Al Esmail, R.; Eldabi, T.; Kapoor, K.; Irani, Zahir (2015)
      Graduate employability has become an issue since there are broad mismatches between the acquired graduate skills from university and the required skills by employers. While previous researches have outlined the salient skills that need to be embedded in graduate education, to date no studies have attempted to methodically identify and synthesize the literature on graduate attributes. In this paper a total of 39 relevant studies on graduate skills and attributes in the subject areas of business and management, accounting, and computer science were extracted from Scopus® (database). This revealed a total of 53 graduate attributes, with some being highly used, such as communication, teamwork, problem solving, technological skills, creativity, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, self-management and flexibility/adaptability. The majority of studies used a quantitative survey method to collect and rank graduate attributes, and Australia emerged as the most active country in researching the domain.
    • Idiosyncratic risk and the cross-section of stock returns: the role of mean-reverting idiosyncratic volatility

      Bozhkov, S.; Lee, H.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Despoudi, S.; Nandy, M. (2020)
      A key prediction of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that idiosyncratic risk is not priced by investors because in the absence of frictions it can be fully diversified away. In the presence of constraints on diversification, refinements of the CAPM conclude that the part of idiosyncratic risk that is not diversified should be priced. Recent empirical studies yielded mixed evidence with some studies finding positive correlation between idiosyncratic risk and stock returns, while other studies reported none or even negative correlation. We revisit the problem whether idiosyncratic risk is priced by the stock market and what are the probable causes for the mixed evidence produced by other studies, using monthly data for the US market covering the period from 1980 until 2013. We find that one-period volatility forecasts are not significantly correlated with stock returns. The mean-reverting unconditional volatility, however, is a robust predictor of returns. Consistent with economic theory, the size of the premium depends on the degree of 'knowledge' of the security among market participants. In particular, the premium for Nasdaq-traded stocks is higher than that for NYSE and Amex stocks. We also find stronger correlation between idiosyncratic risk and returns during recessions, which may suggest interaction of risk premium with decreased risk tolerance or other investment considerations like flight to safety or liquidity requirements. The difference between the correlations of the idiosyncratic volatility estimators used by other studies and the true risk metric the mean-reverting volatility is the likely cause for the mixed evidence produced by other studies. Our results are robust with respect to liquidity, momentum, return reversals, unadjusted price, liquidity, credit quality, omitted factors, and hold at daily frequency.
    • The ILO's Shift to Promotional Principles and the 'Privatization' of Labour Rights: An Analysis of Labour Standards, Voluntary Self-Regulation and Social Clauses

      Royle, Tony (2010)
      The paper examines the existing quasi-legal means by which international labour standards may be protected. The paper considers the nature of the challenge that global capital creates for labour, the development of the ILO’s labour standards and the consequences of its shift towards promotional principles, the growth of corporate voluntary initiatives by multinational corporations and finally the associated debates around the inclusion of social clauses in trade agreements. The analysis suggests that the ILO’s shift to ‘promotional principles’ and the formal acceptance of voluntary self-regulation from the late-1990s has not significantly improved the situation for workers, but was a pragmatic response driven in part by US policy and the increasing marginalization of the ILO within the global system of economic governance. It is argued that even if the many political obstacles could be overcome, the result of including social clauses in WTO trade agreements may not be straightforward. In conclusion it is argued that in some respects the existing system has ‘privatised’ labour rights.
    • Imagining the impossible? Fears of deportation and the barriers in obtaining EU Settled Status in the UK

      Elfving, Sanna; Marcinkowska, Aleksandra (2021)
      In early 2021, over 5 million European Union (EU) citizens had applied for settled status to secure their right to continue to live, work and study in the United Kingdom (UK) after the country’s withdrawal from the EU (Brexit). In 2018, the Home Office launched a Statement of Intent to implement an application process for EU citizens through its EU Settlement Scheme. In the period leading to Brexit, the UK government assured EU migrants that their existing rights under EU law will remain essentially unchanged, and that applying for the settled status will be smooth, transparent and simple. However, the application process has resulted in some long-term residents failing to obtain settled status, despite providing the required information. Based on qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 EU migrants living in 2 major metropolitan areas in North East England, this article discusses the significant barriers which EU citizens face with the application process. This situation affects especially the most vulnerable EU migrants with limited English language skills and/or low literacy levels as well as those who are digitally excluded. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the consequences of Brexit to vulnerable EU migrants in the UK, focusing specifically on Central and Eastern European migrants.
    • Impact assessment of social media usage in B2B marketing: A review of the literature and a way forward

