• E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study.

      Webster, Margaret; Fouweather, Ian; Beach, Roger (2006)
      Purpose ¿ This paper sets out to discuss the development of an e-business strategy by a UK soft drinks company. It is based within the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods), which is characterised by powerful retailers, tier-1 suppliers of industrial end-products and ingredient/raw material producers further upstream. The paper aims to examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to the adoption of e-business solutions for B2B activities. Design/methodology/approach ¿ The paper draws on the literature to describe the technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Princes Soft Drinks. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to inform the development of its future e-business strategy. Findings ¿ The results of the survey indicate a lack of enthusiasm among Princes' supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular. Research limitations/implications ¿ The empirical survey is limited to the UK soft drinks sector and allows for the development of descriptive findings. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications ¿ The work has significant implications for the development of Princes' e-business strategy, and ¿ by extrapolation ¿ for other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value ¿ The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Its value stems in part from the examination of the supply chain tensions created at tier-1¿ between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers.
    • E-Business, Innovation and SMEs: The Significance of Hosted Services and Firm Aggregations

      Lockett, Nigel; Brown, D.H. (2007)
      Against a background of the low engagement of small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in e-business this paper investigates the significance of hosted services and firm aggregations. Based on qualitative case studies of aggregations of SMEs the research shows how e-business based innovation can occur, and identifies the extent to which the aggregation factor contributes to this innovation. The research confirms existing understanding of the importance of network based aggregations but adds to this with further detail and examples, including the `outsourcing¿ of innovation to the application service providers (ASPs).
    • E-government implementation: A bird’s eye view of issues relating to costs, opportunities, benefits and risks

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Irani, Zahir; Lee, Habin; Osman, I.H.; Hindi, N.
      After more than a decade of comprehensive research work in the area of electronic government (e-government), no attempt has yet been made to undertake a systematic literature review on the costs, opportunities, benefits and risks that influence the implementation of e-government. This is particularly significant given the various related challenges that governments have faced over the years when implementing e-government initiatives. Hence, the aim of this paper is to undertake a comprehensive analysis of relevant literature addressing these issues using a systematic review of 132 studies identified from the Scopus online database and Google Scholar together with a manual review of relevant papers from journals dedicated to electronic government research such as Electronic Government, an International Journal (EGIJ), International Journal of Electronic Government Research (IJEGR) and Transforming Government: People, Process, and Policy (TGPPP). The overall review indicated that although a large number of papers discuss costs, opportunities, benefits and risks, treatment of these issues have tended to be superficial. Moreover, there is a lack of empirical studies which can statistically evaluate the performance of these constructs in relation to the various e-government systems. Therefore, this research would help governments to better analyse the impact of costs, opportunities, benefits and risks on the success of e-government systems and its pre-adoption from an implementation perspective.
    • E-technology and the emergent e-environment: Implications for organizational form and function

      Tassabehji, Rana; Wallace, James; Cornelius, Nelarine (2007)
      The advent of the Internet and e-commerce in the mid-to-late 20th century, has been instrumental in changing the landscape of the business environment. This has led to new management approaches and practices, mediated by advances in technology that are revolutionizing the workplace and continue to impact organizational structures and strategies. In this paper, we develop a taxonomy for IT and organizational theory from which we identify a pressing need for a conceptualisation of this rapid development in technology and its impact on organizational form. We introduce the concept of the e-environment to define the new and problem domain in which organizations are now operating as a consequence, particularly, of new technologies and the Internet. We explain how as the complexity of the technology increases, the ability to manage and appropriately exploit this e-environment under a traditional organizational form becomes more difficult. Currently, organizations are in the process of re-structuring to address this issue and facilitate continued strategic technological take-up to remain competitive. We posit the need for developing suitable organizational forms comprising both functional and technological specialists. We argue that the resulting forms are best explained by an extended model that can be seen as a composite of the existing forms. Finally, we present an executive reporting structure that will provide long-term top-level support for organizational decision making to manage the dynamic domain that is the e-environment. The advent of the Internet and e-commerce in the mid-to-late 20th century, has been instrumental in changing the landscape of the business environment. This has led to new management approaches and practices, mediated by advances in technology that are revolutionizing the workplace and continue to impact organizational structures and strategies. In this paper, we develop a taxonomy for IT and organizational theory from which we identify a pressing need for a conceptualisation of this rapid development in technology and its impact on organizational form. We introduce the concept of the e-environment to define the new and problem domain in which organizations are now operating as a consequence, particularly, of new technologies and the Internet. We explain how as the complexity of the technology increases, the ability to manage and appropriately exploit this e-environment under a traditional organizational form becomes more difficult. Currently, organizations are in the process of re-structuring to address this issue and facilitate continued strategic technological take-up to remain competitive. We posit the need for developing suitable organizational forms comprising both functional and technological specialists. We argue that the resulting forms are best explained by an extended model that can be seen as a composite of the existing forms. Finally, we present an executive reporting structure that will provide long-term top-level support for organizational decision making to manage the dynamic domain that is the e-environment.
    • The economic and political determinants of IMF and World Bank lending in the Middle East and North Africa.

