• Facilitating regeneration through new enterprise creation.

      Jennings, Peter L.; Illes, K. (2002)
      This paper undertakes a comparative study of intervention strategies and the resultant impact upon new enterprise creation in the UK and Hungary. Firstly, secondary data is used to compare and contrast the actions of and support provided by, major employer organisations faced with the need to downsize and restructure in the light of changing economic circumstances. Parallels are drawn between the need to support the local economy in specific regions of the UK, which faced extreme recession following the decline of major industries and the need to support local economies in Hungary, which face an uncertain future, but new opportunities, following the liberalisation of economic policy. Secondly, the paper reports the results of interviews with entrepreneurs and owner-managers in both countries who have received and who are receiving support and assistance to establish, grow and develop new enterprises. For many this marks a significant transition from employment to self-employment and requires the acquisition of new skills and competences together with the acceptance of high levels of risk and exposure not previously experienced. Thirdly, the paper assesses the impact of changing relationships within the local economy. This is especially significant where newly established SMEs operate as sub-contractors to the supporting organisation which takes the opportunity to outsource services and/or production which was previously undertaken in-house. The paper concludes with specific recommendations concerning the role of facilitators in influencing attitudes towards entrepreneurship and actions, which may be undertaken to encourage regeneration through the creation of new enterprises.
    • Factors affecting group decision making: an insight on information practices by investigating decision making process among tactical commanders

      Mishra, Jyoti L. (2014-12)
      Introduction. Decision making though an important information use has not been vigorously researched in information practices research. By studying how decision makers make decision in groups, we can learn about several underlying issues in information practices. Method. T20 middle-level (tactical) Commanders from blue light services in the UK were interviewed to share their experience on how and where they seek information from and how they make decisions while managing major incidents. Analysis. Activity theory was used as an overarching framework to design interview questions and as an analysis framework. Results. Information need and information practices such as information sharing and information use are investigated. A model of group decision making process and factors affecting group decision making is proposed. Conclusions. By understanding factors affecting decision making, decision support system designers and policy makers can readdress the underlying issue. Moreover, this paper reiterates the need of studying decision making to understand information practices.
    • Factors contributing to the strength of national patent protection and enforcement after TRIPS

      Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Wang, Chengang; Magkonis, Georgios (2019)
      In this paper we study the determinants of the strength of patent enforcement in 43 member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) between 1998 and 2011, a period after the signing of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. We do so by building on and expanding the seminal work of Ginarte and Park (1997) on the pre-TRIPS determinants of patent rights in the years 1960-1990. We find that in the years after TRIPS was signed, the strength of patent enforcement of a country is positively determined by two variables that signify the usage of the patent and intellectual property system, and the number of patent and trademark applications. We also find that the level of research and development expenditure, the quality of human capital, and the level of development of a country have positive effects on the strength of the enforcement of patent law in practice. Intellectual property rights enforcement is one of the key investment-related policies included in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development. Identifying the determinants of strong patent systems will help policymakers at the national and supranational levels to design and implement effective policies that strengthen national patent systems, thereby enhancing economic benefits such as greater levels of commercialization of intangible assets and greater levels of international trade and investment.
    • Factors determining supply linkages between transnational corporations and local suppliers in ASEAN.

      Mirza, Hafiz R.; Giroud, Axele (2006)
      A significant potential beneficial impact of foreign direct investment arises from a foreign affiliate's propensity to purchase inputs from suppliers in the host economy. This issue is of particular interest where the host is a developing country and the linkage is likely to contribute to the development of local suppliers. We compare variations in local input linkages across four countries: Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Viet Nam, all member countries of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Using multiple linear regressions, our findings indicate that the degree of local input linkages is highest when foreign affiliates perform a strategic role in the transnational corporation network and are embedded in the host economy. Non-firm factors are also important determinants, especially the industry of investing firms and the existence of a supply base. Building on the findings, a series of policies to enhance supplier-foreign affiliate linkages are proposed.
    • Factors influencing e-diplomacy implementation: Exploring causal relationships using interpretive structural modelling

