• Can market incompleteness resolve asset pricing puzzles?

      Freeman, Mark C. (2009-06-08)
      This paper shows that the presence of persistent uninsurable risk concentrated in economic depressions has the potential to resolve two well¿known asset pricing puzzles. It is also shown that the presence of such risk in more normal economic expansions and recessions is likely to be much less relevant in determining equilibrium asset prices.
    • Capital Market Pressures and the Format of Intellectual Capital Disclosure in Intellectual Capital Intensive Firms

      Li, Jing; Mangena, Musa (2014)
      Purpose - A number of studies have examined firms’ intellectual capital (IC) disclosure practices. However, the presentation format of IC disclosure (text, numerical and graphs/pictures) is yet to be examined. In addition, there is little evidence on the impact of capital market pressures on IC disclosure. This study aims to examine the relation between presentation format of IC disclosures and three market factors (market-to-book ratio, share price volatility and multiple listing). Design/methodology/approach - Using content analysis, we examine the level of IC disclosure provided in the annual reports of 100 IC-intensive listed UK firms. A 61-IC-item research instrument is used to measure IC disclosure and regression analysis is employed to examine the relation between disclosure and the market factors, controlling for corporate governance and firm specific variables. Findings - Text is the most commonly used format for IC disclosure, whilst the use of graphs/pictures is very low. The findings of the relation between market factors and IC disclosure are mixed. Market-to-book ratio is significantly related to disclosure in text and numerical, but not to graphs/pictures. Share price volatility is only associated with graphs/pictures, whilst multiple listing is only related to text. Originality/value - Our findings suggest that the impact of capital market pressures on IC disclosure might differ with presentation format. In this context, the study makes a significant contribution to the IC disclosure literature.
    • A case analysis of E-government service delivery through a service chain dimension

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Omar, A.; Molnar, A. (2019-08)
      Unlike e-business few studies have examined how information is generated and exchanged between stakeholders in an e-government service chain to generate value for citizens. This case study applies the concept of service chains to empirically explore: a) how internal and external business activities in local government authorities (LGAs) contribute to electronic service delivery, and b) the impact that internal and external stakeholders have on these activities. The case study found that the diversity of stakeholders involved and lack of appropriate mechanisms for information exchange and collaboration are posing the biggest challenges for efficient local egovernment service delivery.
    • A case analysis of managing “Maverick” innovation units

      Isherwood, A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2016-10)
      Companies in the high technology manufacturing and development sector have to continually innovate in order to survive and grow in increasingly turbulent and competitive markets. It is common practice for the parent company to spin off separate business units that can incubate and capitalise on the development of new technological innovations in order to grow and create new markets. This case study illustrates the issues that arise when a separate “maverick” business unit focusing on developing a new and disruptive innovation is spun off from the parent company. It underlines the problems that arise when ICT systems and operational processes are not strategically aligned and imposed by the parent company. It also demonstrates how innovative business units can harness their unique talents and apply them to solving operational problems. By developing a new bespoke system aligned with the maverick unit’s emergent processes, the maverick business unit was pulled back from the brink of disaster to a successful and profitable business unit.
    • Causality analysis of media influence on environmental attitude, intention and behaviors leading to green purchasing

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Patel, J.D.; Acharya, N. (2018-09)
      This research provides a comprehensive delineation of the process that leads to the formation of green behavior by including the role played by media and attitude towards environment-friendly packaging, along with ecological concern and perceived consumer effectiveness. The study offers a parsimonious framework that measures the major antecedents of environmental attitude divided into inward and outward orientation. Moreover, it also measures the effects of these environmental attitudes and attitude towards green packaging on green purchase intention. A total of 308 usable questionnaires were obtained from Indian consumers and data analysis was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results show that inward environmental attitude and attitude towards green packaging play a pivotal role in shaping green purchase intention. Surprisingly, outward environmental attitude was found to be non-significant. Findings offer implications for marketing managers and public policy makers, as well as reveal fruitful avenues for further research.
    • Cautious international entrepreneurs: The case of the Mittelstand

      McDonald, Frank; Krause, J.; Schmengler, H.; Tüselmann, H-J. (Kluwer/Springer, 2003)
      This paper investigates the international entrepreneurial behaviour of Mittelstand firms (German small and medium sized enterprises). Analysis of a survey of the international marketing strategies of Mittelstand firms revealed three clusters of firms, two that had below and one above average international activities. None of the clusters displayed born global type of internationalisation processes. However, this does not mean that they adopt passive approaches to internationalisation. The results suggest that Mittelstand firms engage in entrepreneurial behaviour that is proactive and innovative but which is cautious, sequential, and risk adverse. The implications of this analysis for future research in the area of international entrepreneurship are considered.
    • The changing logic of Japanese employment practices: A firm-level analysis of four industries.

