• B2B brands on Twitter: Engaging users with a varying combination of social media content objectives, strategies, and tactics

      Juntunen, M.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Oikarinen, E.-L. (2020-08)
      The objective of this research is to increase understanding about B2B company-led user engagement on social media content. Building on hierarchy-of-effects (HoE) theory, we explore how the world’s leading B2B companies use content objectives (why), strategies (how), and tactics (what) on Twitter. We first integrate B2B advertising and social media research on companies’ content objectives, strategies, and tactics. Then, using qualitative analyses, we examine the existence of objectives, strategies, and tactics in the most engaging tweets (N=365) of the worlds’ ten leading B2B brands, covering five industries, in 2017. Finally, we quantitatively examine how the use of diverse objectives and strategies differs between the most engaging tweets (N=318) and least engaging tweets (N=229) of the companies in 2018. The companies use objectives, strategies and tactics that relate to creating awareness, knowledge and trust, interest, and liking in the majority of their most and least engaging tweets, and express preference, conviction and purchase aspects much less. Differences exist in general, industry-wise, and company-wise. The study is a rare attempt to integrate the extant B2B advertising and social media research, and compare the most and least engaging B2B social media content.
    • Back to basics in the marketing of place: the impact of litter upon place attitudes

      Parker, C.; Roper, Stuart; Medway, D. (2015)
      Attempts to apply marketing theory and principles to place have become a legitimate area of academic and 'real world' practice. However, place marketing does not typically incorporate all elements of the traditional 7 Ps, focusing far too often on just one of these - promotion. Besides this rather myopic approach, place marketing suffers from an overly strategic view of the world that ignores the meaning and lived experience of places to individuals, especially residents. The purpose of this article is twofold - first, we investigate the impact of litter on place attitudes. Litter is a common, but negative, element of place, which is intimately connected to the lived experience of a place but typically far removed from the positive promotional activity favoured by place marketing efforts and the study thereof. In this sense, the article reframes place marketing from a strategic to a micro-marketing endeavour. We found that exposing respondents to litter significantly lowers their place attitudes. Our second contribution is to demonstrate the relevance of classic marketing research approaches, such as attitudinal measures, to investigate litter and its impact on place evaluations, through quasi-experimental design (with 662 respondents). Through this, we extend the range of theory and method applied in place marketing - away from controllable promotional endeavours investigated through case-studies to a more holistic and robust interpretation of place marketing, which has a measurable impact upon the places where people live and visit.
    • Back to the future? A theoretically inspired musing on the concept of Product Stewardship and its implications for Corporate and Social Responsibility

      Breen, Liz; Xie, Y.; Cherrett, T. (2015-09)
      The concept of corporate and social responsibility (CSR) has gained increasing momentum and importance in business operations today and companies have globally responded to this philosophy. To what end though? Product Stewardship (PS) and the corporate, social and environmental responsibilities associated within this term are a key part of a business’s CSR agenda. In the extant literature, it is a challenge to clearly identify the boundaries of responsibility for PS - who sets these boundaries for governance and what are the actions taken under the guise of PS. This paper aims to start the process of demystification in responding to the title of this work, stimulate further musings and outline a future research agenda.
    • Balancing Digital-By-Default with Inclusion: A Study of the Factors Influencing E-Inclusion in the UK

      Al-Muwil, A.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-06)
      Digital inclusion research has been critically important in drawing an understanding of how policies, society, organisations, and information technologies can all come together within a national environment that aspires to be a digital nation. This research aims to examine the factors influencing e-Inclusion in the UK within a digital-by-default policy for government services. This study is pursued through combining the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) with Use and Gratification Theory (U&G) and conducting a self-administered survey targeting 510 Internet users to study the level of citizens engagement with e-government services in the UK. By incorporating gratification, trust, risk and external factors (i.e. self-efficacy, accessibility, availability, affordability) within DTPB, the proposed model of e-Inclusion used in the paper demonstrates a considerable explanatory and predictive power and offers a frame of reference to study the acceptance and usage of e-government within a national context where nearly all government transactions are digital-by-default. The findings revealed six dimensions as key inhibitors for e-Inclusion, namely: demographic, economic, social, cultural, political, and infrastructural.
    • Balancing the scales of justice: Do perceptions of buyers' justice drive suppliers social performance?

