• The safety and continuity of medicines at transitions of care for people with heart failure

      Fylan, Beth; Armitage, Gerry R.; Breen, Liz; Gardner, Peter H.; Ismail, Hanif; Marques, Iuri; Blenkinsopp, Alison (2017-03-23)
      Avoidable harm associated with medicines is widespread – particularly at care transitions – and unintended discrepancies in patients’ medicines after discharge from hospital affect more than half of all patients. Patients with heart failure are frequent service users (including readmission to hospital), and susceptible to deficiencies in medicines management. Heart failure is responsible for approximately 5% of medical admissions and the readmission rate within 3 months of discharge may be as high as 50%.[1] The Improving Safety and Continuity of Medicines management at Transitions of care (ISCOMAT) study is an NIHR-funded programme of research in patients with heart failure. The first work package, described here, aimed to map and evaluate current medicines management pathways across care transitions, describing the core characteristics of best practice and effective systems at each stage. Mixed-methods research collecting data centred on patients’ journey out of hospital and back home exploring current practice relating on heart failure. NHS REC approval was obtained (16/NS/0018). Following a process of informed consent, data were collected from patients (n=16) in four health economies in England using semi-structured interviews conducted shortly after their discharge from hospital and again after two and six weeks and included video recording. Non-participant observation was conducted on cardiology wards in the four areas to understand predominant systems employed by the hospitals to deliver information to patients and to primary care. Interviews with staff in hospitals and primary care explored policy, practice and systems across the transition. Data were analysed using integrative ‘parallel mixed’ analysis. Several themes emerged that described the resilience of the system that manages patients’ medicines across the whole pathway. Spatial dimensions – including local working conditions – impacted on staff who managed transfers. Process efficiencies and effectiveness, including the degree of staff training and policy awareness, both enhanced and hindered communication with patients and health care professionals (HCPs) in primary care. The system did not allow staff to assess the impact of the management of medicines at discharge across the transition into primary care. Patients themselves were found to have different levels of knowledge and confidence in their medicines once back at home and, where their pathway included this, to value the care co-ordination functions of heart failure nurses. Primary care staff operated varying systems for managing discharge communication and implementing recommendations and some reported positive outcomes from integration of practice pharmacists into the system. To our knowledge this is the first UK study of medicines management along the patient’s journey from hospital into primary care for patients with heart failure. A whole pathway analysis has enabled a detailed understanding of resilience in each part of the healthcare system. These findings will be used in the co-design of an intervention to improve medicines management in the next phase of the research.
    • Satisficing data envelopment analysis: a Bayesian approach for peer mining in the banking sector

      Vincent, Charles; Tsolas, I.E.; Gherman, T. (2018-10)
      Over the past few decades, the banking sectors in Latin America have undergone rapid structural changes to improve the efficiency and resilience of their financial systems. The up-to-date literature shows that all the research studies conducted to analyze the above-mentioned efficiency are based on a deterministic data envelopment analysis (DEA) model or econometric frontier approach. Nevertheless, the deterministic DEA model suffers from a possible lack of statistical power, especially in a small sample. As such, the current research paper develops the technique of satisficing DEA to examine the still less explored case of Peru. We propose a Satisficing DEA model applied to 14 banks operating in Peru to evaluate the bank-level efficiency under a stochastic environment, which is free from any theoretical distributional assumption. The proposed model does not only report the bank efficiency, but also proposes a new framework for peer mining based on the Bayesian analysis and potential improvements with the bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval. Our study is the first of its kind in the literature to perform a peer analysis based on a probabilistic approach.
    • Securitisation and banking risk: what do we know so far?

      Kara, A.; Ozkan, Aydin; Altunbas, Y. (2016)
      Purpose – Bank securitisation is deemed to have been a major contributing factor to the 2007/2008 financial crises via fuelling credit growth accompanied by lower banks’ credit standards. Yet, prior to the crisis a common view was that securitisation activity makes the financial system more stable as risk was more easily diversified, managed and allocated economy-wide. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature to explore the so far generated knowledge on the impact of securitisation on banking risks. In particular, the authors examine the theoretical arguments and empirical studies on securitisation and banking risks before and after the global financial crisis of 2007/2008. Design/methodology/approach – Review and discussion of the literature. Findings – Theoretical literature univocally accentuate the undesirable consequences of securitisation, which may promote retention of riskier loans, undermine banks’ screening and monitoring incentives and enhance banks’ risk appetite. However, empirical evidence does not uniformly support the theoretical conclusions. If banks are securitisation active they lend more to risky borrowers, have less diversified portfolios and hold less capital, retain riskier loans and are aggressive in loan pricing. Others argue that securitisation reduces banks insolvency risk, increases profitability, provides liquidity and leads to greater supply of loans. Mortgage securitisation is an area where there is consistent evidence of bank risk taking via securitisation. Originality/value – The paper identifies open issues for future research.
    • The segmentation of Europe: convergence or divergence between core and periphery?

