• Becoming the leader: leadership as material presence

      Ford, Jackie M.; Harding, Nancy H.; Gilmore, S.; Richardson, Sue (2017-11-01)
      This paper seeks to understand leaders as material presences. Leadership theory has traditionally explored leaders as sites of disembodied traits, characteristics and abilities. Our qualitative, mixed method study suggests that managers charged with the tasks of leadership operate within a very different understanding. Their endogenous or lay theory understands leadership as physical, corporeal and visible, and as something made manifest through leaders’ material presence. This theory-in-practice holds that leadership qualities are signified by the leader’s physical appearance: the good leader must look the part. Actors consequently work on their own appearance to present an image of themselves as leader. They thus offer a fundamental challenge to dominant exogenous, or academic, theories of leadership. To understand the unspoken assumptions that underpin the lay theory of leadership as material presence, we interrogate it using the new materialist theory of Karen Barad and the object relations theory of Christopher Bollas. This illuminates the lay theory’s complexities and sophisticated insights. In academic terms it offers a theory of how sentient and non-sentient actors intra-act and performatively constitute leadership through complex entanglements that enact and circulate organizational and leadership norms. The paper’s contribution is thus a theory of leadership micro-dynamics in which the leader is materialised through practices of working on a corporeal self for presentation to both self and others.
    • 'A beginning and not the end’: Work after a diagnosis of dementia

      Williams, Jannine; Richardson, Sue; Draper, E. (2018)
      While there is a growing literature on the experiences of disabled workers, this article presents an account of a work experience not frequently documented: being employed while living with dementia. It does this through the account of Elizabeth Draper, an NHS Hospital Trust manager, who received a diagnosis of dementia while employed. The article offers new ways of conceptualizing the struggles of disabled workers to continue with their project of self-becoming through work. It shows how work practices can enact violence through ‘non-recognition’ and how workers can subvert this violence to create opportunities for future development.
    • Behind film performance in China’s changing institutional context: the impact of signals

      Elliott, C.; Konara, P.; Ling, H.; Wang, Chengang; Wei, Yingqi (2017-03)
      Grounded in signaling theory, this paper investigates the signals reflecting product quality, innovativeness, reputation and cultural background which influence film performance, i.e. film survival (duration on cinema screen) and box office success, in China’s changing institutional context. This market has grown substantially and still possesses potential for further development. However, China’s unique institutional context presents challenges. By examining an expanded range of potential signals, two of which have not previously been examined in the literature, namely imported films and enhanced format film formats such as 3D and IMAX, we develop a conceptual framework and argue that signaling theory needs to be combined with institutional context. Similar to findings for film industries in other countries, we find quality and reputational signals including budget, star power, sequels, and online consumer reviews to be important in China. However, unique results are also revealed. Chinese consumers react to an innovativeness signal in that they are specifically attracted to enhanced format films. Film award nominations and prizes are insignificant reputational signals. Once other signals are taken into account, imported films on average do not perform as well as domestic films. We link these findings to China’s unique institutional setting and offer important implications for management, recognizing the challenges to film companies of competing in an increasingly globalized market. The paper is also of relevance to policymakers given their continued efforts in shaping the development of China’s film industry.
    • Being disabled, being a manager: ‘glass partitions’ and conditional identities in the contemporary workplace

      Roulstone, A. (2014)
      This article critically explores the working lives and views of disabled senior staff working in UK organisations. The qualitative research at the core of the article establishes that some disabled people are confounding established notions of disabled people only working in peripheral employment roles by exploring the working lives and perceptions of disabled managers. The findings do, however, point to continued barriers to what disabled staff in senior positions can be seen to do and be organisationally. Here both practical and ontological risk inheres in organisationally induced change, openness about impairment and risky identities. Such ideas, it is argued, present limits to further promotion and workplace inclusion for some disabled managers.
    • Beyond planning: Strategies for successfully implementing strategic decidions.