      Tiwary, N.K.; Kumar, R.K.; Sarraf, S.; Kumar, P.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021-07)
      Although various critical elements, such as media publicity, word of mouth, legislation, and environmental factors, are not under the control of a company, they play a significant role in influencing its brand image. Uncertainty over how different social networking sites can support brands is one of the crucial reasons for the delayed acceptance of social media (SM) in business-to-business (B2B) transactions. SM possesses immense potential in relation to gathering customer data and assisting B2B marketers. Therefore, this study reviewed SM usage in the B2B context, based on 294 selected articles. The methodology included bibliometric analysis to identify the impact of SM usage in the B2B domain and content analysis to perform a thematic assessment. Our analysis found that many B2B firms cannot leverage SM’s potential to its fullest compared to business-to-customer (B2C) firms. However, SM can help B2B marketers build their brand presence and trust globally, ultimately helping them find potential customers and build relationships with global supply chain providers.
    • Impact of acculturation, online participation and involvement on voting intentions

      Jamal, A.; Kizgin, Hatice; Rana, Nripendra P.; Laroche, M.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-07)
      This study examines the extent to which acculturation and enculturation orientations affect online political participation, political involvement and voting intentions among a sample of Turkish-Dutch immigrants. The study uses data from Turkish-Dutch participants. Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) is employed for assessing the relationships in the conceptualized model. The findings show that enculturation and acculturation influence online participation and involvement, which in turn, are related to voting intentions. The study further examines the mediating role of political involvement and online political participation. Political involvement mediates the relationships between enculturation and acculturation and voting intentions. The results further indicate the effect of online participation on voting intentions is mediated by political involvement. The study findings provide insights into offline and online cultural and civic engagement tendencies among an important immigrant segment that policy makers should consider in the future.
    • The impact of autonomy and organisational relationships on subsidiary employment of skilled labour

      McDonald, Frank; Tüselmann, H-J.; Gammelgaard, J.; Dörrenbächer, C.; Stephan, A. (2007)
      The paper develops a conceptual model on relationship between the strategic development of subsidiaries, in developed economies, and the development of higher valued operations that leads to increased employment of skilled labour. A concept of effective autonomy is developed in the paper. Effective autonomy is conceived as the ability of the subsidiary to implement and finance its desired increase in skilled labour. The interrelated effects between effective autonomy and intra and inter organisational relationships and employment of skilled labour are found to be uncertain because effective autonomy can be supportive of the development of intra and inter organisational relationships that requires a higher proportion of skilled labour, but effective autonomy can lead to deterioration in intra-organisational relationships thereby leading to a more peripheral role played by the subsidiary thus lowering the need for skilled employment. The conceptual model is based on changes in effective autonomy and intra and inter organisational relationships and is therefore set in the context of the evolution of the development of subsidiaries.
    • The impact of big data analytics on firms’ high value business performance

      Popovic, A.; Hackney, R.; Tassabehji, Rana; Castelli, M. (2018-04)
      Big Data Analytics (BDA) is an emerging phenomenon with the reported potential to transform how firms manage and enhance high value businesses performance. The purpose of our study is to investigate the impact of BDA on operations management in the manufacturing sector, which is an acknowledged infrequently researched context. Using an interpretive qualitative approach, this empirical study leverages a comparative case study of three manufacturing companies with varying levels of BDA usage (experimental, moderate and heavy). The information technology (IT) business value literature and a resource based view informed the development of our research propositions and the conceptual framework that illuminated the relationships between BDA capability and organizational readiness and design. Our findings indicate that BDA capability (in terms of data sourcing, access, integration, and delivery, analytical capabilities, and people’s expertise) along with organizational readiness and design factors (such as BDA strategy, top management support, financial resources, and employee engagement) facilitated better utilization of BDA in manufacturing decision making, and thus enhanced high value business performance. Our results also highlight important managerial implications related to the impact of BDA on empowerment of employees, and how BDA can be integrated into organizations to augment rather than replace management capabilities. Our research will be of benefit to academics and practitioners in further aiding our understanding of BDA utilization in transforming operations and production management. It adds to the body of limited empirically based knowledge by highlighting the real business value resulting from applying BDA in manufacturing firms and thus encouraging beneficial economic societal changes.
    • The impact of capital taxation on UK unquoted companies

