• The safety and continuity of medicines at transitions of care for people with heart failure

      Fylan, Beth; Armitage, Gerry R.; Breen, Liz; Gardner, Peter H.; Ismail, Hanif; Marques, Iuri; Blenkinsopp, Alison (2017-03-23)
      Avoidable harm associated with medicines is widespread – particularly at care transitions – and unintended discrepancies in patients’ medicines after discharge from hospital affect more than half of all patients. Patients with heart failure are frequent service users (including readmission to hospital), and susceptible to deficiencies in medicines management. Heart failure is responsible for approximately 5% of medical admissions and the readmission rate within 3 months of discharge may be as high as 50%.[1] The Improving Safety and Continuity of Medicines management at Transitions of care (ISCOMAT) study is an NIHR-funded programme of research in patients with heart failure. The first work package, described here, aimed to map and evaluate current medicines management pathways across care transitions, describing the core characteristics of best practice and effective systems at each stage. Mixed-methods research collecting data centred on patients’ journey out of hospital and back home exploring current practice relating on heart failure. NHS REC approval was obtained (16/NS/0018). Following a process of informed consent, data were collected from patients (n=16) in four health economies in England using semi-structured interviews conducted shortly after their discharge from hospital and again after two and six weeks and included video recording. Non-participant observation was conducted on cardiology wards in the four areas to understand predominant systems employed by the hospitals to deliver information to patients and to primary care. Interviews with staff in hospitals and primary care explored policy, practice and systems across the transition. Data were analysed using integrative ‘parallel mixed’ analysis. Several themes emerged that described the resilience of the system that manages patients’ medicines across the whole pathway. Spatial dimensions – including local working conditions – impacted on staff who managed transfers. Process efficiencies and effectiveness, including the degree of staff training and policy awareness, both enhanced and hindered communication with patients and health care professionals (HCPs) in primary care. The system did not allow staff to assess the impact of the management of medicines at discharge across the transition into primary care. Patients themselves were found to have different levels of knowledge and confidence in their medicines once back at home and, where their pathway included this, to value the care co-ordination functions of heart failure nurses. Primary care staff operated varying systems for managing discharge communication and implementing recommendations and some reported positive outcomes from integration of practice pharmacists into the system. To our knowledge this is the first UK study of medicines management along the patient’s journey from hospital into primary care for patients with heart failure. A whole pathway analysis has enabled a detailed understanding of resilience in each part of the healthcare system. These findings will be used in the co-design of an intervention to improve medicines management in the next phase of the research.
    • Satisficing data envelopment analysis: a Bayesian approach for peer mining in the banking sector

      Vincent, Charles; Tsolas, I.E.; Gherman, T. (2018-10)
      Over the past few decades, the banking sectors in Latin America have undergone rapid structural changes to improve the efficiency and resilience of their financial systems. The up-to-date literature shows that all the research studies conducted to analyze the above-mentioned efficiency are based on a deterministic data envelopment analysis (DEA) model or econometric frontier approach. Nevertheless, the deterministic DEA model suffers from a possible lack of statistical power, especially in a small sample. As such, the current research paper develops the technique of satisficing DEA to examine the still less explored case of Peru. We propose a Satisficing DEA model applied to 14 banks operating in Peru to evaluate the bank-level efficiency under a stochastic environment, which is free from any theoretical distributional assumption. The proposed model does not only report the bank efficiency, but also proposes a new framework for peer mining based on the Bayesian analysis and potential improvements with the bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval. Our study is the first of its kind in the literature to perform a peer analysis based on a probabilistic approach.
    • Securitisation and banking risk: what do we know so far?