      Al-Muftah, H.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Irani, Zahir (2018-09)
      Electronic diplomacy (E-diplomacy) is the use of technology by nations to define and establish diplomatic goals and objectives and to efficiently carry out the functions of diplomats. These functions include representation and promotion of the home nation, establishing both bilateral and multilateral relations, consular services and social engagement. It encapsulates the adoption of multiple ICT tools over the Internet to support a nation’s interests in other countries while ensuring that foreign relations are improved between the countries. Given its embryonic nature, little scholarly research has been undertaken to study its influence on diplomatic functions and the various factors that influence its implementation. This paper applies the Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM) methodological approach to identify factors that impact the implementation of e-diplomacy and to determine their causal relationship and rankings. This study applies the ISM methodology to the subject of e-diplomacy. The ISM-based model provides a framework for practitioners to aid decision-making and manage the implementation of e-diplomacy.
    • Factors influencing user acceptance of public sector big open data

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Kapoor, K.; Balta, M.E.; Irani, Zahir; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2017)
      In recent years Government departments and public/private organisations are becoming increasingly transparent with their data to establish the whole new paradigm of big open data. Increasing research interest arises from the claimed usability of big open data in improving public sector reforms, facilitating innovation, improving supplier and distribution networks and creating resilient supply chains that help improve the efficiency of public services. Despite the advantages of big open data for supply chain and operations management, there is severe shortage of empirical analyses in this field, especially with regard to its acceptance. To address this gap, in this paper we use an extended technology acceptance model to empirically examine the factors affecting users’ behavioural intentions towards public sector big open data. We outline the importance of our model for operations and supply chain managers, the limitations of the study, and future research directions.
    • Fairness in performance evaluation and its behavioural consequences

      Sholihin, Mahfud; Pike, Richard H. (2009)
      A recent paper in Accounting and Business Research by Lau et al. (2008) offers systematic evidence to explain whether managers’ perceptions on fairness of performance evaluation procedures affect attitudes such as job satisfaction; and if it does, the different behavioural processes involved. Our paper re‐examines Lau et al.’s model and hypotheses to assess the external validity of their findings, based on a very different sample of managers. Drawing on recent organisational justice literature, it further develops the model and examines the potential interaction effects of fairness of performance evaluation procedures and other variables on job satisfaction. Finally, it extends the outcome variable to include manager performance. Using survey responses from 165 managers, supported by 24 interviews, drawn from three major organisations in the manufacturing and financial services sectors, we find that Lau et al.’s results on the indirect effects of fairness of performance evaluation procedures on job satisfaction are generalisable to other organisational settings and managerial levels. However, using their model we do not find support for the outcome‐based effects through distributive fairness. Developing a revised model we observe that the effects of distributive fairness on job satisfaction are indirect via organisational commitment. When the model is further developed to incorporate performance as the outcome variable, we observe similar findings.
    • Fear and loathing in Harrogate: or an exploration of the mutual constitution of organisation and members

      Ford, Jackie M.; Harding, Nancy H. (2008)
      There have been no studies in organization research of conferences as part of the world of work. This paper describes a reflexive ethnographic study of one management conference. It finds that upon arrival at the places and spaces of the conference processes of self-making as conference attendee are set in train. Self-making subsequently takes place within processes of domination and subordination, achieved through fear, infantilization, disparagement and seduction. Reading this through the lens of Freudian-informed interpretations of the Hegelian master/slave dialectic, the paper argues that conferences are one of the means of control over academic, managerial and professional employees. Control is achieved through dialectical interactions between conference and employee.
    • Figuring companion species consumption: a multi-site ethnography of the post-canine Afghan hound.

      Bettany, Shona M.M.; Daly, R. (2009-11-02)
      In her recent publication, Haraway (Haraway, D., (2003). The companion species manifesto: dogs, people, and significant otherness. Chicago, Prickly Paradigm Press.) extends her concept of the cyborg to explore how the figure of ¿companion species¿ can rethink the models of reality that traditionally underpin cultural research. This paper investigates the kind of consumption worlds and consumption relations the ontology of companion species suggests and what it offers in terms of understanding consumption in a post-human (and post-canine) consumer-behavior landscape. Following this, it proposes the concept of ¿companion-species consumption¿ (CSC) as a new ontology to extend interpretive research on consumers and their pets (Hirschman, E. C., (1994). Consumers and their animal companions. J Consum Res, 20 (3), 616¿632.; Holbrook, M.B., Stephens, D.L., Day, E., Holbrook, S.M. and Strazar, G., (2001). A collective stereographic photo essay on key aspects of animal companionship: the truth about dogs and cats. Academy of Marketing Science Review 1; AMS.; Belk, Russell W., (1996). Metaphoric relationships with pets Society & Animals: Social Scientific Studies of the Human Experience of Other Animals, vol. 4 (2), 121¿145.) and to reflect current theory of the consumer¿object relation. This research explores the potential of CSC through multi-site ethnography (Marcus, George E., (1995). Ethnography in/of the world system: the emergence of multi-sited ethnography, Annu Rev Anthropol 95¿117.) of a trans-national, highly-networked community of Afghan hounds and their exhibitors. The paper examines how companion species emerge across a range of cultural sites and documents the consumption practices stemming from the dichotomies between them. The conclusions inform dog-related marketing activity, advance consumer-research insights into the practices of dog-related avocational consumer groups, and extend existing theory of the consumer¿object relation.
    • The financial and economic performance of social banks

