• Key issues for gender research in HRD: a multi-stakeholder framework for analysing gendered media constructions of women leaders

      Mavin, Sharon A.; Williams, Jannine (2015)
      Gender research can be a highly political process with significant impact, positively or negatively, on the researcher(s) and research participants. As a result there are key issues for consideration when preparing to undertake gender research in Human Resource Development (HRD). Gender research in HRD requires a mature level of researcher reflexivity in terms of personal understandings of gender; individual researcher values, philosophical positions and standpoints on gender; motivations for research; awareness of how gender research may construct researchers in their own professional settings and how research participants may respond to gender research. We contend that a process of researcher reflexivity, in critically reflecting upon and reviewing individual assumptions and standpoints, is essential before beginning gender research. Gender is a significant dimension of personal life, social relations and culture: an arena where we face difficult practical issues about justice, identity and even survival; where there is much prejudice, myth and falsehood, and where social sciences gender research is producing a relatively new form of knowledge (Connell, 2009). This chapter outlines key issues for gender researchers illustrated through research into gendered media constructions of women leaders. We introduce the importance of women leaders and gender aware learning and HRD and outline understandings of gender; diverse advances in gender research; consistency, harm, pleasure and power; participant-research relationships and the researcher’s position in gender research, by drawing upon our previous studies. We then present the key issues in practice, through our operationalization of a Multi-Stakeholder Framework for analysing gendered media constructions of women leaders. We utilize a mixed method design (Saunders, 2012) of statistical analysis of secondary data on women in senior positions in a UK region (geographies of gender); analysis of three Supplements of the Top 500 Influential Leaders via discourse analysis; a semi-structured interview with a media producer; group and individual interviews with selected aspiring and current women leaders and stages of on-going researcher reflexivity and accountability. We conclude with reflections on the constraints and possibilities of the multi-stakeholder framework approach.
    • Killing for Money and the Economic Theory of Crime

      Cameron, Samuel (2014)
      There is a large literature on the economics of crime and punishment, yet surprisingly little attention is paid to the receipt of money for crime. “Contract killing” is surprisingly neglected not only by economists but also by social scientists in general. In this paper, I look at the case not of professional gangster “hitmen” but of individuals who have found themselves in a position where they wish to have a killing carried out. This discussion does not condone the practice any more than an economic analysis of suicide is an inducement to individuals to kill themselves. To the lay reader, the cases where an individual feels the need to pay for killing may seem to be such that rationality is not a likely form of behaviour. However, the economics of crime has adopted the use of the rationality postulate as a heuristic for all types of crime.
    • Knowledge Sharing Culture in Higher Education: Critical Literature Review

      Al Kurdi, O.F.A.; Ghoneim, Ahmad; Al Roubaie, A. (2015-10-29)
      This paper reviews and analyses the literature on knowledge sharing in a university setting with the aim of identifying and understanding the determinants of knowledge sharing culture, research trends, theories, and future research opportunities for knowledge sharing in higher education institutions (HEIs). Findings suggest that there is disproportionately little knowledge sharing research in HEIs compared to the commercial sector. The review reveals that existing research on HEIs does not consider the determinants of knowledge sharing culture in a comprehensive manner. Research on knowledge sharing in commercial and HEIs in developing economies like Africa, the Middle East and South America is found to be limited. The review shows that future research should consider cultural and behavioural factors at different levels, that is, individual, national, professional teams, language issues and trust that might impact knowledge sharing practices among faculty members in HEIs in developing economies.
    • Knowledge sharing for innovation performance improvement in Micro/SMEs: An insight from the creative sector

      Tassabehji, Rana; Mishra, Jyoti L.; Dominguez-Pery, C. (2018)
      As the economy becomes more reliant on innovative, knowledge-intensive firms, understanding the interaction between knowledge and improving innovation performance is increasingly important. Despite the majority of UK businesses being micro, small or medium-sized enterprises (micro/SMEs), knowledge management research has tended to focus on large companies, and the findings may not be applicable to micro/SMEs, especially in the creative sector. Moreover, the important role played by knowledge sharing in innovation can be critical to successful performance for smaller players in the creative sector where resources are limited. Our study presents an insight from micro/SMEs operating in a highly knowledge-intensive and innovative creative industry - games/entertainment software development. Using a mixed method approach, we investigate knowledge sharing and its contribution to firm innovation performance improvements. Our findings suggest that micro/SMEs are at the forefront in the creative sector precisely because of their smaller size. Our study reveals evidence of knowledge donation but limited evidence of knowledge collection in the knowledge sharing process in micro/SMEs. We develop a knowledge sharing model for innovation performance improvement in micro/SMEs. This highlights the importance of industry context, individual knowledge and organisational size in the role of knowledge sharing in innovation performance.
    • Labour Relations in the Global Fast-Food Industry

      Royle, Tony; Towers, B. (2002)
      The fast-food industry is one of the few industries that can be described as truly global, not least in terms of employment, which is estimated at around ten million people worldwide. This edited volume is the first of its kind, providing an analysis of labour relations in this significant industry focusing on multinational corporations and large national companies in ten countries: the USA, Canada, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and Russia. The extent to which multinational enterprises impose or adapt their employment practices in differing national industrial relations systems is analysed, Results reveal that the global fast-food industry is typified by trade union exclusion, high labour turnover, unskilled work, paternalistic management regimes and work organization that allows little scope for developing workers' participation in decision-making, let alone advocating widely accepted concepts of social justice and workers' rights.
    • Labour unions

