• How to regain public trust in audit firms? The case of the Financial Reporting Council

      Eldaly, Mohamed K.A.; Abdel-Kader, M. (2018)
      This study aims to provide a better understanding of the role of the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) in restoring public trust in audit profession in the UK. It analyses the views of partners in the Big 4 audit firms on this role. This study identifies three main strategies to promote trust and enhance the choice of auditors in the UK audit market. These strategies are improving audit quality, increasing the transparency of the big audit firms and reducing the barriers to competition in the audit market. The findings suggest that partners of the Big 4 believe that the FRC's projects effectively participate in improving audit quality as well as providing wider information about the audit firms to the public. However, different actions need to be taken to enhance the choice in the market.
    • Human capital resources: a review and direction for future research

      Haq, Muhibul (2016)
      This article reviews the literature on human capital resources and develops a conceptual model incorporating social capital, relational capital and knowledge as the components of human capital resources and linking these to competitive advantage. Scholars from various disciplines expanded our understanding of human capital as important organizational resources but research in this field remains fragmented. Building on past research this review contributes to existing knowledge in human capital resources by introducing an integrated conceptual framework comprising of both micro-level human capital and macro-level strategic human capital resources. In so doing it provides alternative definitions for human capital resources with the aim to make their assessment and understandability more meaningful and clearer than what has been offered so far. Moreover, by bringing knowledge, social capital and relational capital under human capital, this review encourages a dialogue among scholars from various disciplines to investigate the creation and accumulation of strategic human capital resources holistically.
    • Human Resource Management and the Permeable Organization: The Case of the Multi-Client Call Centre

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Cooke, F.L.; Rubery, J.; Carroll, M. (2009-06-24)
      Despite the interest over recent years in the fragmentation of organizations and the development of contracting, little attention has been paid to the impact of the associated inter-organizational relationships on the internal organization of employment. Inter-organizational relations have been introduced primarily as a means of externalizing - and potentially rendering invisible - employment issues and employment relations. In a context where inter-organizational relationships appear to be growing in volume and diversity, this constitutes a significant gap in the literature that this paper in part aims to fill. The purpose of the paper is two-fold: to develop a framework for considering the internal and external organizational influences on employment and to apply this framework within a case study of a multi-client outsourcing call centre. We explore the interactions between internal objectives, client demands and the use of external contracting in relation to three dimensions of employment policy: managing the wage-effort bargain, managing flexibility and managing commitment and performance. It is the interplay between these factors in a dynamic context that provides, we suggest, the basis for a more general framework for considering human resource policy in permeable organizations.
    • Human resource slack, sustainable innovation and environmental performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in sub-Saharan Africa

      Adomako, Samuel; Nguyen, N.P. (2020-12)
      Despite the burgeoning interests in the environmental strategy, there is a limited understanding of how human resource slack drives sustainable innovation and environmental performance. This paper contributes to filling this gap by examining the effect of human resource slack on sustainable innovation and its impact on environmental performance. Besides, this paper investigates the contingent effects of intangible resource advantage on this relationship. The hypotheses are tested using data from 301 small and medium‐sized enterprises in Ghana. The results suggest that human resource slack positively relates to sustainable innovation and this relationship is moderated by intangible resource advantage. Also, we find that sustainable innovation mediates the relationship between human resource slack and environmental performance. The insights from our paper provide a nuanced understanding of the relationships among human resource lack, sustainable innovation, and environmental performance. Implications for theory and practices are discussed.
    • The Human Side of Skills and Knowledge

      Grugulis, C. Irena (2007)
      The goal of decent work is best expressed through the eyes of people. It is about your job and future prospects; about your working conditions; about balancing work and family life, putting your kids through school or getting them out of child labour. It is about gender equality, equal recognition, and enabling women to make choices and take control of their lives. It is about personal abilities to compete in the market place, keep up with new technological skills and remain healthy. It is about developing your entrepreneurial skills, about receiving a fair share of wealth that you have helped to create and not being discriminated against; it is about having a voice in your workplace and your community . . . . For everybody, decent work is about securing human dignity (ILO 2001:7 - 8 cited in Green 2006:19 - 20).
    • A human-centric perspective exploring the readiness towards smart warehousing: the case of a large retail distribution warehouse