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2018-02)
      The financial crisis of 2008 provides evidence for the instability of the conventional banking system. Social banks may present a viable alternative for conventional banks. This article analyses the performance of social banks related to the bank business model, economic efficiency, asset quality, and stability by comparing social banks with banks where the difference is likely to be large, namely with the 30 global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) of the Financial Stability Board over the period 2000–2014. We also analyse the relative impact of the global financial crisis on the bank performance. The performance of social banks and G-SIBs is surprisingly similar.
    • The Financial and Economic Performance of Social Banks

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2016)
      The financial crisis of 2008 provides evidence for the instability of the conventional banking system. Social banks may present a viable alternative for conventional banks. This paper analyzes the performance of social banks related to the bank business model, economic efficiency, asset quality and stability by comparing social banks with banks where the difference is likely to be large, namely with the 30 global systemically important banks (G-SIBs) of the Financial Stability Board over the period 2000-2014. We also analyze the relative impact of the global financial crises on the bank performance. The performance of social banks and G-SIBs is surprisingly similar.
    • The financial and fiscal stress interconnectedness: The case of G5 economies

      Magkonis, Georgios; Tsopanakis, Andreas (2016-07)
      In this paper, we focus on the financial and fiscal stress transmission for the G5 economies. Using financial and fiscal stress indexes, we assess the spillovers within each economy, as well as the cross-sectional effects. Two supplementary methodologies, measuring the degree of interconnectedness, are employed. Our findings indicate that the interactions between these two kinds of distress are intensive, especially during and after the Global Financial Crisis outbreak. The above reiterates the necessity for coordinated macroprudential policies, as a means to confine the adverse effects of excessive financial and fiscal stress.
    • Financial Development and Economic Activity in Advanced and Developing Open Economies: Evidence from Panel Cointegration.

      Chortareas, G.; Magkonis, Georgios; Moschos, D.; Panagiotidis, T. (2015-02)
      This study considers the effects of financial development on output in a panel cointegration framework, focusing on the implications of trade and financial openness. Our analysis indicates that after controlling for cross-sectional dependence, the typical relationship between finance and output does not hold in the long run. This relationship, however, is re-established once we account for economic openness. While trade openness emerges as more important for developing countries, financial openness is more important for advanced economies. In the long run, causality runs from financial development to output in the advanced economies, while in developing economies causality is bidirectional. There is no short-run causality between financial development and output, however.
    • The financial development and growth nexus: A meta-analysis

      Magkonis, Georgios; Arestis, P.; Chortareas, G. (2014-08)
      We conduct a meta-analysis of the literature of financial development and economic growth. We cover a large number of empirical studies and estimations that have been published in journal articles. We measure the degree of heterogeneity and identify the causes of the observed differentiation. Among the most significant factors behind this heterogeneity is the choice of financial-variable proxies, the kind of data used as well as whether a study takes into account the issue of endogeneity. Our results suggest that the empirical literature on the finance–growth nexus is not free from publication bias. Also, a genuine positive effect exists between financial development and economic growth.
    • Financial flexibility, corporate investment and performance: evidence from financial crises

