• Can market incompleteness resolve asset pricing puzzles?

      Freeman, Mark C. (2009-06-08)
      This paper shows that the presence of persistent uninsurable risk concentrated in economic depressions has the potential to resolve two well¿known asset pricing puzzles. It is also shown that the presence of such risk in more normal economic expansions and recessions is likely to be much less relevant in determining equilibrium asset prices.
    • Capital Market Pressures and the Format of Intellectual Capital Disclosure in Intellectual Capital Intensive Firms

      Li, Jing; Mangena, Musa (2014)
      Purpose - A number of studies have examined firms’ intellectual capital (IC) disclosure practices. However, the presentation format of IC disclosure (text, numerical and graphs/pictures) is yet to be examined. In addition, there is little evidence on the impact of capital market pressures on IC disclosure. This study aims to examine the relation between presentation format of IC disclosures and three market factors (market-to-book ratio, share price volatility and multiple listing). Design/methodology/approach - Using content analysis, we examine the level of IC disclosure provided in the annual reports of 100 IC-intensive listed UK firms. A 61-IC-item research instrument is used to measure IC disclosure and regression analysis is employed to examine the relation between disclosure and the market factors, controlling for corporate governance and firm specific variables. Findings - Text is the most commonly used format for IC disclosure, whilst the use of graphs/pictures is very low. The findings of the relation between market factors and IC disclosure are mixed. Market-to-book ratio is significantly related to disclosure in text and numerical, but not to graphs/pictures. Share price volatility is only associated with graphs/pictures, whilst multiple listing is only related to text. Originality/value - Our findings suggest that the impact of capital market pressures on IC disclosure might differ with presentation format. In this context, the study makes a significant contribution to the IC disclosure literature.
    • A case analysis of E-government service delivery through a service chain dimension

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Omar, Amizan; Molnar, A. (2019-08)
      Unlike e-business few studies have examined how information is generated and exchanged between stakeholders in an e-government service chain to generate value for citizens. This case study applies the concept of service chains to empirically explore: a) how internal and external business activities in local government authorities (LGAs) contribute to electronic service delivery, and b) the impact that internal and external stakeholders have on these activities. The case study found that the diversity of stakeholders involved and lack of appropriate mechanisms for information exchange and collaboration are posing the biggest challenges for efficient local egovernment service delivery.
    • A case analysis of managing “Maverick” innovation units

      Isherwood, A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2016-10)
      Companies in the high technology manufacturing and development sector have to continually innovate in order to survive and grow in increasingly turbulent and competitive markets. It is common practice for the parent company to spin off separate business units that can incubate and capitalise on the development of new technological innovations in order to grow and create new markets. This case study illustrates the issues that arise when a separate “maverick” business unit focusing on developing a new and disruptive innovation is spun off from the parent company. It underlines the problems that arise when ICT systems and operational processes are not strategically aligned and imposed by the parent company. It also demonstrates how innovative business units can harness their unique talents and apply them to solving operational problems. By developing a new bespoke system aligned with the maverick unit’s emergent processes, the maverick business unit was pulled back from the brink of disaster to a successful and profitable business unit.
    • Causality analysis of media influence on environmental attitude, intention and behaviors leading to green purchasing

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Patel, J.D.; Acharya, N. (2018-09)
      This research provides a comprehensive delineation of the process that leads to the formation of green behavior by including the role played by media and attitude towards environment-friendly packaging, along with ecological concern and perceived consumer effectiveness. The study offers a parsimonious framework that measures the major antecedents of environmental attitude divided into inward and outward orientation. Moreover, it also measures the effects of these environmental attitudes and attitude towards green packaging on green purchase intention. A total of 308 usable questionnaires were obtained from Indian consumers and data analysis was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results show that inward environmental attitude and attitude towards green packaging play a pivotal role in shaping green purchase intention. Surprisingly, outward environmental attitude was found to be non-significant. Findings offer implications for marketing managers and public policy makers, as well as reveal fruitful avenues for further research.
    • Cautious international entrepreneurs: The case of the Mittelstand

      McDonald, Frank; Krause, J.; Schmengler, H.; Tüselmann, H-J. (Kluwer/Springer, 2003)
      This paper investigates the international entrepreneurial behaviour of Mittelstand firms (German small and medium sized enterprises). Analysis of a survey of the international marketing strategies of Mittelstand firms revealed three clusters of firms, two that had below and one above average international activities. None of the clusters displayed born global type of internationalisation processes. However, this does not mean that they adopt passive approaches to internationalisation. The results suggest that Mittelstand firms engage in entrepreneurial behaviour that is proactive and innovative but which is cautious, sequential, and risk adverse. The implications of this analysis for future research in the area of international entrepreneurship are considered.
    • CEO reputation, quality management and environmental innovation: the roles of stakeholder pressure and resource commitment