      Kara, A.; Ozkan, Aydin; Altunbas, Y. (2016)
      Purpose – Bank securitisation is deemed to have been a major contributing factor to the 2007/2008 financial crises via fuelling credit growth accompanied by lower banks’ credit standards. Yet, prior to the crisis a common view was that securitisation activity makes the financial system more stable as risk was more easily diversified, managed and allocated economy-wide. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature to explore the so far generated knowledge on the impact of securitisation on banking risks. In particular, the authors examine the theoretical arguments and empirical studies on securitisation and banking risks before and after the global financial crisis of 2007/2008. Design/methodology/approach – Review and discussion of the literature. Findings – Theoretical literature univocally accentuate the undesirable consequences of securitisation, which may promote retention of riskier loans, undermine banks’ screening and monitoring incentives and enhance banks’ risk appetite. However, empirical evidence does not uniformly support the theoretical conclusions. If banks are securitisation active they lend more to risky borrowers, have less diversified portfolios and hold less capital, retain riskier loans and are aggressive in loan pricing. Others argue that securitisation reduces banks insolvency risk, increases profitability, provides liquidity and leads to greater supply of loans. Mortgage securitisation is an area where there is consistent evidence of bank risk taking via securitisation. Originality/value – The paper identifies open issues for future research.
    • Security, Privacy and Risks Within Smart Cities: Literature Review and Development of a Smart City Interaction Framework

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      The complex and interdependent nature of smart cities raises significant political, technical, and socioeconomic challenges for designers, integrators and organisations involved in administrating these new entities. An increasing number of studies focus on the security, privacy and risks within smart cities, highlighting the threats relating to information security and challenges for smart city infrastructure in the management and processing of personal data. This study analyses many of these challenges, offers a valuable synthesis of the relevant key literature, and develops a smart city interaction framework. The study is organised around a number of key themes within smart cities research: privacy and security of mobile devices and services; smart city infrastructure, power systems, healthcare, frameworks, algorithms and protocols to improve security and privacy, operational threats for smart cities, use and adoption of smart services by citizens, use of blockchain and use of social media. This comprehensive review provides a useful perspective on many of the key issues and offers key direction for future studies. The findings of this study can provide an informative research framework and reference point for academics and practitioners.
    • The segmentation of Europe: convergence or divergence between core and periphery?

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Litsios, Ioannis; Jackson, Karen; Lee, Uih R. (2017)
      This book explores economic developments across Europe in relation to its apparent segmentation, as disparities widen between core and periphery countries. In contrast to previous literature, the scope of analysis is extended to Europe as a continent rather than confining it solely to the European Union, thereby providing the reader with greater insight into the core/periphery nexus. The authors commence with a critical appraisal of economic thinking in relation to regional trade agreements and monetary integration. In relation to a number of EU economies, the book addresses issues of a liquidity trap, deflation, and twin deficits, together with the interconnection between exchange rates and current account balances. Importantly, they extend the discussion of segmentation through a series of focused case studies on Russia, Brexit and emergence of the mega-regionals.
    • Self identity and internal environmental locus of control: Comparing their influences on green purchase intentions in high-context versus low-context cultures

      Patel, J.D.; Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Yagnik, A. (2020-03)
      This study empirically examines the combined effect of two crucial internal consumer predispositions, self-identity (SI) and internal environmental locus of control (INELOC), among consumers in a collectivistic culture and an individualistic culture. The study validated the extended theory of planned behaviour to predict consumers' green purchase intentions. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse primary data collected from 365 American and 408 Indian respondents. Analysis revealed differences between the two cultures. Green self-identity influenced attitude more than perceived behavioural control among American consumers, while the reverse was true for Indian consumers. Conversely, INELOC positively and significantly affected only Indian consumers’ perceived behavioural control, not that of American consumers.
    • Self-building Artificial Intelligence and machine learning to empower big data analytics in smart cities