      Mahroof, Kamran (2019-04)
      The explosive rise in technologies has revolutionised the way in which business operate, consumers buy, and the pace at which these activities take place. These advancements continue to have profound impact on business processes across the entire organisation. As such, Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LSCM) are also leveraging benefits from digitisation, allowing organisations to increase efficiency and productivity, whilst also providing greater transparency and accuracy in the movement of goods. While the warehouse is a key component within LSCM, warehousing research remains an understudied area within overall supply chain research, accounting for only a fraction of the overall research within this field. However, of the extant warehouse research, attention has largely been placed on warehouse design, performance and technology use, yet overlooking the determinants of Artificial Intelligence (AI) adoption within warehouses. Accordingly, through proposing an extension of the Technology–Organisation–Environment (TOE) framework, this research explores the barriers and opportunities of AI within the warehouse of a major retailer. The findings for this qualitative study reveal AI challenges resulting from a shortage of both skill and mind-set of operational management, while also uncovering the opportunities presented through existing IT infrastructure and pre-existing AI exposure of management.
    • 'I don't know where they learn them': skills in film and television

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Stoyanova, Dimitrinka Draganova (2009)
    • I-MEET Framework for the Evaluation eGovernment Services from Engaging Stakeholders' Perspectives

      Osman, I.H.; Anouze, A.L.; Hindi, N.M.; Irani, Zahir; Lee, Habin; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2014-06)
      I-MEET is an Integrated Model for Evaluating E-government services Transformation from stakeholders' perspectives. It is based on an integration of concepts from value chain management and business process transformation to optimize the system-wide value chain of providers and users simultaneously. It aims to align stakeholders on a common global value against traditional disintegrated approaches where each stakeholder optimizes its e-service local value at the expense of others. The measured variables are derived from the literature and focused groups. They are then categorized into cost and risk (Inputs) and (benefit and opportunity) Outputs after a validation process based on Structured Equation Models using a sample of 1540 user-responses of e-services in the UK. Finally, Data Envelopment Analysis is conducted to derive an aggregated of an e-service satisfaction value using the various inputs and outputs. The empirical results demonstrate that data-derived weights for aggregating indicators are variable rather than fixed across e-services. The novelty of the assessment approach lies in its capability to provide informed suggestions to set targets to improve an eservice from the perspective of all engaging users. Hence it provides a better transformation of public administration services and improved take up by citizens and businesses.
    • Identification of critical management skills in healthcare operations management: The case of pharmacists in the National Health Service (UK)

      Breen, Liz; Roberts, Leanne; Mathew, Dimble; Tariq, Zara; Arif, Izbah; Mubin, Forhad; Manu, Bradlyn; Aziz, Fessur (2015-06)
      The role of the pharmacist as we know it has altered substantially over recent years. No longer is the expectation that they are a dispenser of pills and potions and nothing else (Richardson and Pollock, 2010). Skills/competencies mapping and associated performance have been examined from a supply chain perspective e.g. Kauppi et al., 2013; Sohal, 2013; but there is limited evidence of such exploration within the pharmacy profession and healthcare operations management. The aim of this study is to explore the critical management skills needed by pharmacists to effectively perform their role within the National Health Service (UK).
    • Identification through technical analysis: A study of charting and UK non-professional investors

      Roscoe, P.; Howorth, Carole (2009)
      The usefulness of technical analysis, or charting, has been questioned because it flies in the face of the ‘random walk’ and tests present conflicting results. We examine chartists’ decision-making techniques and derive a taxonomy of charting strategies based on investors’ market ontologies and calculative strategies. This distinguishes between trend-seekers and pattern-seekers, and trading as a system or an art. We argue that interpretative activity plays a more important role than previously thought and suggest that charting’s main appeal for users lies in its power as a heuristic device regardless of its effectiveness at generating returns.
    • Identifying green logistics best practices leading to the effective usage of pharmaceuticals: a case study of Thailand’s Public Hospitals

