• Participant responses to photo-elicitation methods in the study of work-life balance

      Cassell, C.; Malik, Fatima; Radcliffe, L. (2015-01)
      This paper explores the responses of 17 participants to using photo-elicitation as part of a project exploring their daily experiences of work-life balance. We explicitly asked participants about their experiences of using the method that involved taking photographs of their work-life balance experiences and interpreting these photographs through participation in semi- structured interviews. Participants took 108 photographs in total. We explore important methodological issues for researchers seeking to use these methods and explain that photograph-elicitation has much to offer management and organizational researchers. A major benefit of the method is the role of photographs as a ‘conversational technology’ in encouraging re-interpretation and reflection of experiences in a manner not always achieved when using other qualitative techniques.
    • Partnership and process in the maritime construction industry.

      McBride, Jo; Stirling, J. (2002)
      The authors provide a case study of a partnership agreement in the Tyneside maritime construction industry. They focus on the role of trade unions and the complex tensions that emerge between regional and local officials and workplace representatives. They argue that agreements can only be understood within the context of existing employee relations structures. Their conclusion suggests that the agreement had little impact on a ¿branch plant¿ of a national company and that it was often received with hostility and little commitment. As a consequence the partnership became a symbolic agreement with potential significance for external customers but no role in shaping workplace employee relations.
    • The Party is Over and Microsoft Have Lost: The Key Issues and Ramifications of the Microsoft Judgement

      Guth, Jessica (2008)
      The Microsoft Case is a battle between Microsoft, the global software giant, and the European Commission. The Commission found Microsoft to be in breach of Arti-cle 82 of the EC Treaty because of their refusal to sup-ply interoperability information in the Work Group Server (WGS) market and tying in Windows Media Player (WMP) with Windows. Microsoft appealed to the Euro-pean Court of First Instance (CFI) where they lost their nine year battle on 17 September 2007. Microsoft will not be appealing the decision1. The case is a modern day David and Goliath with the Commission coming out the champion. This edition of Law in Brief will look at the main outcomes of the decision and its likely impact in particularly on future clashes of competition law and intellectual property law within the European Union (EU).
    • Pension scheme redesign and wealth redistribution between the members and sponsor: The USS rule change in October 2011

      Platanakis, Emmanouil; Sutcliffe, C.
      The redesign of defined benefit pension schemes usually results in a substantial redistribution of wealth between age cohorts of members, pensioners, and the sponsor. This is the first study to quantify the redistributive effects of a rule change by a real world scheme (the Universities Superannuation Scheme, USS) where the sponsor underwrites the pension promise. In October 2011 USS closed its final salary scheme to new members, opened a career average revalued earnings (CARE) section, and moved to ‘cap and share’ contribution rates. We find that the pre-October 2011 scheme was not viable in the long run, while the post-October 2011 scheme is probably viable in the long run, but faces medium term problems. In October 2011 future members of USS lost 65% of their pension wealth (or roughly £100,000 per head), equivalent to a reduction of roughly 11% in their total compensation, while those aged over 57 years lost almost nothing. The riskiness of the pension wealth of future members increased by a third, while the riskiness of the present value of the sponsor’s future contributions reduced by 10%. Finally, the sponsor’s wealth increased by about £32.5 billion, equivalent to a reduction of 26% in their pension costs.
    • People, process and policy perspectives on food security: An exploration using systems archetypes

      Sharif, Amir M.; Irani, Zahir (2016)
      This paper aims to identify a wider holistic view of the inter-relationships relating to food security from a people, process and policy perspective. This is so that decision and policy makers can identify relevant alignments between disparate and conflicting priority elements in the field. Noting the complexity of inter-related challenges posed by food security, food supply chains and growing concerns over food waste, this paper also seeks to identify cross-cutting themes relative to shared energy and water security objectives also. The authors develop and adapt an existing food security framework to encapsulate the above culminating in a systems archetype that defines the intimate feed-forward relationship. As a viewpoint piece, there is no empirical work to report in this paper. An exploratory review of the literature has allowed for the extraction of food security concerns that need the attention of stakeholders across the enterprise to ensure robust food supply chains can be created, maintained and sustained through a better understanding and usage of information, knowledge and data. The authors present an adaptation of an existing food security framework to include dimensions of people, process and policy through the inclusion of a number of broad thematic areas including (amongst others): management best practices; sustainable business operations; consumption rights, behaviours and trading policies; lifecycle management; recovery and extraction; regulatory changes and policy reform; environmental and climate change impacts. The authors outline an overarching systems archetype based upon a combination of the Limits of Growth, Tragedy of the Commons and Attractiveness Principle archetypes. In doing so, providing decision and policy makers to identify and explore a range of food security scenarios and potential outcomes. This paper is a position paper that provides strategic directions on the impact of people, process and policy aspects on the development of food security policies from the perspective of local and central government decision makers. This paper provides a holistic worldview on key aspects of the global and national food security debate that seeks to assist decision and policy makers frame their decisions and policy interventions across dimensions of people, process and policy. Noting the impact of securing and maintaining the production, supply, consumption, health benefits and waste recovery aspects of food this paper provides a perspective on the inter-relationships that exist within the topical area and the socially mediated inter-relationships which exist and should be considered when engaging with the food security and food supply chain topical area. The paper raises awareness and highlights inherent inter-relationships within the food debate for the benefit of decision and policy makers present at the organisational level, specifically around people, process and policy.
    • Perceived helpfulness of eWOM: emotions, fairness and rationality