      Miller, Susan J.; Wilson, D.C.; Hickson, David J. (2004)
      This article brings strategy back to managers and their organizations. It argues and demonstrates empirically that what managers do, and the kind of organization they lead, matter in terms of achieving stated objectives. Managerial action involves a set of activities from assessing the problem to prioritising action, and takes place within an organizational context which has two important elements for decision-making. First, organizations have an accumulated stock of experience, and the more managers can access and utilise this experience base the better. Secondly, the culture and structure of an organization may exhibit more or less readiness for the changes that decisions bring about, and contexts less ready for change pose problems for managers in the implementation of decisions. This long-term study of 55 decisions in UK firms shows that careful managerial planning does not of itself guarantee successful outcomes: the organizational context is crucial in framing actions and influencing achievement, and decisions may send a firm on a trajectory beyond the point at which it can plan with confidence. Where experience and readiness are strong, decisions achieve stated objectives¿where both are lacking, decisions tend to fail. But, as examination of two illustrative cases indicates, strength in either domain may be enough: sound experience may win out in comparatively unreceptive situations, and decisions may still succeed where experience is lacking but the organization is ready for change. The article closes with some implications for managers.
    • Big Data Analytics and Business Failures in Data-Rich Environments: An Organizing Framework

      Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Adomako, Samuel (2019-02)
      In view of the burgeoning scholarly works on big data and big data analytical capabilities, there remains limited research on how different access to big data and different big data analytic capabilities possessed by firms can generate diverse conditions leading to business failure. To fill this gap in the existing literature, an integrated framework was developed that entailed two approaches to big data as an asset (i.e. threshold resource and distinctive resource) and two types of competences in big data analytics (i.e. threshold competence and distinctive/core competence). The analysis provides insights into how ordinary big data analytic capability and mere possession of big data are more likely to create conditions for business failure. The study extends the existing streams of research by shedding light on decisions and processes in facilitating or hampering firms’ ability to harness big data to mitigate the cause of business failures. The analysis led to the categorization of a number of fruitful avenues for research on data-driven approaches to business failure.
    • Big data in an HR context: Exploring organizational change readiness, employee attitudes and behaviors

      Shah, N.; Irani, Zahir; Sharif, Amir M. (2017-01)
      This research highlights a contextual application for big data within a HR case study setting. This is achieved through the development of a normative conceptual model that seeks to envelop employee behaviors and attitudes in the context of organizational change readiness. This empirical application considers a data sample from a large public sector organization and through applying Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) identifies salary, job promotion, organizational loyalty and organizational identity influences on employee job satisfaction (suggesting and mediating employee readiness for organizational change). However in considering this specific context, the authors highlight how, where and why such a normative approach to employee factors may be limited and thus, proposes through a framework which brings together big data principles, implementation approaches and management commitment requirements can be applied and harnessed more effectively in order to assess employee attitudes and behaviors as part of wider HR predictive analytics (HRPA) approaches. The researchers conclude with a discussion on these research elements and a set of practical, conceptual and management implications of the findings along with recommendations for future research in the area.
    • Big data, data mining, and machine learning: value creation for business leaders and practitioners

      Dean, J. (2014)
      Big data is big business. But having the data and the computational power to process it isn't nearly enough to produce meaningful results. Big Data, Data Mining, and Machine Learning: Value Creation for Business Leaders and Practitioners is a complete resource for technology and marketing executives looking to cut through the hype and produce real results that hit the bottom line. Providing an engaging, thorough overview of the current state of big data analytics and the growing trend toward high performance computing architectures, the book is a detail-driven look into how big data analytics can be leveraged to foster positive change and drive efficiency. With continued exponential growth in data and ever more competitive markets, businesses must adapt quickly to gain every competitive advantage available. Big data analytics can serve as the linchpin for initiatives that drive business, but only if the underlying technology and analysis is fully understood and appreciated by engaged stakeholders.
    • Big data-driven fuzzy cognitive map for prioritising IT service procurement in the public sector