      Bandoophanit, Thianthip; Breen, Liz; Barber, Kevin D. (2017-09)
      Purpose Pharmaceuticals are a key input into healthcare operations and so their effective management is vital. This issue is of key importance in Thailand and is aligned with the Thailand’s 2nd National Logistics and Supply Chain Research Strategies (2012-2016) focusing on healthcare green logistics. Pharmaceuticals in hospitals account for more than 50% of the total hospital purchasing budget. Moreover, the overuse of medicine was generally found to be prevalent in Thai hospitals despite serious financial concerns. The aim of this study was twofold: Phase (i) to investigate the movement and lifecycle of pharmaceuticals within Thai hospital sites and Phase (ii) identify the GL practices that effectively control/minimize the use of pharmaceuticals. Research Approach Using a case research method six hospitals were examined, to give coverage of the different types/sizes, locations and a range of environmental performance issues. Hospital visits were undertaken during January to July 2014, to obtain data by using a multi-method approach: interviews, documentation reviews and in situ observation. Purposive respondent sampling was undertaken to ensure that data was collected from staff with experience of pharmaceutical management and a bespoke form of content analysis used for the data review before further cross-case analysis. Findings and Originality The result of Phase (i) revealed that pharmaceutical flows appeared to be sophisticated and problematic, caused by issues such as limited budget allocation, ineffective governmental processes, and the over-prescribing of medicine for chronic patients. The findings also identified effective GL practices such as: (i) prescribing medicines for only 1-2 months for some patient conditions/drug types and increasing the frequency of follow-up reviews, (ii) conducting a medicines return programme and (iii) having a clearly defined system of pharmaceutical product review. The outcomes of the study proposed key practices to support a Sustainable Health System at both policy and hospital levels. Within this were: (i) a representation of stakeholder views, (ii) the provision of healthcare education and communication, (iii) addressing self-health management issues and (iv) planned system review and improvement. The design and execution of such a system should be grounded in Thailand’s Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) concept. Research Impacts In the GL research paradigm public healthcare, developing nations, human elements and life-cycle products have received limited attention; this study therefore contributes to the reduction of these gaps. The SEP concept was highly recommended by the United Nations, instead of Sustainable Development, in addressing GL practices in Thai culture to promote sustainable health standards and this underpins the focus and the originality/impact of this study. Practical Impacts This study recommends that staff in Thai hospitals focus on effective pharmaceutical management to contribute to the sustainability of good GL practices (as identified) and to the design and delivery of a Sustainable Health System in Thailand. The study presents guidance and support to do this.
    • Identifying green logistics best practices: a case study of Thailand's public hospitals

      Bandoophanit, T.; Breen, Liz; Barber, Kevin D. (2018-09)
      Purpose Previous research (Bandoophanit et al, 2017) has shown that pharmaceuticals are a key input into effective healthcare operations but other equally important inputs are medical supplies, food, utilities, equipment and linen. As stated by the Twelfth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017-2021) of Thailand, to attempt to deliver national Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) organisations should preserve resources and minimize waste-generation in all aspects. The principal aim of this research project was to identify green practices and develop a model which supported and promoted healthcare efficiencies. Research Approach This was a mixed methods multi-site study using both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Six public hospitals were selected as case organizations, covering different types/sizes, locations, and environmental performance expertise. The data collection methods included interviews, documentation reviews and in situ observations. Respondents’ selection was purposive and a bespoke form of content analysis was used for the data review before further cross-case analysis, resulting in the identification of best practices using key indicators. Findings and Originality In spite of facing financial crisis, by reviewing key logistical processes and lifecycle, the overuse of healthcare resources and the poor management of waste, were clearly identified within in this study. This had a negative effect on personnel and patient hygiene. The result of identifying effective GL practices were reported as: (i) promoting the usage of multiple-use medical devices that can minimize inputs, waste, and cost, and (ii) producing/selecting organic food materials and fruits and reusing these waste byproducts to create secondary products e.g. fertilizer, biogas and electricity and cleaning/sterilizing liquid. The results also indicated that there was a drive from leaders to introduce green and efficient systems to improve staff personnel awareness and engagement in this area. The output of this study presents a model for GL implementation guidance, grounded in Thailand’s Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) concept. Research Impacts Currently, healthcare green logistics has received limited attention in developing nations and this study contributes to the reduction of these gaps. The SEP concept promotes sustainable health standards and underpins the focus and the originality/impact of this study. Practical Impacts This study recommends that staff in Thai hospitals focus on effective resource and waste management to contribute to sustainable sufficiency. This allows Thailand to offer an effective healthcare service to its patients. The study presents guidance and support to do this.
    • Identifying reputation collectors in community question answering (CQA) sites: Exploring the dark side of social media