      Gall, Gregor (2014)
    • Large-scale data analysis using the Wigner function

      Earnshaw, Rae A.; Lei, Ci; Li, Jing; Mugassabi, Souad; Vourdas, Apostolos (2012)
      Large-scale data are analysed using the Wigner function. It is shown that the ‘frequency variable’ provides important information, which is lost with other techniques. The method is applied to ‘sentiment analysis’ in data from social networks and also to financial data.
    • The latent causes of rework in floating production storage and offloading projects

      Love, P.E.D.; Edwards, D.J.; Irani, Zahir; Forcada, N. (2014)
      There is growing demand for cost effective and reliable floating production systems to maximize marginal and new deepwater fields worldwide. Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels are considered to be the most economical and viable options to meet this demand. Yet, FPSO projects are prone to significant cost and schedule growth. On average, FPSOs have been reported to experience a 20% cost growth and are delayed by six months. Overruns and delays represent uncertainties for owners, contractors and financial institutions. In-depth interviews with twenty-three practitioners about their experiences with FPSO projects revealed that rework arising from design and construction errors were major contributors to cost and schedule growth. Key latent conditions contributing to rework are classified according to people, organization and project. Using retrospective sensemaking an examination of the determinant histories in a new build and conversion FPSO that experienced rework was undertaken. The sharing of experience(s) is deemed pivotal for reducing rework in future projects, particularly through the use of communities of practice that are able to stimulate situated learning to take place. A reduction in rework will not only reduce cost and schedule growth, improve operational performance and augment safety.
    • Law Express Question and Answer: Employment Law

      Guth, Jessica; Singh, C. (2014)
      Law Express Question and Answer: Employment Law is designed to ensure you get the most marks for every answer you write by improving your understanding of what examiners are looking for, helping you to focus in on the question being asked and showing you how to make even a strong answer stand out.
    • Law Express Question and Answer: EU Law,

      Guth, Jessica; Connor, Timothy C. (2014)
      Law Express Question and Answer: EU Law is designed to ensure you get the most marks for every answer you write by improving your understanding of what examiners are looking for, helping you to focus in on the question being asked and showing you how to make even a strong answer stand out.
    • Law Express: Company Law

      Taylor, Chris W. (2015)
      The Law Express series is designed to assist students in effective exam revision by guiding users in understanding the basic concepts, the recall and application of key legislation in the exam environment.
    • Law Express: Evidence

      Taylor, Chris W. (2015)
      The Law Express series has been written to assist students in exam preparation. This title will guide users through understanding the essential concepts, and how to remember and and apply key legislation in an exam situation.
    • Leadership and charisma: A desire that cannot speak its name?

      Harding, Nancy H.; Lee, Hugh; Ford, Jackie M.; Learmonth, M. (2011)
      Leadership has proved impossible to define, despite decades of research and a huge number of publications. This article explores managers’ accounts of leadership, and shows that they find it difficult to talk about the topic, offering brief definitions but very little narrative. That which was said/sayable provides insights into what was unsaid/ unsayable. Queer theory facilitates exploration of that which is difficult to talk about, and applying it to the managers’ talk allows articulation of their lay theory of leadership. This is that leaders evoke a homoerotic desire in followers such that followers are seduced into achieving organizational goals. The leader’s body, however, is absent from the scene of seduction, so organizational heteronormativity remains unchallenged. The article concludes by arguing that queer and critical leadership theorists together could turn leadership into a reverse discourse and towards a politics of pleasure at work.
    • Leadership and process

      Kelly, Simon (2015-11)
    • Leadership: Time for a new direction?

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2005)
      After reviewing the literature on leadership that culminated in what has been described as the `New Paradigm¿, this article discusses the research which has led to the development of what might be regarded as a `New New Paradigm¿ model. The research was based on a gender-inclusive and black and minority ethnic-inclusive sample of over 3,500 managers and professionals, at different levels (chief executives, top, senior and middle managers), working in the UK National Health Service and local government. The model that emerged, which led to the development of a diagnostic 360-degree feedback instrument, the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire, has been found to be sufficiently robust as to generalize to private sector and other public sector organizations. Apart from having been inclusive at all stages of its development, the model is new in that it is based on a `nearby¿ rather than `distant¿ or `heroic¿ approach to leadership, using a Grounded Theory methodology. It leads to an understanding of leadership that goes beyond transformational models and, recognizing the significance of Greenleaf¿s concept of `servant leadership¿, focuses on the development of the individual, in an organizational context.
    • Leadership: A categorical mistake?

      Kelly, Simon (2008)
      As growing numbers of scholars become disaffected by the research traditions laid down by leadership psychology, there is a steady turn towards treating leadership as a discursive phenomenon. In response, leadership researchers are increasingly adopting interpretive and observational methods in the search for the practices of leadership in everyday life. This article suggests that while there are many advantages to an interest in discourse and action, there are also many subtle difficulties in making leadership observable and knowable in the field. Taking Louis Pondy's notion of leadership as a language-game as its starting point, this article argues that leadership studies as a discipline suffers from a persistent category mistake; a category mistake that some recent interpretive studies of leadership reveal, but inadvertently reproduce in the search for leadership's essential character. Instead, this article takes Pondy's thesis to its logical conclusion and outlines a programme of research that confronts this category mistake, whilst demonstrating the potential for, and limitations of, treating leadership as a language-game.