      Choi, Y.; Lee, Habin; Irani, Zahir (2018-11)
      The prevalence of big data is starting to spread across the public and private sectors however, an impediment to its widespread adoption orientates around a lack of appropriate big data analytics (BDA) and resulting skills to exploit the full potential of big data availability. In this paper, we propose a novel BDA to contribute towards this void, using a fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) approach that will enhance decision-making thus prioritising IT service procurement in the public sector. This is achieved through the development of decision models that capture the strengths of both data analytics and the established intuitive qualitative approach. By taking advantages of both data analytics and FCM, the proposed approach captures the strength of data-driven decision-making and intuitive model-driven decision modelling. This approach is then validated through a decision-making case regarding IT service procurement in public sector, which is the fundamental step of IT infrastructure supply for publics in a regional government in the Russia federation. The analysis result for the given decision-making problem is then evaluated by decision makers and e-government expertise to confirm the applicability of the proposed BDA. In doing so, demonstrating the value of this approach in contributing towards robust public decision-making regarding IT service procurement.
    • The big green lab project

      Lucas, Beverley J.; Comerford Boyes, Louise; Karodia, Nazira; Munshi, Tasnim; Martin, William H.C.; Hopkinson, Peter G. (2014-03)
      Beverley Lucas and her colleagues give us a big green welcome to the Ecoversity of Bradford In 2005, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (Hefce) stated that ‘the greatest contribution a university can make to sustainable development is through the education of their graduates’. The University of Bradford took up the gauntlet, embedding sustainable development in all areas of its campus whilst also transforming the curriculum across the university to educate for sustainable development. This led to them coining themselves an ecoversity.
    • Blacklisting

      Gall, Gregor (2016)
    • Blending Existentialist and Constructionist Approaches in Leadership Studies: An Exploratory Account

      Lawler, John A.; Ford, Jackie M. (2007)
      This paper aims to explore the contribution of combined social constructionist and existential perspectives to the understanding of leadership and calls for a reconsideration of the objectivist, functionalist assumptions and approaches to leadership. It aims to argue the value of incorporating the subjective perspective through two related approaches
    • Board composition, grey directors and corporate failure in the UK

      Hsu, Hwa-Hsien; Wu, C.Y-H. (2014-09)
      This study examines the effect of board composition on the likelihood of corporate failure in the UK. We consider both independent and non-independent (grey) non-executive directors (NEDs) to enhance our understanding of the impact of NEDs' personal or economic ties with the firm and its management on firm performance. We find that firms with a larger proportion of grey directors on their boards are less likely to fail. Furthermore, the probability of corporate failure is lower both when firms have a higher proportion of grey directors relative to executive directors and when they have a higher proportion of grey directors relative to independent directors. Conversely, there is a positive relationship between the likelihood of corporate failure and the proportion of independent directors on corporate boards. The findings discussed in this study support the collaborative board model and the view that corporate governance reform efforts may have over emphasised the monitoring function of independent directors and underestimated the benefits of NEDs' affiliations with the firm and its management. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Board Independence, Audit Quality and Earnings Management: Evidence from Egypt

      Khalil, Mohamed; Ozkan, Aydin (2016)
      Using a unique dataset for Egyptian firms, we investigate the relationship between board independence, audit quality and earnings management. We test whether firm-level corporate governance provisions matter in an emerging market setting characterised by weak legal enforcement and inadequate external discipline by the market for corporate control. Our results cast doubt on the notion that a higher ratio of nonexecutive members is associated with lower earnings management. We find that the effect of board independence on earnings management practices is contingent on the levels of ownership held by executive directors and large shareholders, as well as the composition of audit committee. In addition, the results are consistent with the view that high-quality auditors are effective in reducing earnings management.
    • Boxed up and locked up, safe and tight! Making the case for unattended electronic locker bank logistics for an innovative solution to NHS hospital supplies (UK)

      Bailey, G.; Cherrett, T.; Waterson, B.; Breen, Liz; Long, R. (2015)
      The lack of separation between urgent and non-urgent medical goods encourages sub-optimal vehicle fleet operations owing to the time critical nature of urgent items. An unattended electronic locker bank, to which individual urgent items can be delivered thereby separating urgent and non-urgent supply, was proposed for the Great Ormond Street Hospital in London, UK. This concept was quantified using ‘basic’ and ‘intuitive’ hill climbing optimisation models; and qualitatively using staff interviews and expert reviews. Results indicated that a locker bank with a fixed height (1.7 m) and depth (0.8 m) required a length of 4 m (basic model) and 3.63 m (intuitive model), to accommodate 100% of urgent consignments for a typical week. Staff interviews indicated the wider benefits such as staff personal deliveries.
    • The Bradford Innocence Project