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Litsios, Ioannis; Jackson, Karen; Lee, Uih R. (2017)
      This book explores economic developments across Europe in relation to its apparent segmentation, as disparities widen between core and periphery countries. In contrast to previous literature, the scope of analysis is extended to Europe as a continent rather than confining it solely to the European Union, thereby providing the reader with greater insight into the core/periphery nexus. The authors commence with a critical appraisal of economic thinking in relation to regional trade agreements and monetary integration. In relation to a number of EU economies, the book addresses issues of a liquidity trap, deflation, and twin deficits, together with the interconnection between exchange rates and current account balances. Importantly, they extend the discussion of segmentation through a series of focused case studies on Russia, Brexit and emergence of the mega-regionals.
    • Self identity and internal environmental locus of control: Comparing their influences on green purchase intentions in high-context versus low-context cultures

      Patel, J.D.; Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Yagnik, A. (2020-03)
      This study empirically examines the combined effect of two crucial internal consumer predispositions, self-identity (SI) and internal environmental locus of control (INELOC), among consumers in a collectivistic culture and an individualistic culture. The study validated the extended theory of planned behaviour to predict consumers' green purchase intentions. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse primary data collected from 365 American and 408 Indian respondents. Analysis revealed differences between the two cultures. Green self-identity influenced attitude more than perceived behavioural control among American consumers, while the reverse was true for Indian consumers. Conversely, INELOC positively and significantly affected only Indian consumers’ perceived behavioural control, not that of American consumers.
    • Sensory stimulation for sensible consumption: Multisensory marketing for e-tailing of ethical brands

      Yoganathan, Vignesh; Osburg, V-S.; Akhtar, P. (201-03)
      Amidst strong competition and lack of resources and functional superiority, ethical brands may seek an experiential approach to marketing online. A between-subjects online experiment (N=308) shows that ethically congruent visual and auditory cues, and a tactile priming statement, positively influence consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for an ethical brand online. Altruistic and Biospheric value-orientation (ALTBIO) and Need for Touch (NfT) were considered as moderators to account for specific segments. For consumers with high ALTBIO, the effects of visual and auditory cues are mediated by Consumer Perceived Brand Ethicality (CPBE). Tactile priming has a significant effect only for consumers with high NfT. However, the interaction between the three cues has a positive effect on WTP irrespective of CPBE, ALTBIO, and NfT. Findings illustrate multisensory marketing's efficacy in fostering sensible consumption (considerate of natural and societal environments and their inhabitants) online for the mass-market and specific segments by creating an experiential customer judgement-context.
    • Sequential investments with stage-specific risks and drifts

      Adkins, Roger; Paxson, D. (2017)
      We provide a generalized analytical methodology for evaluating a real sequential investment opportunity, which does not rely on a multivariate distribution function, but which allows for stage-specific risks and drifts. This model may be a useful capital budgeting and valuation tool for exploration and development projects, where risks change over the stages. We construct a stage threshold pattern whereby the final stage threshold exceeds the early stage threshold due to drift differentials between the project values at the various stages, value volatility differences, and correlation differentials, implying a rich menu of parameter values that may be suitable for a variety of projects. Governments seeking to motivate early final stage investments might lower final stage project volatility or specify project value decline over time, unless prospective owners are willing to pay the real option value (ROV) for concessions. In contrast, concession owners, more interested in ROV than thresholds that motivate early investments, may welcome final stage value escalation, or guarantees that reduce the correlation between project value and construction cost.
    • Services liberalization and productivity of manufacturing firms: Evidence from Ukraine

      Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Vakhitov, V. (2015)
      This paper brings new evidence on the impact of services liberalization on the performance of manufacturing firms. Using a unique database of Ukrainian firms in 2001-2007, the authors utilize an external push for liberalization in the services sector as a source of exogenous variation to identify the impact of services liberalization on total factor productivity (TFP) of manufacturing firms. The results indicate that a standard deviation increase in services liberalization is associated with a 9 percent increase in TFP. Allowing services liberalization to dynamically influence TFP through the investment channel leads to an even larger effect. The effect is robust to different estimation methods and to different sub-samples of the data. In particular, it is more pronounced for domestic and small firms.
    • Setting the footprint for managing a successful transition: Changing culture as a starting point

