• An Analysis of the Impact of Low Cost Airlines on Tourist Stay Duration and Expenditures

      Qiu, W.; Rudkin, Simon; Sharma, Abhijit (2017-09-14)
      Low cost carriers (budget airlines) have a significant share of the air travel market, but little research has been done to understand the distributional effect of their operation on key tourism indicators such as length of stay and expenditure. Using data on European visitors to the United Kingdom we demonstrate how counterfactual decompositions can inform us of the true impact of mode of travel. Passengers on low cost carriers tend to spend less, particularly at the upper end of the distribution. Budget airline users typically stay longer, though differences in characteristics of observed groups are important to this result. Counterfactual techniques provide additional valuable insights not obtained from conventional econometric models used in the literature. Illustrating an application of the methodology to policy we demonstrate that enabling respondents to extend their stay generates the greatest additional expenditure at the lower end of the distribution. We also show nationality is a significant characteristic, with important impacts across the expenditure distribution.
    • Animal and Human Models in Advertising: How can we influence the consumer decision making journey?

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2019)
      For decades, animals have been widely used in advertisements, and yet little is known about the effects on consumer reactions along the entire purchase decision process. This study disentangles the effects of using animal stimuli in isolation or jointly with a human model in print advertisements. Empirical evidence is derived from 126,220 consumer evaluations of 302 actual print advertisements across 18 product categories. Animals do not only support a positive attitude change, they also influence how products integrate into consumers´ relevant set and the purchase intention by itself. By comparison, female consumers react more pronounced than their male counterparts on animal stimuli. However, it should be avoided to combine an animal stimulus with a human model to preserve a better influence over consumer reaction.
    • Applicant perspectives during selection: a review addressing "so what?," " what's new?." and "where to next?"

      McCarthy, J.M.; Bauer, T.N.; Truxillo, D.M.; Anderson, Neil; Costa, Ana-Cristina; Ahmed, S.M. (2017-07-01)
      We provide a comprehensive but critical review of research on applicant reactions to selection procedures published since 2000 (n = 145), when the last major review article on applicant reactions appeared in the Journal of Management. We start by addressing the main criticisms levied against the field to determine whether applicant reactions matter to individuals and employers (“So what?”). This is followed by a consideration of “What’s new?” by conducting a comprehensive and detailed review of applicant reaction research centered upon four areas of growth: expansion of the theoretical lens, incorporation of new technology in the selection arena, internationalization of applicant reactions research, and emerging boundary conditions. Our final section focuses on “Where to next?” and offers an updated and integrated conceptual model of applicant reactions, four key challenges, and eight specific future research questions. Our conclusion is that the field demonstrates stronger research designs, with studies incorporating greater control, broader constructs, and multiple time points. There is also solid evidence that applicant reactions have significant and meaningful effects on attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. At the same time, we identify some remaining gaps in the literature and a number of critical questions that remain to be explored, particularly in light of technological and societal changes.
    • Arbeitsbeziehungsmodelle im Vergleich: Deutsche und amerikanische Tochterunternehmen in Großbritannien.

      McDonald, Frank; Heise, A.; Tüselmann, H-J.; Allen, M. (2009)
      Das hoch regulierte deutsche Arbeitsbeziehungsmodell steht immer wieder in der Kritik. Gelegentlich wird es als Grund für die Abwanderung deutscher Unternehmen ins weniger regulierte, mitbestimmungsfreie Ausland genannt, gelegentlich als mitverantwortlich für die angeblich geringen ausländischen Direktinvestitionen in Deutschland oder eine Unterbewertung deutscher Aktiengesellschaften angesehen ¿ das deutsche Modell sei eben international nicht anschlussfähig. Der Beitrag untersucht deutsche und amerikanische Tochterunternehmen in Gro¿britannien, weil einerseits das permissive Umfeld im Vereinten Königreich alle denkbaren Arbeitsbeziehungsstrukturen ¿ kollektive, direkte, Mischformen oder reines Managementprärogativ ¿ zulässt, andererseits mit den US-Tochtergesellschaften das internationale Benchmark-Modell Multinationaler Unternehmen als Vergleichsgruppe dient. Es wird danach gefragt, ob sich spezifische Arbeitsbeziehungsmodelle finden lassen und ob diese signifikante Einflüsse auf die betriebliche Performanz haben.
    • Are U.K. Citizens Satisfied With E-Government Services? Identifying and Testing Antecedents of Satisfaction