      Jennings, Peter L.; Allen, C.; Casson, P. (2003)
      The authors present findings from the initial phase of an ongoing externally funded research project into senior executive perceptions of the impact of capital taxation upon unquoted companies incorporated in the United Kingdom. Open-ended interviews were conducted with the senior executives of six unquoted companies which are also multigenerational family businesses. The interviews guided the executives to explore the history of their company; the values and aspirations of the founding or owning family(ies); the impact of capital taxation regimes, previous and current, both on ownership and on management succession; and strategies being pursued. Using content analysis to identify key themes, the authors suggest that their findings indicate that capital taxation may have a major impact both on ownership and on management succession as well as on succession planning. However, the current capital tax regime in the United Kingdom is perceived to be more favourable than that of previous regimes and vis-aé-vis the regimes currently operating in most European countries. Capital taxation is not thought to influence strategic or operational decisions either positively or negatively. Companies use taxation-planning devices, frequently involving trusts, in order to reduce the actual burden of capital taxation falling upon individual shareholders at ownership succession. The present capital taxation regime, which includes gift relief and business asset taper relief within capital gains tax, and 100% business property relief within inheritance tax, eases succession planning. Business asset taper relief also facilitates shareholder exit strategies.
    • The impact of CBOE options listing on the volatility of NYSE traded stock: a time varying risk approach

      Mazouz, Khelifa (2004)
      This paper employs the standard General Auto-regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH(1,1)) process to examine the impact of option listing on volatility the underlying stocks. It takes into consideration the time variation in the individual stock's variance and explicitly tests whether option listing causes any permanent volatility change. It also investigates the impact of option listing on the speed at which information is incorporated into the stock price. The study uses clean samples to avoid sample selection biases and control samples to account for the change in the volatility and/or information flows that may be caused by factors other than option listing.
    • Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on information management research and practice: transforming education, work and life

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Hughes, D.L.; Coombs, C.; Constantiou, I.; Duan, Y.; Edwards, J.S.; Gupta, B.; Lal, B.; Misra, S.; Prashant, P.; et al. (2020-12)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many organisations to undergo significant transformation, rethinking key elements of their business processes and use of technology to maintain operations whilst adhering to a changing landscape of guidelines and new procedures. This study offers a collective insight to many of the key issues and underlying complexities affecting organisations and society from COVID-19, through an information systems and technological perspective. The views of 12 invited subject experts are collated and analysed where each articulate their individual perspectives relating to: online learning, digital strategy, artificial intelligence, information management, social interaction, cyber security, big data, blockchain, privacy, mobile technology and strategy through the lens of the current crisis and impact on these specific areas. The expert perspectives offer timely insight to the range of topics, identifying key issues and recommendations for theory and practice.
    • The impact of culture and governance on corporate social reporting

      Haniffa, Roszaini M.; Cooke, T.E. (2005)
      Our aim is to increase understanding of the potential effects of culture and corporate governance on social disclosures. The ethnic background of directors and shareholders is used as a proxy for culture. Corporate governance characteristics include board composition, multiple directorships and type of shareholders. The dependent variable, disclosure in annual reports of Malaysian corporations, is measured by an index score as well as in terms of number of words. Our results indicate a significant relationship between corporate social disclosure and boards dominated by Malay directors, boards dominated by executive directors, chair with multiple directorships and foreign share ownership. Four of the control variables (size, profitability, multiple listing and type of industry) were significantly related to corporate social disclosure with the exception of gearing. This study has public policy implications for Malaysia as well as a number of other countries in the Asia¿Pacific region.
    • The impact of culture on best practice production / operations management