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Dimple, D. (2018-04)
      This research is an attempt to identify the kind of culture which is needed for a major transnational company to become a circular economy based organization based on the guidelines of Ellen McArthur Foundation. It aims to identify and learn from organizations with the relevant culture on the particular traits which may assist other organizations foster the culture required to implement a circular economy strategy. The information gathered is expected to contribute empirical information on culture management for circular economy strategy and an attempt to fill in the literature gap on strategy, mind-set shift and culture change, especially in transitioning towards sustainable business practices. The thesis mind-map and outline of chapters have been provided. Literature pointed out that alignment between organizational culture and strategy ensures successful implementation. The development of a more sustainable economic model, the circular economy, has triggered organizations to look into their business strategies and adjust accordingly. This research is an attempt to identify and learn from organizations with relevant culture on the particular traits which may assist other organizations foster the culture required to implement a circular economy strategy. The researchers applied Johnson’s (2001) cultural web and other relevant literatures on organizational culture, leadership, collaboration, and form constructs for an exploratory case study. Several management qualities have been mentioned namely the development of cross-functional teams, establishment of relationships beyond transactional partnerships, a risk oriented learning environment, entrepreneurial organization culture and structure, and empathetic leadership.
    • Shaping the future of hydraulic fracturing in the Canadian Arctic through environmental guidelines

      Elfving, Sanna (2016-05)
      This paper addresses the regulation of energy resource projects on indigenous lands in the Canadian Arctic and the role of environmental impact assessment in these projects, specifically those involving hydraulic fracturing. Taking an environmental point of view, this paper argues that in the absence of specific territorial legislation applying to shale gas development in Nunavut and the onshore portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region in Northwest Territories the federal regulator, the National Energy Board, has a key role in promoting transparency, public participation, safety and sustainable use of natural resources. As part of its environmental protection responsibilities, the Board, inter alia, ensures that an environmental impact assessment is conducted before any proposed hydraulic fracturing activities commence on indigenous lands, which in some cases include an extensive public consultation. In 2013 the Board adopted rigorous guidelines for all onshore oil and gas projects involving hydraulic fracturing which address many of the concerns raised over shale gas development, including surface and groundwater contamination; impact on air quality; induced seismicity and reluctance of industry to disclose chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing. Although these guidelines are non-binding on the Board, their adoption means that it will be challenging for the operators to obtain an authorisation from the Board should they fail to conduct an environmental impact assessment. This paper argues that these guidelines exceed the best practices widely adopted by the Canadian shale gas industry. It concludes that because the guidelines address a number of concerns raised by the public they could potentially be used as the minimum standards for hydraulic fracturing operations in other regions outside Arctic Canada.
    • Shifting sands: The erosion of higher education provision

      Breen, Liz; McIntosh, Bryan (2016-07)
      This commentary considers changes to education in UK mental health nursing.
    • Simultaneous Impact of the Presence of Foreign MNEs on Indigenous Firms’ Exports and Domestic Sales

      Wang, J.; Wei, Yingqi; Liu, X.; Wang, Chengang; Lin, H. (2014-04)
      Incorporating the global production network approach and competitor analysis, this paper establishes an analytical framework with two hypotheses for the role of foreign multinational enterprises (FMNEs) in indigenous firms’ exports and domestic sales. First, the presence of FMNEs as a whole is likely to have a negative impact on indigenous firms’ domestic sales but a simultaneous positive impact on their exports in an emerging economy like China. Second, the presence of MNEs from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (HMT MNEs) is more likely to generate this pattern of impact than MNEs from other countries (Other FMNEs). The FDI-led export strategy contributed to the dominance of the scenario described by the first hypothesis in China, while a higher degree of market commonality and resource similarity of HMT MNEs with that of indigenous Chinese firms than Other FMNEs leads to the second hypothesis. These novel hypotheses are tested and supported by a very large and recent firm-level panel dataset from Chinese manufacturing.
    • Skill Formation

      Grugulis, C. Irena (2008)
    • Skill, training and human resource development.