      Konadu, R.; Owusu-Agyei, S.; Lartey, T.; Danso, A.; Adomako, Samuel; Amankwah-Amoah, J. (Wiley, 2020)
      In this paper, we examine how and when chief executive offers’ (CEOs’) reputation enhances environmental innovation by considering quality management as a mediating mechanism of this relationship. In addition, we introduce stakeholder pressures (primary and secondary stakeholder pressures) as important contingencies of the relationship between CEOs’ reputation and quality management. Moreover, we test the moderating role of resource commitment on the quality management-environmental innovation relationship. We test our research model using data from a manufacturing industry sample of 217 firms from Ghana. We find that quality management mediates the relationship between reputation and environmental innovation. Moreover, the relationship between CEOs’ reputation and quality management is amplified when levels of both primary and secondary stakeholder pressures are greater. Finally, our findings show that the effect of quality management on environmental innovation is enhanced when resource commitment is greater. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    • The changing logic of Japanese employment practices: A firm-level analysis of four industries.

      Keizer, Arjan B. (Erasmus University, 2005)
      In previous decades, the perception of Japan¿s employment practices has been strongly intertwined with its economic fortunes. From the 1970s, Japan¿s employment practices came to be seen as one of the cornerstones of its economic success. However, this perception changed, albeit with a substantial delay, when the economy proved incapable of returning to its former path of growth after the `bubble¿ burst at the end of the 1980s. Like so many of its economic institutions, the employment practices became the subject of substantial criticism in a debate on the revitalisation of Japan¿s economy. This study takes its position within this debate by discussing the likelihood, character, and economic consequences of change. Environmental changes, like the ageing of the population and the substantial decrease in economic growth, require Japanese firms to adapt their human resource management. However, the embeddedness of national practices limits the scope of firms to make these adjustments; and change is determined by the dialectics between their strategies and existing practices. The firm, as an institution, thus experiences the impact of both the embedded employment practices and the economic impact of environmental changes. Accordingly, it is at the centre of this study. Theories of the firm are used to discuss the contribution of employment practices on efficiency, capabilities, and competitive strength. Case-studies from four different industries ¿ automobile, electronics, construction, and retailing ¿ describe the adaptations made by individual firms. Subsequently, these findings constitute the basis for a discussion of industry-specific employment practices and provide an answer to whether developments such as the rise in performance-based pay and labour mobility have altered the logic of Japanese employment practices.
    • Citizen Adoption of E-Government Services: Exploring Citizen Perceptions of Online Services in the United States and United Kingdom

      Carter, L.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Phillips, B.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2016)
      This study presents a cross-national examination of e-government adoption in the United Kingdom and the United States. The results of partial least squares analysis indicate that disposition to trust is positively related to internet trust and government trust. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have a significant impact on intention to use. Internet trust has a positive effect on intention to use. We conclude by highlighting cultural differences in e-government adoption.
    • Citizens' continuous use of eGovernment services: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and satisfaction

      Alruwaie, M.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2020-07)
      The continuous use of eGovernment services is a de facto for its prosperity and success. A generalised sense of citizens' self-efficacy, expectations, and satisfaction offer opportunities for governments to further retain needed engagements. This study examines the factors influencing citizens' continuance use of eGovernment services. Through the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Expectation Confirmation Theory, DeLone and McLean IS success model, and E-S-QUAL, a survey of 471 citizens in the UK, engaging in online public services, found that prior experience, social influence, information quality, and service quality, personal outcome expectation, and satisfaction, are significant predictors of citizens' intention to use eGovernment, when they are regulated, through citizens' self-efficacy. The present study extends the roles of pre-adoption and post-adoption by offering a self-regulating process. Therefore, it demonstrates how critical it is for the government's leaders to understand the patterns of the long-term process for electronic systems continually.
    • Classifying residents' roles as online place-ambassadors

      Uchinaka, S.; Yoganathan, Vignesh; Osburg, V-S (2018)
      Residents are pivotal in the competitiveness of tourism destinations. Yet, their role as place-brand ambassadors needs better understanding, particularly in relation to social media, which directly link visitors to residents through user-generated-content (UGC). This paper explores residents’ roles as place-brand ambassadors on Twitter, using the case of Onomichi (Japan), where decreasing population meets economic dependence on tourism. From a content analysis of residents’ tweets, four distinct roles are identified, and corresponding types of content are mapped on a two-dimensional continuum based on direct vs. indirect word-of-mouth and the level of sentiment. Authors discuss implications for Destination Management Organizations (DMOs). Findings highlight the increasingly shifting role of residents towards being primary sources of place-marketing, especially due to social media, and as active proponents (rather than passive targets) of place-branding in the digital age. Such organic place-marketing may be the key to sustaining tourism in the face of rising anti-tourist sentiments worldwide.
    • Cloud computing utilization and mitigation of informational and marketing barriers of the SMEs from the emerging markets: Evidence from Iran and Turkey