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Irani, Zahir; Lee, Habin; Hindi, N.; Osman, I.H. (2016-08)
      Citizens’ satisfaction is acknowledged as one of the most significant influences for e-government adoption and diffusion. This study examines the impact of information quality, system quality, trust, and cost on user satisfaction of e-government services. Using a survey, this study collected 1518 valid responses from e-government service adopters across the United Kingdom. Our empirical outcomes show the five factors identified in this study have a significant impact on U.K. citizens’ satisfaction with e-government services.
    • An assessment of supply chain vulnerabilities to dynamic disruptions in the pharmaceutical supply chain

      Yaroson, Emilia V.; Sharief, Karam; Shah, Awn; Breen, Liz (2018-09)
      Objective: The adverse impact of supply chain disruptions on the operational performance of supply chains have been suggested to emanate from its existing vulnerabilities. However, empirical studies regarding this proposition remain limited. This study provides empirical evidence of vulnerabilities in the face of dynamic disruptions in the pharmaceutical supply chain. This is geared at developing resilience strategies capable of curbing these forms of disruptions. Research Approach: In seeking to achieve the objective of this study, the mixed method research design in a longitudinal framework was adopted. It involved a two-step procedure where the study began by conducting semi-structured interviews with the downstream stakeholders of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Here the sampling method adopted was both purposive and snowballing. Data collected from this process was analysed using thematic analysis where key variables were coded for further analysis. Findings from the interviews were employed to construct close ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered online, approximately nine months after the first data collection process ended and analysed using various statistical techniques. Findings: The themes that emerged from the first phase of the data generation process were classified into five main pillars which include: supply chain characteristics, regulatory framework (schemas), imbalance of market power, managerial decisions and supply chain structures. These themes were further confirmed by the findings from the survey. The study finds that imbalance of market power generates negative welfare such as time consumption and stress on the downstream stakeholders of the pharmaceutical supply chain. In the same vein, dependence on suppliers and consumers in designing the supply chain exacerbates the impact of a dynamic disruption. The findings from the survey complement these pillars by identifying other vulnerabilities: price manipulation, inadequate policies, inefficient manufacturing processes as well as available training in handling these vulnerabilities. Originality/Value: By providing empirical evidence of the vulnerabilities within the pharmaceutical supply chain in the face of a dynamic disruption, this study extends operations management literature by highlighting vulnerability benchmarks against which resilience strategies can be employed in dynamic disruptive scenarios. The innovative aspect of this research is the ability to identify the vulnerabilities peculiar to the pharmaceutical supply chain which is required in order to successfully develop strategies that are resilient to dynamic disruptions. Research Impact: This study extends existing debates on supply chain vulnerabilities as well as supply chain disruptions. Practical Impact: This study contributes to practical managerial decisions, as the identifications of vulnerabilities to dynamic disruptions will aid pharmaceutical and or operations managers in assessing supplier selection and design.
    • Asset prices with jump/diffusion permanent income shocks.

      Freeman, Mark C. (2009-07-20)
      By assuming that all uninsurable risk is permanent, a closed form multi-period, multiple agent and multiple asset incomplete market asset pricing model is presented that allows for jump as well as diffusion risk to personal income.
    • Asset-liability modelling and pension schemes: the application of robust optimization to USS

      Platanakis, Emmanouil; Sutcliffe, C. (2017)
      This paper uses a novel numerical optimization technique – robust optimization – that is well suited to solving the asset–liability management (ALM) problem for pension schemes. It requires the estimation of fewer stochastic parameters, reduces estimation risk and adopts a prudent approach to asset allocation. This study is the first to apply it to a real-world pension scheme, and the first ALM model of a pension scheme to maximize the Sharpe ratio. We disaggregate pension liabilities into three components – active members, deferred members and pensioners, and transform the optimal asset allocation into the scheme’s projected contribution rate. The robust optimization model is extended to include liabilities and used to derive optimal investment policies for the Universities Superannuation Scheme (USS), benchmarked against the Sharpe and Tint, Bayes–Stein and Black–Litterman models as well as the actual USS investment decisions. Over a 144-month out-of-sample period, robust optimization is superior to the four benchmarks across 20 performance criteria and has a remarkably stable asset allocation – essentially fix-mix. These conclusions are supported by six robustness checks.
    • Attitudes, beliefs and impulsivity in online gambling addiction