      Grugulis, C. Irena (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006)
      Taking a critical perspective, Skill, Training and Human Resource Development focuses on the way people are developed at work; the skills that are encouraged, the way they are controlled and the implications they have for people. It draws on a wide range of research and covers an array of organizational practices. Preface Acknowledgements Human Resource Development Skills at Work International Comparisons: Skills and Employment Systems Vocational Education and Training in Britain New Skills for Old? The Changing Nature of Skill Emotions and Aesthetics for Work and Labour: The Pleasures and Pains of the Changing Nature of Work Managing Culture Management and Leadership Development Knowledge Work and Knowledgeable Workers Developments and Developing in the New Economy References Index
    • Small business growth and performance

      Adomako, Samuel; Mole, K.F. (Sage, 2018)
      Research on business growth has blossomed, yet scholars often complain face the difficulty of distililing a clearer pitcure of the business growth phenomenon. This paper attempts to overcome this limitation by reviewing and synthesizing extant research on business growth. First, we begin by examining Penrose’s view of firm growth. Second, we highlight how business growth is measured; these are absolute or relative change and growth as a process. Third, we explore theories of business growth; integrated models-theories that explain the factors that drive business growth and (2) stage models which view business growth as a series of phases or stages of development through which a firm must pass in its life-cycle. Fourth, we examine modes of business growth; these are organic vs. acquisition growth, growth through networks and alliances and growth through internationalization. Fifth, we examine drivers and constraints to business growth. We conclude the review by pointing out areas of harmony and contention in the literature, from which we suggest opportunities for future research.
    • Smart cities: Advances in research—An information systems perspective

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Raman, K.R. (2019)
      Smart cities employ information and communication technologies to improve: the quality of life for its citizens, the local economy, transport, traffic management, environment, and interaction with government. Due to the relevance of smart cities (also referred using other related terms such as Digital City, Information City, Intelligent City, Knowledge-based City, Ubiquitous City, Wired City) to various stakeholders and the benefits and challenges associated with its implementation, the concept of smart cities has attracted significant attention from researchers within multiple fields, including information systems. This study provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature by analysing and discussing the key findings from existing research on issues related to smart cities from an Information Systems perspective. The research analysed and discussed in this study focuses on number of aspects of smart cities: smart mobility, smart living, smart environment, smart citizens, smart government, and smart architecture as well as related technologies and concepts. The discussion also focusses on the alignment of smart cities with the UN sustainable development goals. This comprehensive review offers critical insight to the key underlying research themes within smart cities, highlighting the limitations of current developments and potential future directions.
    • Smart monitoring and controlling of government policies using social media and cloud computing

      Singh, P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Kahlon, K.S.; Sawhney, R.S.; Alalwan, A.A.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2019)
      The governments, nowadays, throughout the world are increasingly becoming dependent on public opinion regarding the framing and implementation of certain policies for the welfare of the general public. The role of social media is vital to this emerging trend. Traditionally, lack of public participation in various policy making decision used to be a major cause of concern particularly when formulating and evaluating such policies. However, the exponential rise in usage of social media platforms by general public has given the government a wider insight to overcome this long pending dilemma. Cloud-based e-governance is currently being realized due to IT infrastructure availability along with mindset changes of government advisors towards realizing the various policies in a best possible manner. This paper presents a pragmatic approach that combines the capabilities of both cloud computing and social media analytics towards efficient monitoring and controlling of governmental policies through public involvement. The proposed system has provided us some encouraging results, when tested for Goods and Services Tax (GST) implementation by Indian government and established that it can be successfully implemented for efficient policy making and implementation.
    • The social construction of leadership studies: representations of rigour and relevance in textbooks

      Carroll, B.; Firth, J.; Ford, Jackie M.; Taylor, S. (2018-04-01)
      Considerations of rigour and relevance rarely acknowledge students, learning, or the textbooks many of the academic community use to frame education. Here we explore the construction of meaning around rigour and relevance in four leadership studies textbooks – the two most globally popular leadership textbooks and two recent additions to the field – to explore how these ideas are represented. We read the four texts narratively for structure, purpose, style, and application. We further embed the analysis by considering the cultural positioning of the textbook-as-genre within leadership studies as a field more generally. This exploration of the textbook raises critical questions about rigour, relevance and the relationship constructed between them. From this, we argue for a re-commitment to the genuine ‘text-book’ written to engage students in understanding leadership as a continuing conversation between practices, theories, and contexts, rather than as a repository of rigorous and/or relevant content that lays claim to represent an objective science of leadership studies.