      Harrigan, J.; Wang, Chengang; El-Said, H. (2006)
      This paper assesses the economic and political determinants of IMF and World Bank program loans to the Middle East and North Africa. First we assess what is already known about the geo-political influences on aid flows to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and the potential for this to operate via the IMF and World Bank. From this we conclude that there is scope for IMF and World Bank lending in the region to respond to the political interests of their major shareholders, particularly the United States. We support these arguments with both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis of the determinants of World Bank and IMF program lending to the region, focusing on both economic need in the MENA countries and the politics of donor interest before concluding.
    • The economic cost of membership

      Baimbridge, Mark J. (2016-06)
    • The Economic Efficiency and Profitability of Social Banks

      Mykhayliv, Dariya (2016-08)
      The financial crisis of 2008 provides evidence for the instability of the conventional banking system. Social banks may present a viable alternative for conventional banks. This paper analyzes the performance of social banks related to the bank business model, economic efficiency, asset quality and stability by comparing social banks with banks where the difference is likely to be large, namely with the 30 global systemically important banks (G-­SIBs) of the Financial Stability Board over the period 2000-­2014. We also analyze the relative impact of the global financial crises on the bank performance. The performance of social banks and G-­SIBs is surprisingly similar.
    • Economic implications of alternative trade relationships: post-Brexit options for the UK

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Whyman, P.B. (2018-01)
      This chapter discuss several key issues for the UK in relation to Brexit. Firstly, how new directions could be initiated to fund infrastructure aimed at boosting the UK's future growth potential and/or promote reindustrialisation by nurturing strategic industries through the early and unknowable stages of their development until they achieve their own international competitive advantage. Secondly, we contest the belief that globalisation has created a new environment eroding the efficiency of traditional policy instruments and with it the relevance of individual nation states. Finally, in this context we conclude by arguing that Brexit offers a unique opportunity to negotiate of a new trade relationship with the EU, together with the rest of the world to both replace previous trade deals concluded by the EU, but also to establish a new set of relationships with a wider set of potential trade partners.
    • The Economics of Sin: Rational Choice or No Choice at all?

      Cameron, Samuel (2002)
      The Economics of Sin examines the definition and evolution of sin from the perspective of rational choice economics, yet is conscious of the limitations of such an approach. The author argues that because engaging in activities deemed to be sinful is an act of choice, it can therefore be subject to the logic of choice in the economic model. The book considers the formation of religions, including the new age revival of `wicca¿, as regulators of the quasi-market in sins, and goes on to appraise the role of specific sins such as lying, envy, jealousy, greed, lust, sloth, and waste in individual markets and in macroeconomic activity. Empirical evidence on issues such as cannibalism, capital punishment, addiction, adultery and prostitution is also explored. Samuel Cameron concludes that a large percentage of economic activity is intimately connected with forms of sin which are in some circumstances highly beneficial to the functioning of markets, particularly in the presence of market failure. This innovative, interdisciplinary study of the institution of sin will be of enormous interest to a wide-ranging readership, including researchers and teachers of economics, sociology and theology. It will also be of importance for anthropologists and philosophers.
    • Economy and Monetary Union

