• Gender and the Court of Justice of the European Union

      Guth, Jessica; Elfving, Sanna (2018-03)
    • Gender Bias and Digital Financial Services in South Asia: Obstacles and Opportunities on the Road to Equal Access

      Rashmi, Arora (Emerald, 2020-03-13)
      Several studies have shown that financial inclusion impacts poverty and income inequality and higher levels of financial inclusion lead to lower poverty and income inequality and promotes inclusive economic growth. However, the gender gap in access and usage of financial services remains pervasive across all the countries in South Asia. Patriarchal societies, low involvement of women in decision making, low empowerment of women, no voice in the family matters are some of the factors influencing women’s financial access in the region. Although literature has developed on access to financial services in general, there is not much academic work available on access to digital financial services for women. Gender Bias and Digital Financial Services in South Asia: Obstacles and Opportunities on the Road to Equal Access examines access to financial services to women in general in South Asia and specifically their access to digital financial services.
    • Gender equality in the UK - the legal framework

      Guth, Jessica (2008)
      We have come along way in terms of equality law since Lord Davey made his statement. Not only was he unable or unwill-ing to see the law as a vehicle for protecting individuals from discrimination in employment, he was also very definitely talking about a ¿workman` and the fact that this might be a woman had probably not occurred to him. Times and contexts have changed and the law now has a clear role to play in protecting individuals from dis-crimination on a number of grounds. This Law in Brief summarises the legal framework relevant to gender equality in the employment sphere. This Law in Brief also acts as a background paper for a pilot research project looking at women`s progression in the academic sector.1
    • A generalised adoption model for services: A cross-country comparison of mobile health (m-health)

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Shareef, M.; Simintiras, A.; Lal, B.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2016-01)
      Which antecedents affect the adoption by users is still often a puzzle for policy-makers. Antecedents examined in this research include technological artefacts from the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), consumer context from UTAUT2 and psychological behaviour concepts such as citizens' channel preference and product selection criteria. This research also investigated cultural domination on citizens' behavioural perception. The data for this study was collected among citizens from three countries: USA, Canada, and Bangladesh. The findings suggest that the UTAUT model could partially shape technology artefact behaviour and the extended UTAUT must consider specific determinants relevant to cognitive, affective, and conative or behavioural aspects of citizens. The model helps policy-makers to develop mobile healthcare service system that will be better accepted. The finding also suggests that this mobile service system should reflect a country's cultural traits. These findings basically extend the theoretical concept of UTAUT model to articulate adoption behaviour of any complex and sensitive ICT related issues like mobile healthcare system.
    • Give me back my empties or else! A preliminary analysis of customer compliance in reverse logistics practices (UK)

      Breen, Liz (2006)
      This research aims to conduct an exploratory analysis into current industrial reverse logistics practice in business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-customer relationships (B2C), and determine the financial and operational impact of customer non-compliance in returning distribution equipment back to their source. The analysis was conducted over multiple industry sectors using qualitative research techniques. The research sample included seven industry sectors, providing a response rate of 72 per cent (53 sources approached). The focus was on both B2B and B2C relationships to determine similarities and differences in financial and operational repercussions. The research findings indicate that the efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be undermined by lack of customer compliance, with losses of up to £140 million (B2B). In both B2B and B2C relationships, there is evidence of suppliers suffering financial loss due to customer non-compliance. Due to the small scale of the analysis and the breadth of the industry sectors investigated, these results are not generalisable, but do indicate that this is an area, which could undermine supply chain effectiveness. Practical implications – Non-compliance of this nature carries a direct and highly applicable cost for manufacturers and distributors in the practitioner arena. Suppliers within industry need to acknowledge this issue and manage their reverse logistics more effectively. This paper adopts an innovative focus on an understated feature of the reverse logistics cycle, i.e. the recycling of distribution equipment used to transport outbound and returned products. The paper identifies a range of options, which practitioners can use as guidance when managing the returns system.
    • Global inequities and emissions in Western European textiles and clothing consumption

      Mair, Simon; Druckman, A.; Jackson, T. (2016-09-20)
      Rising demand for cheaper textiles and clothing in Western Europe is well documented, as are changes in the Textiles and Clothing industry's globalised production structure. We apply a sub-systems global multi-regional input–output accounting framework to examine the sustainability implications of meeting Western European demand for textiles and clothing goods between 1995 and 2009. Our framework estimates environmental and socio-economic impacts of consumption in a consistent manner and shows where these occur both geographically and in the value chain. The results demonstrate that Western European textiles and clothing consumption remains dependent on low-cost labour from Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC), principally in the Textiles and Clothing and Agricultural sectors. Conversely, we show that the wage rate for BRIC workers in the global value chains serving Western European textiles and clothing consumption has risen over time but remains low relative to the wage rate paid to Western European workers. Likewise, we find that profits are increasingly generated within BRIC and that they are now at comparable levels to those generated in Western Europe. We find a slight overall decrease in the amount of carbon emitted in the production of textiles and clothing goods for Western Europe between 1995 and 2009. However, the trend is not linear and the importance of different underlying drivers varies over the timeseries. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for a more sustainable future for Western European textiles and clothing consumption.
    • Global networks and the reorganization of production in the clothing industry of post-socialist Ukraine