      Guth, Jessica (2008)
      The Bradford Innocence Project provides a university led, community supported initiative that deals with cases of wrongful conviction. The project provides students from a wide variety of academic disciplines the opportunity to research and subsequently run cases under the close supervision of academics and practitioners in the legal field.
    • Brand champion behaviour: Its role in corporate branding

      Yakimova, Raisa; Mavonda, F.; Freeman, S.; Stuart, H. (2017)
      Brand champions are responsible for encouraging employee commitment to the corporate brand strategy. They strongly believe in and identify with the brand concept—the company’s selected brand meaning, which underpins corporate brand strategy implementation. We conducted research to explore why and how brand champion behaviour operates within companies implementing a new corporate brand strategy. Against a backdrop of growing interest in brand champion behaviour in corporate branding research, we grounded our study in social identity theory and rhetorical theory from change management literature. Our findings show that articulating a compelling brand vision, taking responsibility, and getting the right people involved are the most widely used strategies by brand champions. We uncover how rhetorical strategies within brand champion behaviour generate employee commitment to a new corporate brand strategy. The dimension of brand champion behaviour that is effective depends on the type of brand evolution, involving shifts in the brand concept. We make suggestions for further studies underpinned by social identity theory and rhetorical theory to investigate brand champion behaviour processes within companies introducing a new corporate brand strategy.
    • Brand Ownership as a Central Component of Adolescent Self-esteem: The Development of A New Self-Esteem Scale

      Isaksen, K.; Roper, Stuart (2016-07-08)
      This paper outlines the development of a new scale to measure adolescent selfesteem. The new scale addresses weaknesses in existing measures which have failed to consider the growth of the consumer society in the western world and the impact of this on the formation of adolescent self-esteem. The development of this scale includes extensive qualitative research with over 100 high school pupils, which led to a series of quantitative data collection and analysis processes to develop the scale. In the final stage, data was collected from 889 pupils and analysed to confirm the validity and reliability of the new measure. The result of this work is a 21 item self-esteem scale comprising of 4 distinct, yet interrelated factors: self-evaluation; social ability; social comparison effects and notably, brand ownership. The findings provide an updated and upgraded measure of self-esteem which takes into consideration the specific audience of adolescents living in a consumer culture. The scale development process demonstrates that when considering the formation of self-esteem, the influence of the use and possession of commercial brands is as relevant as the traditional factors/components such as academic achievement or sporting prowess.
    • A brand preference and repurchase intention model: the role of consumer experience

      Ebrahim, R.; Ghoneim, Ahmad; Irani, Zahir; Fan, Y. (2016)
      Consumer brand preference is an essential step towards understanding consumer choice behaviour, and has therefore always received great attention from marketers. However, the study of brand preference has been limited to traditional marketing focusing on functional attributes to maximise utility. But now the shift to experiential marketing broadens the role of the brand from a bundle of attributes to experiences. Technological advancements have helped to increase the similarities between brand attributes and product commoditisation. Consequently, consumers cannot shape their preferences among brands using rational attributes only. They seek out brands that create experiences; that intrigue them in a sensorial, emotional and creative way. This study seeks to develop a model that provides an understanding of how brand knowledge and brand experience determine brand preference and to investigate its impact on brand repurchase intention. Accordingly, exploratory focus group discussions are employed followed by a survey of mobile phone users in Egypt. The findings provide insights into the relative importance of consumer perceptions on different brand knowledge factors in shaping brand preferences. It also demonstrates the significance of consumers’ experiential responses towards brands in developing their brand preferences that in turn influence brand repurchase intention. The model therefore offers managers a new perspective for building strong brands able to gain consumer preferences.