      Alahakoon, D.; Nawaratne, R.; Xu, Y.; De Silva, D.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Gupta, B. (2020)
      The emerging information revolution makes it necessary to manage vast amounts of unstructured data rapidly. As the world is increasingly populated by IoT devices and sensors that can sense their surroundings and communicate with each other, a digital environment has been created with vast volumes of volatile and diverse data. Traditional AI and machine learning techniques designed for deterministic situations are not suitable for such environments. With a large number of parameters required by each device in this digital environment, it is desirable that the AI is able to be adaptive and self-build (i.e. self-structure, self-configure, self-learn), rather than be structurally and parameter-wise pre-defined. This study explores the benefits of self-building AI and machine learning with unsupervised learning for empowering big data analytics for smart city environments. By using the growing self-organizing map, a new suite of self-building AI is proposed. The self-building AI overcomes the limitations of traditional AI and enables data processing in dynamic smart city environments. With cloud computing platforms, the selfbuilding AI can integrate the data analytics applications that currently work in silos. The new paradigm of the self-building AI and its value are demonstrated using the IoT, video surveillance, and action recognition applications.
    • Sensory stimulation for sensible consumption: Multisensory marketing for e-tailing of ethical brands

      Yoganathan, Vignesh; Osburg, V-S.; Akhtar, P. (201-03)
      Amidst strong competition and lack of resources and functional superiority, ethical brands may seek an experiential approach to marketing online. A between-subjects online experiment (N=308) shows that ethically congruent visual and auditory cues, and a tactile priming statement, positively influence consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for an ethical brand online. Altruistic and Biospheric value-orientation (ALTBIO) and Need for Touch (NfT) were considered as moderators to account for specific segments. For consumers with high ALTBIO, the effects of visual and auditory cues are mediated by Consumer Perceived Brand Ethicality (CPBE). Tactile priming has a significant effect only for consumers with high NfT. However, the interaction between the three cues has a positive effect on WTP irrespective of CPBE, ALTBIO, and NfT. Findings illustrate multisensory marketing's efficacy in fostering sensible consumption (considerate of natural and societal environments and their inhabitants) online for the mass-market and specific segments by creating an experiential customer judgement-context.
    • Sentiment analysis of products’ reviews containing English and Hindi texts

      Singh, J.P.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Alkhowaiter, W. (2015)
      The online shopping is increasing rapidly because of its convenience to buy from home and comparing products from their reviews written by other purchasers. When people buy a product, they express their emotions about that product in the form of review. In Indian context, it is found that the reviews contain Hindi text along with English. It is also found that most of the Hindi text contains opinionated words like bahut achha, bakbas, pesa wasool etc. We have tried to find out different Hindi texts appearing in product reviews written on Indian E-commerce portals. We have also developed a system which takes all those reviews containing Hindi as well as English texts and find out the sentiment expressed in that review for each attribute of the product as well as a final review of the product.
    • Sequential investments with stage-specific risks and drifts

      Adkins, Roger; Paxson, D. (2017)
      We provide a generalized analytical methodology for evaluating a real sequential investment opportunity, which does not rely on a multivariate distribution function, but which allows for stage-specific risks and drifts. This model may be a useful capital budgeting and valuation tool for exploration and development projects, where risks change over the stages. We construct a stage threshold pattern whereby the final stage threshold exceeds the early stage threshold due to drift differentials between the project values at the various stages, value volatility differences, and correlation differentials, implying a rich menu of parameter values that may be suitable for a variety of projects. Governments seeking to motivate early final stage investments might lower final stage project volatility or specify project value decline over time, unless prospective owners are willing to pay the real option value (ROV) for concessions. In contrast, concession owners, more interested in ROV than thresholds that motivate early investments, may welcome final stage value escalation, or guarantees that reduce the correlation between project value and construction cost.
    • Services liberalization and productivity of manufacturing firms: Evidence from Ukraine

      Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Vakhitov, V. (2015)
      This paper brings new evidence on the impact of services liberalization on the performance of manufacturing firms. Using a unique database of Ukrainian firms in 2001-2007, the authors utilize an external push for liberalization in the services sector as a source of exogenous variation to identify the impact of services liberalization on total factor productivity (TFP) of manufacturing firms. The results indicate that a standard deviation increase in services liberalization is associated with a 9 percent increase in TFP. Allowing services liberalization to dynamically influence TFP through the investment channel leads to an even larger effect. The effect is robust to different estimation methods and to different sub-samples of the data. In particular, it is more pronounced for domestic and small firms.
    • Servitization implementation in the manufacturing organisations: classification of strategies, definitions, benefits and challenges