      Kalantaridis, Christos; Slava, S.; Vassilev, I. (2008)
      In this article we examine how processes of globalization and the nature of emerging inter-firm relationships influence the organization of production in a post-socialist region, using the case of the clothing industry in Transcarpathia, Western Ukraine. We combine insights from two perspectives, the global commodity chain approach and the new regionalism. The focus on both institutional setting and interfirm relationships is essential in regions undergoing rapid change. In the article we also use Burt's concept of structural holes and the idea of a competence-difficulty gap to examine the nature of relationships within networks of firms, arguing that global integration can be viewed as a bridging process. The evidence comes from surveys and fieldwork conducted between 1997 and 2004, providing a longitudinal analysis of the same firms. Among other findings, we show that the difficulty of doing business locally may make relationships more stable. With respect to industrial structure, international subcontracting and joint-venture arrangements enable technological modernization in assembly and parts of preassembly, but also result in the demise of high-value added competences.
    • Globalisation and Intellectual Property in China.

      Yang, Deli; Clarke, P. (2005)
      The open door policy since 1979 highlights the globalisation process in China. Since then, all walks of life, and businesses have been affected by globalisation. One clear sign of the global impact is China¿s effort to move gradually from a country ruled by government to that ruled by law although this process is slow moving, especially from an enforcement perspective. This paper intends to study the change of intellectual property (IP) environment in China under the global trend of legal harmony. Objectively, this paper discusses and analyses four related topics¿the legal system in China, the rapidly expanding scope of IP, the evidential data and analysis of the IP activities, and finally, two cases highlighting practical aspects of IP.
    • Goal-setting participation and goal commitment: Examining the mediating roles of procedural fairness and interpersonal trust in a UK financial services organisation

      Sholihin, Mahfud; Pike, Richard H.; Mangena, Musa; Li, Jing (2011-06)
      This study investigates whether participation in goal-setting within performance measurement and evaluation processes affects goal commitment and if so, whether the effect is mediated by procedural fairness and interpersonal trust. Using a sample of 54 managers within a UK financial services organisation, this study finds that participation in goal-setting is positively associated with goal commitment. Further analysis arising from introducing procedural fairness and interpersonal trust as mediating variables reveals that the association is significantly mediated by procedural fairness. Overall, these findings offer empirical evidence on the importance of procedural fairness on the relationship between participation and goal commitment.
    • Going green, going clean: Lean-green sustainability strategy and firm growth

      Lartey, T.; Yirenkyi, D.O.; Adomako, Samuel; Danso, A.; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Alam, A. (Wiley, 2020-01)
      Despite the widespread recognition of the paybacks of “going green” and “going clean”, limited research has focused on the impact of lean-green strategy on firm growth. In this study, we contribute to strategy and environmental sustainability literatures by investigating the possibility that the influence on lean-green strategy and firm growth is driven by different levels of industry competition, managerial power and family ties. Using panel data from 732 firms in four major industrialised economies (the US, Germany, France and the UK), we found that lean-green strategy positively relates to firm growth and this relationship is amplified at higher levels of competition, managerial power and family ties. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are also discussed.
    • Governance disclosure quality and market valuation of firms in UK and Germany

      Ullah, S.; Ahmad, S.; Akbar, Saeed; Kodwani, D.; Frecknall-Hughes, J. (Wiley, 2020)
      This study develops a 'comply or explain' index which captures compliance and quality of explanations given for non-compliance with the corporate governance codes in UK and Germany. In particular, we explain, how compliance and quality of explanations provided in non-compliance disclosures, and various other internal corporate governance mechanisms, affect the market valuation of firms in the two countries. A dynamic generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator is employed as the research technique for our analysis, which enabled us to control for the potential effects of endogeneity in our models. The findings of our content analysis suggest that firms exhibit significant differences in compliance, board independence and ownership structure in both countries. The 'comply or explain' index is positively associated with the market valuation of UK firms suggesting that compliance and quality governance disclosure is value relevant in the UK. Institutional blockholders' ownership is however, negatively associated with the market value of firms, which raises questions about the monitoring role of institutional shareholders in both countries. We argue that both compliance and explanations given for non-compliance are equally important, as long as valid reasons and justifications for non-compliance are provided by the reporting companies. These findings thus imply that the 'comply or explain' principle is working well and that UK and German companies could benefit from the flexibility offered by this principle. With respect to the role of board size, board independence, ownership structure, and institutional ownership of firms, this study offers policy implications.
    • Government discourses on entrepreneurship: Issues of subjugation, legitimisation and power.