      Hosseini, S.; Fallon, G.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2019-06)
      This study seeks to investigate the effectiveness of Cloud Computing Utilization (CCU) in the mitigation of informational and marketing barriers for SMEs from the Emerging Market-Countries (EM-SMEs). A quantitative-research methodology was applied to collect data by using self-administered questionnaires from top managers of 227 SMEs based in Iran and Turkey. The study contributes theoretically to both small business and international business literature by developing a new classification of the internationalization barriers that EM-SMEs face, and proposing a series of cloud computing (CC) solutions for mitigating these barriers, resulting in the creation and testing of a new model. The empirical findings confirm that CCU can help EM-SMEs to mitigate a series of informational and marketing barriers. The key practical contributions of the study offer insights to both EM-SMEs and Cloud-Service-Providers (CSPs) on the extent to which CCU is effective in mitigating the internationalization barriers faced by EM-SMEs.
    • COBRA framework to evaluate e-government services: A citizen-centric perspective

      Osman, I.H.; Anouze, A.L.; Irani, Zahir; Al-Ayoubi, B.; Lee, Habin; Balci, A.; Medeni, T.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2014-04)
      E-government services involve many stakeholders who have different objectives that can have an impact on success. Among these stakeholders, citizens are the primary stakeholders of government activities. Accordingly, their satisfaction plays an important role in e-government success. Although several models have been proposed to assess the success of e-government services through measuring users' satisfaction levels, they fail to provide a comprehensive evaluation model. This study provides an insight and critical analysis of the extant literature to identify the most critical factors and their manifested variables for user satisfaction in the provision of e-government services. The various manifested variables are then grouped into a new quantitative analysis framework consisting of four main constructs: cost; benefit; risk and opportunity (COBRA) by analogy to the well-known SWOT qualitative analysis framework. The COBRA measurement scale is developed, tested, refined and validated on a sample group of e-government service users in Turkey. A structured equation model is used to establish relationships among the identified constructs, associated variables and users' satisfaction. The results confirm that COBRA framework is a useful approach for evaluating the success of e-government services from citizens' perspective and it can be generalised to other perspectives and measurement contexts.
    • A cognitive analytics management framework for the transformation of electronic government services from users perspective to create sustainable shared values

      Osman, I.H.; Anouze, A.L.; Irani, Zahir; Lee, H.; Medeni, T.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2019-10-16)
      Electronic government services (e-services) involve the delivery of information and services to stakeholders via the Internet, Internet of Things and other traditional modes. Despite their beneficial values, the overall level of usage (take-up) remains relatively low compared to traditional modes. They are also challenging to evaluate due to behavioral, economical, political, and technical aspects. The literature lacks a methodology framework to guide the government transformation application to improve both internal processes of e-services and institutional transformation to advance relationships with stakeholders. This paper proposes a cognitive analytics management (CAM) framework to implement such transformations. The ambition is to increase users’ take-up rate and satisfaction, and create sustainable shared values through provision of improved e-services. The CAM framework uses cognition to understand and frame the transformation challenge into analytics terms. Analytics insights for improvements are generated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). A classification and regression tree is then applied to DEA results to identify characteristics of satisfaction to advance relationships. The importance of senior management is highlighted for setting strategic goals and providing various executive supports. The CAM application for the transforming Turkish e-services is validated on a large sample data using online survey. The results are discussed; the outcomes and impacts are reported in terms of estimated savings of more than fifteen billion dollars over a ten-year period and increased usage of improved new e-services. We conclude with future research.
    • A collaborative supply chain management framework: Part1 - planning stage

      Khan, M. Khurshid; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed; Zairi, Mohamed (2006)
      This paper presents issues associated with the needs of collaborative supply chain management (CSCM) and proposes a planning stage of a CSCM framework. The proposed planning stage of a CSCM framework incorporates issues of organisation profile, internal functional strategy and supplier-customer strategy. The gauging absence of prerequisites (GAP) analysis technique which embedded in the knowledge-based system is proposed in the planning stage to analyse the gap between the current and the desirable position (benchmark) for an effective implementation in organisation. The planning stage framework provides information specifically for designing a CSCM by focusing on the organisation capability and business processes and discussed the important issues in planning a CSCM for business organisations, specifically for a manufacturing environment. Further research could be carried out to capitalise the framework for improving the CSCM. Practical implications ¿ The proposed planning stage of a CSCM framework enables the chain members to identify key factors or issues for CSCM development.
    • A collaborative supply chain management: Part 2 - the hybrid KB/GAP analysis system for planning stage

      Khan, M. Khurshid; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed; Zairi, Mohamed (2009-07-14)
      The intention of this paper is to promote the model of knowledge-based collaborative supply chain management (KBCSCM) system as an alternative strategy for organisations to resolve the problems in their current supply chain management (SCM) in the era of collaborative commerce (c-commerce).