      Kamal, M.M.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Bigdeli, A.Z.; Missi, F.; Koliousis, Y. (Elsevier, 2020-12)
      The integration of products and services into a bundled product/service offering by manufacturing organisations is seen as a global trend in today’s competitive business environment. The shift of product-based manufacturers towards offering business solutions and value-added services to consumers is termed as ‘Servitization’. Contrary to the potential benefits expected by adding service activities to the offerings, advocates voice their concerns towards experiential problems and challenges in employing the servitization strategy – termed as ‘Servitization Paradox’. Nevertheless, the shift from product-based delivery to a service-based provision has the potential to significantly impact on developing sustainable and eco-friendly environment. To provide greater insights to the servitization phenomenon, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the servitization implementation in manufacturing organisations. In order to respond to the latter, we propose the following three research questions “Q1 – what are the different types of servitization strategies”, “Q2 – what are the different servitization definitions”, “Q3 – what are the potential benefits in selecting a servitization strategy?”, “Q4 – what are the challenges in transitioning towards servitization?”. A systematic literature review is carried out to understand the past trends and extant patterns/themes in the servitization strategy research area, evaluate contributions, summarise knowledge, thereby identifying limitations, implications and potential further research avenues. The key findings confirm servitization studies have contributed both conceptually and empirically to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth to the manufacturing operations and supply chain discipline. Moreover, the findings clearly indicate the potential of servitization in transitioning manufacturing organisations (e.g. benefits) and utilising innovative technologies to generate business value. Nevertheless, some voices are backing further research/development in the area of servitization due to the several existing challenges.
    • Setting the footprint for managing a successful transition: Changing culture as a starting point

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Dimple, D. (2018-04)
      This research is an attempt to identify the kind of culture which is needed for a major transnational company to become a circular economy based organization based on the guidelines of Ellen McArthur Foundation. It aims to identify and learn from organizations with the relevant culture on the particular traits which may assist other organizations foster the culture required to implement a circular economy strategy. The information gathered is expected to contribute empirical information on culture management for circular economy strategy and an attempt to fill in the literature gap on strategy, mind-set shift and culture change, especially in transitioning towards sustainable business practices. The thesis mind-map and outline of chapters have been provided. Literature pointed out that alignment between organizational culture and strategy ensures successful implementation. The development of a more sustainable economic model, the circular economy, has triggered organizations to look into their business strategies and adjust accordingly. This research is an attempt to identify and learn from organizations with relevant culture on the particular traits which may assist other organizations foster the culture required to implement a circular economy strategy. The researchers applied Johnson’s (2001) cultural web and other relevant literatures on organizational culture, leadership, collaboration, and form constructs for an exploratory case study. Several management qualities have been mentioned namely the development of cross-functional teams, establishment of relationships beyond transactional partnerships, a risk oriented learning environment, entrepreneurial organization culture and structure, and empathetic leadership.
    • Setting the future of digital and social media marketing research: Perspectives and research propositions

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, D.L.; Carlson, J.; Filieri, R.; Jacobson, J.; Jain, V.; Karjaluoto, H.; Kefi, H.; Krishen, A.S.; et al. (2020)
      The use of the internet and social media have changed consumer behavior and the ways in which companies conduct their business. Social and digital marketing offers significant opportunities to organizations through lower costs, improved brand awareness and increased sales. However, significant challenges exist from negative electronic word-of-mouth as well as intrusive and irritating online brand presence. This article brings together the collective insight from several leading experts on issues relating to digital and social media marketing. The experts’ perspectives offer a detailed narrative on key aspects of this important topic as well as perspectives on more specific issues including artificial intelligence, augmented reality marketing, digital content management, mobile marketing and advertising, B2B marketing, electronic word of mouth and ethical issues therein. This research offers a significant and timely contribution to both researchers and practitioners in the form of challenges and opportunities where we highlight the limitations within the current research, outline the research gaps and develop the questions and propositions that can help advance knowledge within the domain of digital and social marketing.
    • Shaping the future of hydraulic fracturing in the Canadian Arctic through environmental guidelines