      Hope, Christine A.; Mühlemann, A.P. (2002)
      Significant work has been completed in arriving at what have been put forward as `best practices' for a variety of facets of production/operations management (POM). Organizations are becoming global in their operations. In this environment, there is a desire to learn from this 'proven' best practice and to use the generic ideas, concepts and techniques 'world-wide'. However, it is becoming apparent from a range of fragmented evidence that 'best practices' developed and successful in one context are not necessarily directly transferable to a comparable alternative. More detailed examination suggests that national culture has a significant role to play in determining the precise nature of a best practice in POM, and how universal it might be in its application. This paper examines structures within which to view facets of POM in order to identify one that will facilitate exploration of cultural issues. There follows an identification of what might be considered to be an appropriate range of cultural dimensions along which POM best practices may be considered. A review of the evidence from the literature of cultural impacts on aspects of POM is presented. This is used to support the development of a generic framework to examine this interface more comprehensively.
    • The Impact of Equity Ownership Groups on Investment: Evidence from Ukraine

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2017)
      We empirically investigate the impact of different ownership groups on companies’ investment in Ukraine with a novel dynamic investment model where investment is based on present and historical levels of profitability (market-to-book value of equity) and lagged investment. Groups include state, insider, non-domestic, financial and financial and industrial group (FIG) ownership. Contrary to the literature, we find that the past level of profitability significantly affects investment; the presence of and increases in state ownership have a negative impact on firms’ investment, as is the case for non-domestic and financial companies’ ownership. Insider and FIG ownership have no impact on investment. We explain the results by the extent of liquidity concerns (hard and soft budget constraints) and the extent of asset stripping for the corresponding ownership group and relate them to over- and underinvestment, and to the free cash flow or cash constraint hypothesis.
    • The Impact of Football Attendance on Tourist Expenditures for the United Kingdom

      Rudkin, Simon; Sharma, Abhijit (2017-09-14)
      We employ unconditional quantile regression with region of origin fixed effects, whereby we find that attending live football matches significantly increases expenditures by inbound tourist in the UK, and surprisingly we find that such effects are strongest for those who overall spend the least. Higher spending individuals spend significantly more than those who do not attend football matches, even when such individuals are otherwise similar. We analyse the impact of football attendance across the tourism expenditure distribution which is a relatively neglected aspect within previous research.
    • Impact of international financial reporting standards on the profit and equity of AIM listed companies in the UK

      Ali, A.; Akbar, Saeed; Ormrod, P. (2016-03)
      This study examines the extent to which the change from UK GAAP to IFRS has affected companies listed on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM) in the UK. The results suggest that, on average, profit reported under IFRS is higher than that reported under UK GAAP; however, the difference is much smaller for AIM listed companies as compared to what existing literature suggests for firms listed on main stock markets. The Gray's partial analysis results indicate that despite the extensive programmes for improving convergence over time there is still a considerable discrepancy between IFRS and UK GAAP.
    • Impact of internet of things (IoT) in disaster management: a task-technology fit perspective

      Sinha, A.; Kumar, P.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-12)
      Disaster management aims to mitigate the potential damage from the disasters, ensure immediate and suitable assistance to the victims, and attain effective and rapid recovery. These objectives require a planned and effective rescue operation post such disasters. Different types of information about the impact of the disaster are, hence, required for planning an effective and immediate relief operation. The IoT technology available today is quite mature and has the potential to be very useful in disaster situations. This paper analyzes the requirements for planning rescue operation for such natural disasters and proposes an IoT based solution to cater the identified requirements. The proposed solution is further validated using the task-technology fit (TTF) approach for analyzing the significance of the adoption of IoT technology for disaster management. Results from the exploratory study established the core dimensions of the task requirements and the TTF constructs. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis using PLS path modelling, further, suggest that both task requirements and IoT technology have significant impact on the IoT TTF in the disaster management scenario. This paper makes significant contributions in the development of appropriate constructs for modeling TTF for IoT Technology in the context of disaster management.
    • The impact of Investors in People on employees: a case study of a hospital trust

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Bevitt, S. (2002)
      This article reports on case study research conducted in a hospital Trust and explores the impact that the Investors in People award had on employees. Investors in People is widely seen as the principal mechanism for increasing workforce skills within a voluntarist system as well as supporting `good¿ employment policies. Yet in this case study, as elsewhere, most of the `soft¿ human resource initiatives had existed prior to accreditation and the internal marketing of corporate value statements was met with both amnesia and cynicism. More worryingly, training activity was focused on business need, and business need was defined in the narrowest sense, with the result that some employees had fewer opportunities for individual development. Motivation and commitment levels were high, staff were enthusiastic about their work and many actively engaged in training and development. But this owed little to Investors in People and its impact here raises questions about its influence on skill levels more broadly.