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2018)
      Gambling research often refers to attitude and belief measurements to distinguish between problem and non-problem gamblers. Past studies also indicated that problem gamblers have a tendency to steeply discount rewards. We join both research streams and investigate the relationships between attitudes and beliefs on gambling addiction with the moderating effects of delay discounting using a novel methodological approach of double-hurdle model. We hereby differentiate the five subdimensions of the Gambling Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS): emotions, chasing, luck, attitudes and strategies. Findings show that emotional predispositions and chasing tendencies are positively related to the severity of online gambling addiction, independent of gamblers´ impulsivity. In contrast hereto, gambling attitudes act as inhibitor for gamblers willing to wait for some time to receive higher reward. Findings show that money-related impulsiveness influences the relationship between sub-dimensions of GABS and gambling addiction: Gambling attitudes and beliefs do not necessarily harm online gamblers but that their positive or negative relationship to addiction depends on online gamblers’ impulsivity.
    • Audit committees, non-audit services, and auditor reporting decisions prior to failure

      Wu, C.Y.H.; Hsu, Hwa-Hsien; Haslam, J. (2016-06)
      This study investigates the associations between audit committee characteristics and the likelihood of auditors' going-concern decisions among UK failed firms. Specifically, we examine whether the threat posed by auditor-provided non-audit services (NAS) to auditors' reporting decisions is mediated by audit committee characteristics. We find that failed firms with higher proportions of independent non-executive directors (NEDs) and financial experts on the audit committee are more likely to receive auditor going-concern modifications prior to failure, but that there is no significant relationship between NAS fees and the likelihood of receiving a going-concern modification. The evidence further suggests that the association between NAS and auditors' reporting decisions is subject to audit committee characteristics. Where the audit committee is more independent and includes a greater proportion of financial experts, auditors providing the client with NAS are less likely to issue a standard unmodified going-concern report prior to failure. Overall, the findings provide support for corporate governance regulators' concerns about the monitoring benefits of audit committee independence and the presence of financial expertise on the audit committee for auditors' reporting decisions.
    • Audit tendering in the UK: a review of stakeholders' views

      Allam, A.; Ghattas, N.; Kotb, A.; Eldaly, Mohamed K.A. (2016)
      Despite the importance of the ongoing debate on audit tendering and its possible implications for the audit profession including audit market structure, audit quality, and auditor independence, there is an apparent lack of research into this area. Using content analysis, this study reports the results of an examination of the comment letters sent to the UK Financial Reporting Council (FRC) in response to its consultation document on the 2012 revisions of the UK Corporate Governance Code. The results indicate a general support for the FRC’s proposals with a number of key concerns related to audit quality, audit cost and auditor independence. There is also clear conflict of interests among some groups such as audit firms and companies on one side and institutional investors on the other side. There is evidence of conflict of interest between Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms. The findings could influence future revisions of the Code with regard to tendering and enhance policy makers’ understanding of the position taken by each group of stakeholder.
    • Autonomy, Embeddedness and the Performance of Foreign Owned Subsidiaries

      McDonald, Frank; Warhurst, S.; Allen, M. (2008)
      This paper investigates whether changes in autonomy and embeddedness in host locations by foreign owned subsidiaries are associated with improvements in performance by subsidiaries. The results provide evidence that increasing operational decision-making autonomy is associated with enhanced performance as measured by both subjective and more objective measures of performance. The results on the importance of increasing strategic decision-making autonomy and embeddedness are less clear, with improved performance being detected in some cases, but only for the subjective measure of performance.
    • Avoidance Strategies and the German System of Co-determination

      Royle, Tony (1998)
      This paper is based on a comparative study of the UK and German operations of the McDonald’s Corporation. The main focus of the paper is the interaction between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the German system of co-determination. Commentators have suggested that industrial relations practices in host countries are particularly difficult for MNE’s to avoid because they are so deeply embedded in societal frameworks. However, there are also opposing global pressures for MNEs to impose their industrial relations practices across national borders in order to transmit ‘best practice’ to their subsidiaries. Ferner and Edwards (1995) suggest that Germany is something of a ‘test case’ for MNEs because of the strength of its legislative underpinning and institutional arrangements. Most analysis on the German system of co-determination has suggested that it is only small and medium-sized firms which avoid or undermine the German system (Lane, 1989). However, evidence brought together in this study suggests that along with other large companies and MNEs of different origins and across different industries, McDonald’s have been able to take advantage of weaknesses in regulation in the German system of co-determination. The paper puts forward a typology of possible ‘avoidance strategies’ within the German system.
    • B2B brands on Twitter: Engaging users with a varying combination of social media content objectives, strategies, and tactics