      Baimbridge, Mark J. (2015)
      This chapter reviews the substantive issue of the contemporary intertwining of both national and overall EU economy in relation to the spectre of monetary union through first evaluating a country’s readiness for euro entry through a comparison between the convergence criteria stipulated in the Treaty on European Union and the theory of optimal currency areas, which leads to discussion of the economic costs and benefits of euro membership. However, given the unprecedented strain eurozone has now come under the also chapter examines the background to the current eurozone crisis; specifically, how the Global Financial Crisis induced Great Recession triggered the problems within the eurozone. Subsequently, the chapter explores how the advent of EMU has significantly redefined the operation of fiscal and monetary policy with the former retained by member states, but proscribed by EMU-wide rules, whilst the latter has been assumed by a specifically created independent central bank. Hence, the chapter explores the theoretical underpinnings of the operation of monetary and fiscal policy within EMU, where it examines the conduct, coordination and philosophy of macroeconomic policymaking. This analysis is then extended by discussing a series of potential remedies, consisting of an evaluation of EU instigated solutions, together with a series of alternative propositions. However, whilst the economic remedies to the eurozone crisis may eventually succeed, the greater long-term damage may well emerge through the political sphere with the imposition of unelected technocrat governments, together with growing dissatisfaction of mainstream political parties with support for either the far-right, protest parties, anti-euro parties, anti-EU parties, or member states losing confidence in the direction of ‘ever closer union’.
    • The effect of ad smiles on consumer attitudes and intentions: influence of model gender and consumer gender

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2019-06)
      Firms widely use smiling models to create a positive background setting for advertisements. This study assesses the various effects of smiling in print advertisements across different stages of consumer decision-making, while also considering interaction effects between the genders of models and viewers. Empirical evidence comes from 175,647 consumer evaluations of 421 real advertisements across a broad spectrum of product categories (22). Beyond gender, a smiling model not only effects a positive attitude change but also influences a product's integration into a relevant set and a consumer's purchase intention. For female consumers, a smiling model of the same gender exerts a greater influence on positive brand attitude change and on purchase intention. Advertisers should avoid using non-smiling male models when targeting female consumers. In contrast, smiling models of both genders can positively influence male consumer reaction, while use of a female model should be avoided during the early stages.
    • The effect of audit committee characteristics on intellectual capital disclosure

      Li, Jing; Mangena, Musa; Pike, Richard H. (2012-06)
      This paper, using data from 100 UK listed firms, investigates the relationship between audit committee characteristics and intellectual capital (IC) disclosure. We find that overall IC disclosure is positively associated with audit committee characteristics such as the size and frequency of meetings, and negatively associated with audit committee directors’ shareholding. We find no significant relationship between IC disclosure and audit committee independence and financial expertise. We also observe that the association between audit committee characteristics and IC disclosure varies with the IC components (i.e. human capital, structural capital and relational capital), suggesting that the underlying factors that drive various components of IC disclosure are different. These results have important implications for policy-makers in that they confirm that the effectiveness of audit committees in the corporate reporting processes is a function of certain characteristics.
    • The effect of audit committee shareholding, financial expertise and size on interim financial disclosures.

      Mangena, Musa; Pike, Richard H. (2005)
      In recent years, corporate failures and accounting irregularities have led to concerns about the effectiveness of audit committees in the financial reporting process. In response, corporate governance committees in different countries have made specific recommendations designed to enhance the role of the audit committee in executing its financial reporting oversight duties. We investigate in this study, the effect of some of the recommendations by empirically examining the relationship between selected audit committee characteristics and the level of disclosure in interim reports of a sample of 262 UK listed companies. Specifically, the audit committee characteristics examined are shareholding of audit committee members (as a proxy for audit committee independence), audit committee size and audit committee financial expertise. Employing both a weighted and unweighted index to measure interim disclosure, the results indicate a significant negative association between shareholding of audit committee members and interim disclosure. Our results provide evidence of a significant positive association between interim disclosure and audit committee financial expertise. We find no significant relationship between audit committee size and the extent of disclosure in interim reports. Overall, however, our results suggest that audit committee characteristics have an impact on its monitoring effectiveness of the financial reporting process. These results have important implications for corporate governance policy-makers who have a responsibility to prescribe appropriate corporate governance structures to ensure that shareholders are protected
    • The effect of banking supervision on central bank preferences: Evidence from panel data