      Keizer, Arjan B. (Erasmus University, 2005)
      In previous decades, the perception of Japan¿s employment practices has been strongly intertwined with its economic fortunes. From the 1970s, Japan¿s employment practices came to be seen as one of the cornerstones of its economic success. However, this perception changed, albeit with a substantial delay, when the economy proved incapable of returning to its former path of growth after the `bubble¿ burst at the end of the 1980s. Like so many of its economic institutions, the employment practices became the subject of substantial criticism in a debate on the revitalisation of Japan¿s economy. This study takes its position within this debate by discussing the likelihood, character, and economic consequences of change. Environmental changes, like the ageing of the population and the substantial decrease in economic growth, require Japanese firms to adapt their human resource management. However, the embeddedness of national practices limits the scope of firms to make these adjustments; and change is determined by the dialectics between their strategies and existing practices. The firm, as an institution, thus experiences the impact of both the embedded employment practices and the economic impact of environmental changes. Accordingly, it is at the centre of this study. Theories of the firm are used to discuss the contribution of employment practices on efficiency, capabilities, and competitive strength. Case-studies from four different industries ¿ automobile, electronics, construction, and retailing ¿ describe the adaptations made by individual firms. Subsequently, these findings constitute the basis for a discussion of industry-specific employment practices and provide an answer to whether developments such as the rise in performance-based pay and labour mobility have altered the logic of Japanese employment practices.
    • Citizen Adoption of E-Government Services: Exploring Citizen Perceptions of Online Services in the United States and United Kingdom

      Carter, L.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Phillips, B.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2016)
      This study presents a cross-national examination of e-government adoption in the United Kingdom and the United States. The results of partial least squares analysis indicate that disposition to trust is positively related to internet trust and government trust. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have a significant impact on intention to use. Internet trust has a positive effect on intention to use. We conclude by highlighting cultural differences in e-government adoption.
    • Classifying residents' roles as online place-ambassadors

      Uchinaka, S.; Yoganathan, Vignesh; Osburg, V-S (2018)
      Residents are pivotal in the competitiveness of tourism destinations. Yet, their role as place-brand ambassadors needs better understanding, particularly in relation to social media, which directly link visitors to residents through user-generated-content (UGC). This paper explores residents’ roles as place-brand ambassadors on Twitter, using the case of Onomichi (Japan), where decreasing population meets economic dependence on tourism. From a content analysis of residents’ tweets, four distinct roles are identified, and corresponding types of content are mapped on a two-dimensional continuum based on direct vs. indirect word-of-mouth and the level of sentiment. Authors discuss implications for Destination Management Organizations (DMOs). Findings highlight the increasingly shifting role of residents towards being primary sources of place-marketing, especially due to social media, and as active proponents (rather than passive targets) of place-branding in the digital age. Such organic place-marketing may be the key to sustaining tourism in the face of rising anti-tourist sentiments worldwide.
    • Cloud computing utilization and mitigation of informational and marketing barriers of the SMEs from the emerging markets: Evidence from Iran and Turkey

      Hosseini, S.; Fallon, G.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2019-06)
      This study seeks to investigate the effectiveness of Cloud Computing Utilization (CCU) in the mitigation of informational and marketing barriers for SMEs from the Emerging Market-Countries (EM-SMEs). A quantitative-research methodology was applied to collect data by using self-administered questionnaires from top managers of 227 SMEs based in Iran and Turkey. The study contributes theoretically to both small business and international business literature by developing a new classification of the internationalization barriers that EM-SMEs face, and proposing a series of cloud computing (CC) solutions for mitigating these barriers, resulting in the creation and testing of a new model. The empirical findings confirm that CCU can help EM-SMEs to mitigate a series of informational and marketing barriers. The key practical contributions of the study offer insights to both EM-SMEs and Cloud-Service-Providers (CSPs) on the extent to which CCU is effective in mitigating the internationalization barriers faced by EM-SMEs.
    • COBRA framework to evaluate e-government services: A citizen-centric perspective

      Osman, I.H.; Anouze, A.L.; Irani, Zahir; Al-Ayoubi, B.; Lee, Habin; Balci, A.; Medeni, T.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2014-04)
      E-government services involve many stakeholders who have different objectives that can have an impact on success. Among these stakeholders, citizens are the primary stakeholders of government activities. Accordingly, their satisfaction plays an important role in e-government success. Although several models have been proposed to assess the success of e-government services through measuring users' satisfaction levels, they fail to provide a comprehensive evaluation model. This study provides an insight and critical analysis of the extant literature to identify the most critical factors and their manifested variables for user satisfaction in the provision of e-government services. The various manifested variables are then grouped into a new quantitative analysis framework consisting of four main constructs: cost; benefit; risk and opportunity (COBRA) by analogy to the well-known SWOT qualitative analysis framework. The COBRA measurement scale is developed, tested, refined and validated on a sample group of e-government service users in Turkey. A structured equation model is used to establish relationships among the identified constructs, associated variables and users' satisfaction. The results confirm that COBRA framework is a useful approach for evaluating the success of e-government services from citizens' perspective and it can be generalised to other perspectives and measurement contexts.
    • A collaborative supply chain management framework: Part1 - planning stage