      Jennings, Peter L.; Perren, L. (2005)
      The belief in market-driven ideology and the assumption that new business ventures create jobs and foster innovation has embedded entrepreneurship into political discourse. Academics have analyzed government policies on entrepreneurship, but they have tended to share the same underlying beliefs in the function of entrepreneurs within the economic machine. This article explores selected dimensions of the impact of those beliefs by using critical discourse analysis to show how government websites around the world portray entrepreneurs and their role in society. Discourses of government power and self-legitimization are revealed that manifest themselves in a colonizing discourse of entrepreneurial subjugation. The article concludes by challenging government rhetoric on entrepreneurship and questioning the motives underpinning the agenda of government involvement in supporting entrepreneurs.
    • Great writers on organizations

      Hickson, David J.; Pugh, D.S. (Ashgate Publishing, 2009-06-09)
      Great Writers on Organizations presents succinctly each of the contributions made by 80 of the most prominent management thinkers to the understanding of organizational behaviour and managerial thinking. Among those included are early theorists such as Henri Fayol, Frederick W. Taylor and Max Weber, classical writers such as Alfred D. Chandler, Peter Drucker and Frederick Herzberg, through to modern thinkers such as Oliver Williamson, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, and Charles Handy. New writers included in the Third Omnibus Edition are: Lex Donaldson, Stewart Clegg, Richard Whitley, Michel Foucault and Kathleen Eisenhardt. The volume is an indispensable resource for academics, students and managers on what the great writers have to say about the key managerial tasks of how to organize and motivate.
    • Green IT/IS investments evaluation within the aviation industry: A focus on indirect cost management

      Jongsaguan, S.; Ghoneim, Ahmad (2017)
      The purpose of this paper is to utilize the existing theories and knowledge surrounding information systems (IS) evaluation and Green information technology (IT)/IS investments to develop a conceptual model for helping decision makers to overcome and reduce the impacts from Green IT/IS investment related to cost overruns or under-optimized budgets. The paper is discursive, based on the analysis and synthesis of literature pertaining to IS evaluation, Green IT/IS adoption and Sustainable/Green/CSR within an aviation context. Gaps in the preceding research have been identified, and a conceptual model is proposed. Additionally, further research and a methodology are suggested. The paper proposes a conceptual model that can identify factors including external factors derived from institutional theory, internal organizational factors, and a list of indirect costs associated with Green IT/IS investments for an aviation organization. As a conceptual paper, the study is limited to literature, identifying gaps, and proposing a model. The paper recommends further empirical validation of the proposed conceptual model. The conceptual model is helpful for decision makers within the aviation industry to enhance their understanding of the identification and management of indirect costs within the aviation context, which results in effective management of Green IT/IS indirect costs. The paper fills gaps in the knowledge of IS evaluation, Green IT/IS adoption/evaluation within aviation context through helping decision makers to understand, identify, and manage the associated indirect costs.
    • Greening community pharmaceutical supply chain in UK: a cross boundary approach

      Xie, Y.; Breen, Liz (2012)
      This research aims to design a green Pharmaceutical Supply Chain (PSC ) that reduces preventable pharmaceutical waste and effectively disposes of inevitable pharmaceutical waste. The main output of this study is the formulation of an integrated green PSC model involving all critical stakeholders, leading to improved environmental, economic and safety performance in medication management and delivery. The research is based on literature and on secondary resources. To green the PSC, every producer of waste is duty bound to facilitate the safe handling and disposal of waste. A Cross boundary Green PSC (XGPSC) approach is proposed to identify participants’ contribution to the PSC. Peripheral influences are also recognised from professional and regulatory bodies. This study focuses solely on community PSC in the UK where patients receive medication from local community pharmacies and thus may be limited. The proposed XGPSC approach also needs to be tested and validated in practice. It may also be difficult to transfer some of the environmental practices proposed in this research into practice. The environmental practices and actions proposed provide invaluable insight into various PSC activities, including purchasing, product design, prescription patterns and processes, medication use review, and customer relationship management. The proposed environmental actions encourage firm commitment from everyone to reduce, recycle or effectively dispose of pharmaceutical waste, with patients becoming stewards of medication rather than only consumers. A cross boundary approach is developed to green the PSC, and it encourages total involvement and collaboration from all participants in PSC.
    • High Performing Workplaces: Workforce Futures Employer Survey - Playford & Salisbury Wave 3

      Ranasinghe, R.; Hordacre, A.; Perrett, Robert A.; Spoehr, J. (2015-04-01)
      The Workplace Futures Survey (WFS) – Playford and Salisbury is a longitudinal workplace survey implemented in Playford and Salisbury. The WFS is designed to capture in-depth information on a range of workplace issues and trends that will provide a comprehensive picture of the issues and challenges faced by employers in the region. This report focuses on Wave 3 of the WFS which was completed by 387 employers during October to November 2014. Results are compared with Wave 1, which was administered a year earlier (November 2013) to 451 employers and Wave 2 completed in May 2014 by 455 employers. The WFS includes a number of core questions on business sentiment, organisational performance along with vacancy and skill demand. Wave 2 also contained focus questions on the potential impact of the automotive closure, whereas Wave 3 explores establishment engagement with High Performance Workplace Practices (HPWP).