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Slade, E. (2019)
      Consumers use online reviews to help make informed purchase decisions. This paper extends existing research by examining how content of online reviews influences perceptions of helpfulness by demonstrating how different emotions can influence helpfulness of both product and service online reviews beyond a valence-based approach using cognitive appraisal theory and attribution theory. This research contributes to existing knowledge regarding the theory of information processing, attribution theory, and cognitive appraisal theory of emotions. Using findings from this study, practitioners can make review websites more user-friendly which will help readers avoid information overload and make more informed purchase decisions.
    • Perceived service quality, repeat use of healthcare services and inpatient satisfaction in emerging economy: Empirical evidences from India

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Jagani, K. (2018)
      Purpose: The chief objective of the study is to understand that how different demographic variables and repeated availing of service from the same doctor or same hospital shapes the overall perception of healthcare service quality and satisfaction among inpatients admitted in private hospitals in an emerging economy. Methodology: A self-administered, cross-sectional survey of inpatients using a questionnaire translated into Hindi and Gujarati. The data was collected from 702 inpatient from 18 private clinics located in three selected cities from Western India. Findings The results indicate that experience with hospital administration, doctors, nursing staff, physical environment, hospital pharmacy and physical environment is significant predictor of inpatient satisfaction. Physical environment was found to be significantly associated with satisfaction only among female inpatient. It was also found that repeat availing of services either from the same hospital or doctor does not increases patient satisfaction. The feasibility, reliability and validity of the instrument that measures major technical and non-technical dimensions of quality of healthcare services were established in the context of a developing country. Originality/Value: The study makes important contribution by empirically investigating the inpatient assessment of healthcare service quality based upon their demographic information and repeated availing of services to understand how repeat visit shapes the service quality perception.
    • Perceptions of institutional complexity and lobbyists’ decisions to join lobbying coalitions – evidence from the European Union context

      Barron, A.; Trouille, Jean-Marc (2015-11-24)
      We use data from in-depth interviews with business lobbyists in Brussels to investigate why they choose to join lobbying coalitions. We find that lobbyists face two competing institutional incentives. First, they are confronted with incentives to ally with other European organisations, develop multilateral policy messages, and communicate messages to the Commission and the Parliament. Simultaneously, they face inducements to join narrower coalitions, develop bilateral policy messages, and direct those messages at the Council. Lobbyists’ receptivity to these incentives – and thus their choices of lobbying coalitions – differs with their age, educational background, and with the type and ownership structure of the organisations they represent. Combined, our findings contribute to the limited, mainly American literature on interest coalitions by demonstrating that lobbyists operate in complex institutional environments, and that their interpretations of and reactions to institutional complexity are shaped by individual- and organisational-level factors.
    • Performance evaluation of bankruptcy prediction models: An orientation-free super-efficiency DEA-based framework

      Mousavi, Mohammad M.; Quenniche, J.; Xu, B. (2015-12)
      Prediction of corporate failure is one of the major activities in auditing firms risks and uncertainties. The design of reliable models to predict bankruptcy is crucial for many decision making processes. Although a large number of models have been designed to predict bankruptcy, the relative performance evaluation of competing prediction models remains an exercise that is unidimensional in nature, which often leads to reporting conflicting results. In this research, we overcome this methodological issue by proposing an orientation-free super-efficiency data envelopment analysis model as a multi-criteria assessment framework. Furthermore, we perform an exhaustive comparative analysis of the most popular bankruptcy modeling frameworks for UK data including our own models. In addition, we address two important research questions; namely, do some modeling frameworks perform better than others by design? and to what extent the choice and/or the design of explanatory variables and their nature affect the performance of modeling frameworks?, and report on our findings.
    • Performance Management

      Matthias, Olga (2011)
      After reading this chapter you will be able to: Examine the role of Performance Management in ensuring effective business performance; Consider how a culture of suitable measurement can be established and how sustainable performance can be embedded; Demonstrate a systematic understanding of the processes involved in the development and implementation of Performance Management systems; Devise and use performance measures to inform the performance management system; Assess the benefits and drawbacks inherent in the implementation of Performance Management Systems; Analyse and evaluate different Performance Management methodologies; and Synthesise and analyse data and information and evaluate its relevance and validity in the context of any given organisation.
    • Performance measures and metrics in outsourcing decisions: A review for research and applications