      Juntunen, M.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Oikarinen, E.-L. (2019)
      The objective of this research is to increase understanding about B2B company-led user engagement on social media content. Building on hierarchy-of-effects (HoE) theory, we explore how the world’s leading B2B companies use content objectives (why), strategies (how), and tactics (what) on Twitter. We first integrate B2B advertising and social media research on companies’ content objectives, strategies, and tactics. Then, using qualitative analyses, we examine the existence of objectives, strategies, and tactics in the most engaging tweets (N=365) of the worlds’ ten leading B2B brands, covering five industries, in 2017. Finally, we quantitatively examine how the use of diverse objectives and strategies differs between the most engaging tweets (N=318) and least engaging tweets (N=229) of the companies in 2018. The companies use objectives, strategies and tactics that relate to creating awareness, knowledge and trust, interest, and liking in the majority of their most and least engaging tweets, and express preference, conviction and purchase aspects much less. Differences exist in general, industry-wise, and company-wise. The study is a rare attempt to integrate the extant B2B advertising and social media research, and compare the most and least engaging B2B social media content.
    • Back to basics in the marketing of place: the impact of litter upon place attitudes

      Parker, C.; Roper, Stuart; Medway, D. (2015)
      Attempts to apply marketing theory and principles to place have become a legitimate area of academic and 'real world' practice. However, place marketing does not typically incorporate all elements of the traditional 7 Ps, focusing far too often on just one of these - promotion. Besides this rather myopic approach, place marketing suffers from an overly strategic view of the world that ignores the meaning and lived experience of places to individuals, especially residents. The purpose of this article is twofold - first, we investigate the impact of litter on place attitudes. Litter is a common, but negative, element of place, which is intimately connected to the lived experience of a place but typically far removed from the positive promotional activity favoured by place marketing efforts and the study thereof. In this sense, the article reframes place marketing from a strategic to a micro-marketing endeavour. We found that exposing respondents to litter significantly lowers their place attitudes. Our second contribution is to demonstrate the relevance of classic marketing research approaches, such as attitudinal measures, to investigate litter and its impact on place evaluations, through quasi-experimental design (with 662 respondents). Through this, we extend the range of theory and method applied in place marketing - away from controllable promotional endeavours investigated through case-studies to a more holistic and robust interpretation of place marketing, which has a measurable impact upon the places where people live and visit.
    • Back to the future? A theoretically inspired musing on the concept of Product Stewardship and its implications for Corporate and Social Responsibility

      Breen, Liz; Xie, Y.; Cherrett, T. (2015-09)
      The concept of corporate and social responsibility (CSR) has gained increasing momentum and importance in business operations today and companies have globally responded to this philosophy. To what end though? Product Stewardship (PS) and the corporate, social and environmental responsibilities associated within this term are a key part of a business’s CSR agenda. In the extant literature, it is a challenge to clearly identify the boundaries of responsibility for PS - who sets these boundaries for governance and what are the actions taken under the guise of PS. This paper aims to start the process of demystification in responding to the title of this work, stimulate further musings and outline a future research agenda.
    • Balancing Digital-By-Default with Inclusion: A Study of the Factors Influencing E-Inclusion in the UK

      Al-Muwil, A.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Dwivedi, Y. (2019-06)
      Digital inclusion research has been critically important in drawing an understanding of how policies, society, organisations, and information technologies can all come together within a national environment that aspires to be a digital nation. This research aims to examine the factors influencing e-Inclusion in the UK within a digital-by-default policy for government services. This study is pursued through combining the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) with Use and Gratification Theory (U&G) and conducting a self-administered survey targeting 510 Internet users to study the level of citizens engagement with e-government services in the UK. By incorporating gratification, trust, risk and external factors (i.e. self-efficacy, accessibility, availability, affordability) within DTPB, the proposed model of e-Inclusion used in the paper demonstrates a considerable explanatory and predictive power and offers a frame of reference to study the acceptance and usage of e-government within a national context where nearly all government transactions are digital-by-default. The findings revealed six dimensions as key inhibitors for e-Inclusion, namely: demographic, economic, social, cultural, political, and infrastructural.
    • Bases of e-store loyalty: Perceived switching barriers and satisfaction

      Reynolds, Nina L.; Simintiras, A.; Balabanis, G. (2006)
      Loyalty, its antecedents, and its consequences have been considered extensively. Store loyalty, in particular e-store loyalty, has not, however, received the same level of attention despite the increase in the number of organisations that sell directly over the Internet. This paper focuses on two antecedents of e-store loyalty, perceived switching barriers and satisfaction, and the way in which they interact. It found that customers do not consider themselves loyal to the e-store they frequent despite being largely satisfied, that the impact of switching barriers varies at different levels of customer satisfaction, and that what customers consider to be a switching barrier differs at different levels of customer satisfaction.