      Elfving, Sanna (2016-05)
      This paper addresses the regulation of energy resource projects on indigenous lands in the Canadian Arctic and the role of environmental impact assessment in these projects, specifically those involving hydraulic fracturing. Taking an environmental point of view, this paper argues that in the absence of specific territorial legislation applying to shale gas development in Nunavut and the onshore portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region in Northwest Territories the federal regulator, the National Energy Board, has a key role in promoting transparency, public participation, safety and sustainable use of natural resources. As part of its environmental protection responsibilities, the Board, inter alia, ensures that an environmental impact assessment is conducted before any proposed hydraulic fracturing activities commence on indigenous lands, which in some cases include an extensive public consultation. In 2013 the Board adopted rigorous guidelines for all onshore oil and gas projects involving hydraulic fracturing which address many of the concerns raised over shale gas development, including surface and groundwater contamination; impact on air quality; induced seismicity and reluctance of industry to disclose chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing. Although these guidelines are non-binding on the Board, their adoption means that it will be challenging for the operators to obtain an authorisation from the Board should they fail to conduct an environmental impact assessment. This paper argues that these guidelines exceed the best practices widely adopted by the Canadian shale gas industry. It concludes that because the guidelines address a number of concerns raised by the public they could potentially be used as the minimum standards for hydraulic fracturing operations in other regions outside Arctic Canada.
    • Shifting sands: The erosion of higher education provision

      Breen, Liz; McIntosh, Bryan (2016-07)
      This commentary considers changes to education in UK mental health nursing.
    • Should consumers request cost transparency?

      Simintiras, A.C.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Kaushik, G.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2015-11)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose that consumer choice be guided by price fairness judgements to increase consumer satisfaction and subsequently enhance market efficiency. Consumers en masse lack the information to judge price fairness, thereby causing their ability to influence the economy to be overlooked. Design/methodology/approach – This is an argumentative and conceptual work that aims to initiate a debate on this important yet unexplored issue. The arguments presented in the paper are based on economic and technological considerations. Findings – The measure for enabling a consumer price fairness judgement is unit cost information – the cost incurred by a firm to produce a product and/or service. The benefits and challenges stemming from the availability of unit cost information (i.e. cost transparency) to consumers and companies are presented and the likely impact of cost transparency on addressing information asymmetries between buyers and sellers are discussed. Originality/value – Although a significant body of knowledge exists on issues such as price transparency and how it is driven and enabled by the growth of the Internet, there is little or no evidence of research yet on issues related to cost transparency. The authors believe this work would create a new line of research for scholarly community leading to an impact on practice.
    • Simultaneous Impact of the Presence of Foreign MNEs on Indigenous Firms’ Exports and Domestic Sales

      Wang, J.; Wei, Yingqi; Liu, X.; Wang, Chengang; Lin, H. (2014-04)
      Incorporating the global production network approach and competitor analysis, this paper establishes an analytical framework with two hypotheses for the role of foreign multinational enterprises (FMNEs) in indigenous firms’ exports and domestic sales. First, the presence of FMNEs as a whole is likely to have a negative impact on indigenous firms’ domestic sales but a simultaneous positive impact on their exports in an emerging economy like China. Second, the presence of MNEs from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (HMT MNEs) is more likely to generate this pattern of impact than MNEs from other countries (Other FMNEs). The FDI-led export strategy contributed to the dominance of the scenario described by the first hypothesis in China, while a higher degree of market commonality and resource similarity of HMT MNEs with that of indigenous Chinese firms than Other FMNEs leads to the second hypothesis. These novel hypotheses are tested and supported by a very large and recent firm-level panel dataset from Chinese manufacturing.