      Khan, M. Khurshid; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed; Zairi, Mohamed (2006)
      This paper presents issues associated with the needs of collaborative supply chain management (CSCM) and proposes a planning stage of a CSCM framework. The proposed planning stage of a CSCM framework incorporates issues of organisation profile, internal functional strategy and supplier-customer strategy. The gauging absence of prerequisites (GAP) analysis technique which embedded in the knowledge-based system is proposed in the planning stage to analyse the gap between the current and the desirable position (benchmark) for an effective implementation in organisation. The planning stage framework provides information specifically for designing a CSCM by focusing on the organisation capability and business processes and discussed the important issues in planning a CSCM for business organisations, specifically for a manufacturing environment. Further research could be carried out to capitalise the framework for improving the CSCM. Practical implications ¿ The proposed planning stage of a CSCM framework enables the chain members to identify key factors or issues for CSCM development.
    • A collaborative supply chain management: Part 2 - the hybrid KB/GAP analysis system for planning stage

      Khan, M. Khurshid; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed; Zairi, Mohamed (2009-07-14)
      The intention of this paper is to promote the model of knowledge-based collaborative supply chain management (KBCSCM) system as an alternative strategy for organisations to resolve the problems in their current supply chain management (SCM) in the era of collaborative commerce (c-commerce).
    • Commentary: Is cost transparency necessarily good for consumers?

      Kuah, A.T.H.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2015)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a critical viewpoint on the negative aspects of market, price and cost transparencies to consumers in terms of its costs. It adopts an inter-disciplinary approach from the marketing, economics and accounting literature. The paper explores market transparency in the ever-changing world and uses brand names like Starbucks and iPhone to illuminate instances where imperfect markets are supported by consumers. Recognizing the role that the Internet plays in promoting price transparency, it espouses how extant information can add costs and risks to the consumer’s value judgement. Finally, the paper advocates that arbitrary judgements existing in cost accounting make it difficult to compare unit cost. This could result in consumers paying extra money to benefit from cost transparency. This paper argues that three main issues may arise in providing unit cost to the consumers. First, transparency entails built-in costs, whether they are in taxes or product prices. Second, in accounting, unit cost information is currently not equitable between businesses. Finally, the paper argues that extra time and effort in making sense of unit cost information lead to questions about the viability of transparent costing. The arguments for transparency have been widely discussed, supported and promoted by many. While negative aspects are known to businesses, few consider the consumer’s perspective. By amalgamating evidence and arguments from different disciplines, this paper lends value, providing a critical perspective where transparent unit cost revelation can be more costly and less viable than what is assumed.
    • Communicated accountability by faith-based charity organisations

      Yasmin, Sofia; Haniffa, Roszaini M.; Hudaib, Mohammad (2014)
      The issue of communicated accountability is particularly important in Faith-Based Charity Organisations as the donated funds and use of those funds are often meant to fulfil religious obligations for the well-being of society. Integrating Stewart¿s (1984) ladder of accountability with the Statement of Recommended Practice guidance for charities, this paper examines communicated accountability practices of Muslim and Christian Charity Organisations in England and Wales. Our content analysis results indicate communicated accountability to be generally limited, focusing on providing basic descriptive information rather than judgement-based information. Our interviews with trustees and preparers of Trustee Annual Reports in Muslim Charity Organisations identified the reasons being due to high donor trust and consequently weak demand by stakeholders for the latter type of information, as well as internal organisational issues related to the organisational structure and culture, lack of internal professional expertise and high accountability cost.
    • Community development and social regeneration: how the third sector addresses the needs of BME communities in post-industrial cities

      Wallace, James; Cornelius, Nelarine (2010)
      Interest in third sector organisations (TSOs) is growing as their role in addressing social regeneration, especially in urban environments, is regarded as crucial by governmental and supra-governmental organisations. The challenge is increased in multicultural environments, where those from ethnic minorities may struggle to participate in the mainstream economy and society more broadly. There is an assumption that TSOs make a positive contribution to the social good of the diverse communities and client groups that they serve. However, although there have been many studies of ethicality in commercial and public sector organisations, few focus on TSOs. Furthermore, black and minority ethnic (BME) TSOs, in particular face specific pressures, caught between the high expectations of their capacity to engage with diverse communities where the public sector has failed and, in common with all TSOs, the struggle to secure the resources necessary to manage their organisations and deliver front-line services. In this article, we investigate how implicitly ethicality is constructed in TSOs, including those with a primary mission to provide support for and services to BME communities. Building on information obtained for 305 TSOs in a post-industrial city we develop a structural equation model (SEM) in order to evaluate the relationships between elements that we argue comprise ethicality. We then assess the manner in which TSOs generally, and BME TSOs specifically, vary in the manner in which they communicate their ethical purpose and the outcomes of their actions.