      Roy, P.K.; Singh, J.P.; Baabdullah, A.M.; Kizgin, Hatice; Rana, Nripendra P. (2018-10)
      This research aims to identify users who are posting as well as encouraging others to post low-quality and duplicate contents on community question answering sites. The good guys called Caretakers and the bad guys called Reputation Collectors are characterised by their behaviour, answering pattern and reputation points. The proposed system is developed and analysed over publicly available Stack Exchange data dump. A graph based methodology is employed to derive the characteristic of Reputation Collectors and Caretakers. Results reveal that Reputation Collectors are primary sources of low-quality answers as well as answers to duplicate questions posted on the site. The Caretakers answer limited questions of challenging nature and fetches maximum reputation against those questions whereas Reputation Collectors answers have so many low-quality and duplicate questions to gain the reputation point. We have developed algorithms to identify the Caretakers and Reputation Collectors of the site. Our analysis finds that 1.05% of Reputation Collectors post 18.88% of low quality answers. This study extends previous research by identifying the Reputation Collectors and 2 how they collect their reputation points.
    • Identifying the relative importance of stock characteristics in the UK market

      French, D.; Wu, Yuliang; Li, Y. (2016-03)
      There is no consensus in the literature as to which stock characteristic best explains returns. In this study, we employ a novel econometric approach better suited than the traditional characteristic sorting method to answer this question for the UK market. We evaluate the relative explanatory power of market, size, momentum, volatility, liquidity and book-to-market factors in a semiparametric characteristic-based factor model which does not require constructing characteristic portfolios. We find that momentum is the most important factor and liquidity is the least important based on their relative contribution to the fit of the model and the proportion of sample months for which factor returns are significant. Our evidence supports the view that irrational investor behaviour may drive stock returns.
    • Identifying the trends and impact of graduate attributes on employability: a literature review

      Osmani, M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Hindi, N.; Al Esmail, R.; Eldabi, T.; Kapoor, K.; Irani, Zahir (2015)
      Graduate employability has become an issue since there are broad mismatches between the acquired graduate skills from university and the required skills by employers. While previous researches have outlined the salient skills that need to be embedded in graduate education, to date no studies have attempted to methodically identify and synthesize the literature on graduate attributes. In this paper a total of 39 relevant studies on graduate skills and attributes in the subject areas of business and management, accounting, and computer science were extracted from Scopus® (database). This revealed a total of 53 graduate attributes, with some being highly used, such as communication, teamwork, problem solving, technological skills, creativity, interpersonal skills, leadership skills, self-management and flexibility/adaptability. The majority of studies used a quantitative survey method to collect and rank graduate attributes, and Australia emerged as the most active country in researching the domain.
    • Idiosyncratic risk and the cross-section of stock returns: the role of mean-reverting idiosyncratic volatility

      Bozhkov, S.; Lee, H.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Despoudi, S.; Nandy, M. (2020)
      A key prediction of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is that idiosyncratic risk is not priced by investors because in the absence of frictions it can be fully diversified away. In the presence of constraints on diversification, refinements of the CAPM conclude that the part of idiosyncratic risk that is not diversified should be priced. Recent empirical studies yielded mixed evidence with some studies finding positive correlation between idiosyncratic risk and stock returns, while other studies reported none or even negative correlation. We revisit the problem whether idiosyncratic risk is priced by the stock market and what are the probable causes for the mixed evidence produced by other studies, using monthly data for the US market covering the period from 1980 until 2013. We find that one-period volatility forecasts are not significantly correlated with stock returns. The mean-reverting unconditional volatility, however, is a robust predictor of returns. Consistent with economic theory, the size of the premium depends on the degree of 'knowledge' of the security among market participants. In particular, the premium for Nasdaq-traded stocks is higher than that for NYSE and Amex stocks. We also find stronger correlation between idiosyncratic risk and returns during recessions, which may suggest interaction of risk premium with decreased risk tolerance or other investment considerations like flight to safety or liquidity requirements. The difference between the correlations of the idiosyncratic volatility estimators used by other studies and the true risk metric the mean-reverting volatility is the likely cause for the mixed evidence produced by other studies. Our results are robust with respect to liquidity, momentum, return reversals, unadjusted price, liquidity, credit quality, omitted factors, and hold at daily frequency.
    • The ILO's Shift to Promotional Principles and the 'Privatization' of Labour Rights: An Analysis of Labour Standards, Voluntary Self-Regulation and Social Clauses