      Chortareas, G.; Logothetis, V.; Magkonis, Georgios; Zekente, K. (2016-03)
      We examine the effects of banking supervisory architecture on central bank preferences, quantified through a recently proposed measure of central bank conservatism. Using a dynamic panel data specification we document that central banks serving both monetary policy and banking supervision functions are less inflation conservative than those with only a price stability mandate.
    • The effect of bidder conservatism on M&A decisions: Text-based evidence from US 10-K filings.

      Ahmed, Y.; Elshandidy, Tamer (2016-07)
      This paper examines whether and how bidders' conservative tone in 10-K filings influences the subsequent mergers and acquisitions (M&A) investment decisions of these US firms from 1996 to 2013. Based on 39,260 firm-year observations, we find, consistent with behavioural consistency theory, that conservative bidders are less likely to engage in M&A deals. Further, those that decide to engage in M&As are likely to acquire public targets and within-industry firms. These bidders are inclined to employ more stock acquisitions than cash acquisitions. Our results also indicate that conservative bidders experience abnormally poor stock returns around the announcements of M&A investments. This provides new insights on the mechanism through which bidders' sentiments influence shareholders' wealth. Overall, these findings highlight the implications of the textual sentiment of corporate disclosure for the forecasting of corporate investment and financing decisions. Our results have practical implications, since they shed light on the value relevance of the information content of major Securities Exchange Commission (SEC)-mandated 10-K filings.
    • The effect of characteristics of source credibility on consumer behaviour: a meta-analysis

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.; Rana, N.P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019)
      The aim of this research is to synthesise findings from existing studies on the characteristics of source credibility of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) communications in a single model by using meta-analysis. Findings from 20 research papers show that source expertise, trustworthiness, and homophily significantly influence perceived eWOM usefulness and credibility, intention to purchase, and information adoption. The results of this study add to existing knowledge of the influence of source characteristics on consumer behaviour, which will advance our understanding of information processing. Marketers can use the findings of this meta-analysis to enhance their marketing activities.
    • The effect of corporate-level organisational factors on the transfer of human resource management practices: European and US MNCs and their Greek subsidiaries.

      Mirza, Hafiz R.; Harzing, A.W.; Myloni, B. (2007)
      One of the central questions in the literature on MNCs is the extent to which their subsidiaries act and behave as local firms (local isomorphism) versus the extent to which their practices resemble those of the parent company or some other global standard (internal consistency). Drawing on the resource-based view and resource-dependency theory, this paper aims to provide an insight into the interplay of several corporate-level organizational factors that affect the transfer of HRM practices across borders. Data collected from 80 European and US multinationals with subsidiaries in Greece are used to test specific hypotheses. Our results indicate that the level of importance attached to HRM by the MNC's top management and international experience have the highest explanatory power for the transfer of HRM practices, while international competitive strategy, informal control and the presence of expatriates also have a marginally significant influence.
    • Effect of non-tariff measures on extensive and intensive margins of exports in seafood trade.

      Shepotylo, Oleksandr
      This paper explores the effects of non-tariff measures (NTM) on extensive and intensive margins of global exports of seafood in 1996-2011. The main result of this study is the differential and opposite effect of SPS and TBT measures. While SPS measures largely increase extensive margins of export and reduce intensive margins, TBTs mostly reduce exports at extensive margins and increase exports at intensive margins. Specific trade concerns (STC) have larger effect on exports than SPS and TBT notifications, both economically and statistically. Finally, there is substantial heterogeneity of response of exports to NTMs across HS six digit product lines, but the central tendency remains the same as for aggregated data.