      Gunasekaran, A.; Irani, Zahir; Choy, K.-L.; Filippi, L.; Papadopoulos, T. (2015-03)
      Outsourcing, an operations strategy that influences the performance of a supply chain, has become an important component of global operations management. An effective global sourcing strategy helps companies to manage the flow of parts and finished products in meeting the needs of overseas and domestic markets. Outsourcing reduces the cost of assets, facilitates core competencies to reduce production costs, leads to strategic flexibility and reduces administrative and overhead costs. Some of the reasons why companies are against outsourcing include integration challenges, sacrificing their competitive base, opportunistic behaviour, rising transaction and coordination costs, limited innovation, and higher procurement costs. Despite these shortcomings, outsourcing will continue to play an important role in enhancing organizational competitiveness. Therefore, an attempt has been made to review the literature on outsourcing with particular reference to Performance Measures and Metrics (PMMs) used in arriving at outsourcing decisions. The main objective of this paper is to present a taxonomy (classification) of PMMs in outsourcing decisions at the pre-outsourcing, during-outsourcing, and post-outsourcing stages. Also, based on the literature review and analysis, an attempt is made to determine a list of specific tools and techniques for PMMs in outsourcing. Finally, the limitations of the paper and future research directions are presented.
    • The persistence of outward foreign direct investment from German Manufacturing Industries.

      McDonald, Frank; Tüselmann, H-J.; Bohl, M.; Voronkova, S.; Windrum, P. (2011)
    • Perspectives on Legal Education: Contemporary Responses to the Lord Upjohn Lectures

      Ashford, C.; Duncan, N.; Guth, Jessica (2015)
      This chapter forms part of the edited collection of critical overviews of the major legal education debates in the context of the Lord Upjohn Lectures.
    • Persuasiveness of eWOM communications: Literature review and suggestions for future research

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.; Williams, M. (2016)
      Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) plays an important part in consumer purchase decision. The way consumers perceive the persuasiveness of eWOM message can affect their attitude, and purchase intention, and hence sales. Thus, the topic of persuasiveness of eWOM communications has received much attention from scholars. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief review of the existing literature related to the effectiveness of eWOM communications and offer an overview of the determinants of eWOM persuasiveness. This paper contributes to the existing eWOM literature by reviewing the existing studies on eWOM communications, identifying gaps in the current research and providing directions for future research.
    • Picketing

      Gall, Gregor (2016)
    • Planned or prioritized? Two options in managing the implementation of strategic decisions

      Hickson, David J.; Wilson, D.C.; Miller, Susan J. (2003)
      This paper presents findings from a study of 55 cases of decision implementation. The research identifies a number of features that characterize the way implementation is managed which appear to enhance the chance of success. Analysis reveals patterns in the data indicating that these features fall into two groupings, giving rise to two distinct approaches to implementation management. These are termed the Experience-based approach and the Readiness-based approach from the initial conditions which give rise to each. Although following either approach may enhance decision performance, the greatest success is associated with a dual approach. Implementations that follow neither are generally less successful. A theory of implementation management is postulated, comprising a Planned Option and a Prioritized Option.
    • The political economy of the European Social Model

      Whyman, P.B.; Baimbridge, Mark J.; Mullen, A. (2012-07-04)
      This book seeks to analyse the development of the European Union (EU), which was founded upon the principle of the free movement of capital, goods, services and people in 1957. Its central thesis is that, from a practical and theoretical point of view, such a basis is fundamentally at odds with the creation of an interventionist regime that the construction of a social Europe would require.
    • The politics of access in fieldwork: Immersion, backstage dramas and deception

      Cunliffe, Ann L.; Alcadipani da Silveira, F. (2016-10)
      Gaining access in fieldwork is crucial to the success of research, and may often be problematic because it involves working in complex social situations. This paper examines the intricacies of access, conceptualizing it as a fluid, temporal and political process that requires sensitivity to social issues and to potential ethical choices faced by both researchers and organization members. Our contribution lies in offering ways in which researchers can reflexively negotiate the challenges of access by: 1. Underscoring the complex and relational nature of access by conceptualizing three relational perspectives – instrumental, transactional and relational – proposing the latter as a strategy for developing a diplomatic sensitivity to the politics of access; 2. Explicating the political, ethical and emergent nature of access by framing it as an ongoing process of immersion, backstage dramas, and deception; and 3. Offering a number of relational micropractices to help researchers negotiate the complexities of access. We illustrate the challenges of gaining and maintaining access through examples from the literature and from Rafael’s attempts to gain access to carry out fieldwork in a Police Force.
    • Post-Brexit trade survival: looking beyond the European Union

      Jackson, K.; Shepotylo, Oleksandr (2018-06)
      As the EU and UK negotiate a new relationship, this paper explores the welfare implications of this policy change and its interaction with major trade policy initiatives. We evaluate five Brexit scenarios, based on different assumptions regarding Brexit, TTIP and various free trade deals the UK may attempt to broker with the US or Commonwealth countries. We also consider the dynamics of welfare changes over a period of two decades. Our estimates suggest that the impact of Brexit is negative in all policy scenarios, with lower welfare losses under a soft Brexit scenario. The losses are exacerbated if TTIP comes into force, demonstrating the benefits of being a member of a large trade bloc. However, they occur gradually and can be partially compensated by signing new free trade agreements. To further minimise losses, the UK should avoid a hard Brexit.