      Royle, Tony (2010)
      The paper examines the existing quasi-legal means by which international labour standards may be protected. The paper considers the nature of the challenge that global capital creates for labour, the development of the ILO’s labour standards and the consequences of its shift towards promotional principles, the growth of corporate voluntary initiatives by multinational corporations and finally the associated debates around the inclusion of social clauses in trade agreements. The analysis suggests that the ILO’s shift to ‘promotional principles’ and the formal acceptance of voluntary self-regulation from the late-1990s has not significantly improved the situation for workers, but was a pragmatic response driven in part by US policy and the increasing marginalization of the ILO within the global system of economic governance. It is argued that even if the many political obstacles could be overcome, the result of including social clauses in WTO trade agreements may not be straightforward. In conclusion it is argued that in some respects the existing system has ‘privatised’ labour rights.
    • Imagining the impossible? Fears of deportation and the barriers in obtaining EU Settled Status in the UK

      Elfving, Sanna; Marcinkowska, Aleksandra (2021)
      In early 2021, over 5 million European Union (EU) citizens had applied for settled status to secure their right to continue to live, work and study in the United Kingdom (UK) after the country’s withdrawal from the EU (Brexit). In 2018, the Home Office launched a Statement of Intent to implement an application process for EU citizens through its EU Settlement Scheme. In the period leading to Brexit, the UK government assured EU migrants that their existing rights under EU law will remain essentially unchanged, and that applying for the settled status will be smooth, transparent and simple. However, the application process has resulted in some long-term residents failing to obtain settled status, despite providing the required information. Based on qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 EU migrants living in 2 major metropolitan areas in North East England, this article discusses the significant barriers which EU citizens face with the application process. This situation affects especially the most vulnerable EU migrants with limited English language skills and/or low literacy levels as well as those who are digitally excluded. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the consequences of Brexit to vulnerable EU migrants in the UK, focusing specifically on Central and Eastern European migrants.
    • Impact assessment of social media usage in B2B marketing: A review of the literature and a way forward

      Tiwary, N.K.; Kumar, R.K.; Sarraf, S.; Kumar, P.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021-07)
      Although various critical elements, such as media publicity, word of mouth, legislation, and environmental factors, are not under the control of a company, they play a significant role in influencing its brand image. Uncertainty over how different social networking sites can support brands is one of the crucial reasons for the delayed acceptance of social media (SM) in business-to-business (B2B) transactions. SM possesses immense potential in relation to gathering customer data and assisting B2B marketers. Therefore, this study reviewed SM usage in the B2B context, based on 294 selected articles. The methodology included bibliometric analysis to identify the impact of SM usage in the B2B domain and content analysis to perform a thematic assessment. Our analysis found that many B2B firms cannot leverage SM’s potential to its fullest compared to business-to-customer (B2C) firms. However, SM can help B2B marketers build their brand presence and trust globally, ultimately helping them find potential customers and build relationships with global supply chain providers.
    • Impact of acculturation, online participation and involvement on voting intentions

      Jamal, A.; Kizgin, Hatice; Rana, Nripendra P.; Laroche, M.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-07)
      This study examines the extent to which acculturation and enculturation orientations affect online political participation, political involvement and voting intentions among a sample of Turkish-Dutch immigrants. The study uses data from Turkish-Dutch participants. Structural Equations Modelling (SEM) is employed for assessing the relationships in the conceptualized model. The findings show that enculturation and acculturation influence online participation and involvement, which in turn, are related to voting intentions. The study further examines the mediating role of political involvement and online political participation. Political involvement mediates the relationships between enculturation and acculturation and voting intentions. The results further indicate the effect of online participation on voting intentions is mediated by political involvement. The study findings provide insights into offline and online cultural and civic engagement tendencies among an important immigrant segment that policy makers should consider in the future.