      Arslan-Ayaydin, O.; Florackis, C.; Ozkan, Aydin (2014)
      This study examines the impact of financial flexibility on the investment and performance of East Asian firms over the period 1994–2009. We employ a sample of 1,068 firms and place particular emphasis on the periods of the Asian crisis (1997–1998) and the recent credit crisis (2007–2009). The results show that firms can attain financial flexibility, primarily through conservative leverage policies and less commonly by holding large cash balances. Financial flexibility appears to be an important determinant of investment and performance, mainly during the Asian 1997–1998 crisis. In particular, firms that are financially flexible prior to this crisis (1) have a greater ability to take investment opportunities, (2) rely much less on the availability of internal funds to invest, and (3) perform better than less flexible firms during the crisis. Our analysis covering the credit crisis period of 2007–2009 suggests that some of the advantages of flexible firms towards investing persist but are significantly less pronounced over that period. We also find that the value of financial flexibility is region/country specific, which may be explained by the fact that different regions/countries often adopt different macroeconomic policies and operate in diverse economic/legal environments.
    • Firm bosses or helpful neighbours? The ambiguity and co-construction of MNE regional management mandates

      Alfoldi, Eva A.; McGaughey, S.L.; Clegg, L.J. (2017-12)
      As multinational enterprises (MNEs) increasingly disaggregate and disperse corporate headquarters (CHQ) activities, the allocation of regional management mandates (RMMs) to local operating subsidiaries is becoming more common. RMMs explicitly break with the traditional assumption of a clear separation between centralised and local decision-making. Yet we know little of how RMMs are enacted by the units involved, or how they evolve over time. Based on a case study of Unilever, we find that RMMs are inherently ambiguous, and identify circumstances under which ambiguity manifests and triggers cycles of sensemaking and sensegiving about the meaning of the mandate. These cycles result in the co-construction of the mandate by multiple units, with changes in RMM scope and governance over time. We also find that sensemaking and sensegiving are most intense among boundary-spanning middle managers. Our work challenges prevailing assumptions that mandates are largely unambiguous when assigned and are unilateral or dyadic accomplishments; demonstrates the importance of sub-unit level analysis in MNEs; and highlights the potential of structuration theory to enrich our understanding of sensemaking and sensegiving in organisations.
    • Firm Corruption in the Presence of an Auditor

      Dietrich, M.; McHardy, J.; Sharma, Abhijit (2016-12)
      We develop a theoretical framework exploring firm corruption accounting for interactions with an auditor who provides auditing and other services. A multiplicity of equilibria can exist including stable corruption and auditor controlled corruption. Whilst fining the auditor cannot eliminate all corruption, fining the firm can, but marginal increases in this fine can also have perverse effects. Investing in corruption detection may be effective in deterring auditor corruption but ineffective in deterring firm corruption. Policy effectiveness is highly dependent upon several factors which may be hard to observe in practice making general rules about policy interventions to address corruption very difficult.
    • Firm performance, corporate governance and executive compensation in Pakistan

      Sheikh, M.F.; Shah, S.Z.A.; Akbar, Saeed (2018)
      This study examines the effects of firm performance and corporate governance on chief executive officer (CEO) compensation in an emerging market, Pakistan. Using a more robust Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation approach for a sample of non-financial firms listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) over the period 2005 to 2012, we find that both current and previous year accounting performance has positive influence on CEO compensation. However, stock market performance does not appear to have a positive impact on executive compensation. We further find that ownership concentration is positively related with CEO compensation, indicating some kind of collusion between management and largest shareholder to get personal benefits. Inconsistent with agency theory, CEO duality appears to have a negative influence, while board size and board independence have no convincing relationship with CEO compensation, indicating board ineffectiveness in reducing CEO entrenchment. The results of dynamic GMM model suggest that CEO pay is highly persistent and takes time to adjust to long-run equilibrium.
    • Fiscal federalism and European economic integration

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Whyman, P.B. (2004)
      The pace of economic integration amongst European Union (EU) member states has accelerated considerably during the past decade, highlighted by the process of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Many aspects of the EU's apparatus, however, have failed to evolve in order to meets these new challenges. This book explores the issue of fiscal federalism within the context of EU integration from theoretical, historical, policy and global perspectives. It contrasts the pace of integration amongst EU member states with the failure of financial and administrative apparatus to evolve to encompass fiscal federalism, i.e. the development of a centralised budgetary system. This impressive collection, with contributions from a range of internationally respected authors, shall interest students and researchers involved with European economics and economic integration. Its accessible style will also make it extremely useful to policy-makers and professionals for whom European economic integration is a daily topic of conversation.