      Alghababsheh, M.; Gallear, D.; Rahman, Mushfiqur M. (2018-09)
      A major challenge for supply chain managers is how to manage sourcing relationships to ensure reliable and predictable actions of distant suppliers. The extant research into sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has traditionally focused on the transactional and collaboration approaches through which buyers encourage suppliers to act responsibly. However, little effort has been devoted to investigating the factors that underpin and enable effective implementation of these two approaches, or to exploring alternative approaches to help sustain an acceptable level of social performance from suppliers. Building on organisational justice theory, we developed a framework in which we propose that buyers’ justice (i.e. distributive, procedural and interactional) as perceived by suppliers can serve as an alternative and complementary vehicle to the conventional sustainability governance approaches for driving the social justice exhibited by suppliers. The paper sheds new light on an alternative relational approach to help to restrain potentially harmful acts of suppliers. It provides a foundation for new research avenues in the SSCM context and supports more informed decision making by practitioners.
    • Barriers to effective circular supply chain management in a developing country context

      Mangla, S.K.; Luthra, S.; Mishra, N.; Singh, A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dora, M.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2018)
      Circular supply chain (CSC) emphasises surge in application of reuse, recycling, remanufacturing and thereby promotes transformation from linear to circular model of flow of products. Supply chains of manufacturing industries have become global over the years. Products manufactured in developing nations are being sent to developed nations for mass consumption. Developed nations have regulatory policies, technological knowhow and modern infrastructure to adopt CSC model. Their counterpart is trailing in these aspects. In literature, limited work has been performed on identifying challenges of implementing CSC in developing nations. Therefore, employing literature review and feedback received from experts, 16 important barriers were identified to CSC adoption in India. These barriers were analysed using integrated Interpretive Structural Modelling ? MICMAC approach. The findings will contribute in transforming supply chains thereby bringing economic prosperity, addressing global warming and generating employment opportunities. Finally, crucial policy measures and recommendations are proposed to assist managers and government bodies.
    • Barriers to the adoption of blockchain technology in business supply chains: a total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) approach

      Mathivathanan, D.; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Khorana, S.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2021)
      Blockchain is an emerging technology with a wide array of potential applications. This technology, which underpins cryptocurrency, provides an immutable, decentralised, and transparent distributed database of digital assets for use by firms in supply chains. However, not all firms are appropriately suited to adopt blockchain in the existing supply chain primarily due to their lack of knowledge on the benefits of this technology. Using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) and Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC), this paper identifies the adoption barriers, examines the interrelationships between them to the adoption of blockchain technology, which has the potential to revolutionise supply chains. The TISM technique supports developing a contextual relationship based structural model to identify the influential barriers. MICMAC classifies the barriers in blockchain adoption based on their strength and dependence. The results of this research indicate that the lack of business awareness and familiarity with blockchain technology on what it can deliver for future supply chains, are the most influential barriers that impede blockchain adoption. These barriers hinder and impact businesses decision to establish a blockchain-enabled supply chain and that other barriers act as secondary and linked variables in the adoption process.
    • Barriers to the development of smart cities in Indian context

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Luthra, S.; Mangla, S.K.; Islam, R.; Roderick, S.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-06)
      Smart city development is gaining considerable recognition in the systematic literature and international policies throughout the world. The study aims to identify the key barriers of smart cities from a review of existing literature and views of experts in this area. This work further makes an attempt on the prioritisation of barriers to recognise the most important barrier category and ranking of specific barriers within the categories to the development of smart cities in India. Through the existing literature, this work explored 31 barriers of smart cities development and divided them into six categories. This research work employed fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to prioritise the selected barriers. Findings reveal that ‘Governance’ is documented as the most significant category of barriers for smart city development followed by ‘Economic; ‘Technology’; ‘Social’; ‘Environmental’ and ‘Legal and Ethical’. In this work, authors also performed sensitivity analysis to validate the findings of study. This research is useful to the government and policymakers for eradicating the potential interferences in smart city development initiatives in developing countries like India.
    • Bases of e-store loyalty: Perceived switching barriers and satisfaction

      Reynolds, Nina L.; Simintiras, A.; Balabanis, G. (2006)
      Loyalty, its antecedents, and its consequences have been considered extensively. Store loyalty, in particular e-store loyalty, has not, however, received the same level of attention despite the increase in the number of organisations that sell directly over the Internet. This paper focuses on two antecedents of e-store loyalty, perceived switching barriers and satisfaction, and the way in which they interact. It found that customers do not consider themselves loyal to the e-store they frequent despite being largely satisfied, that the impact of switching barriers varies at different levels of customer satisfaction, and that what customers consider to be a switching barrier differs at different levels of customer satisfaction.
    • Basic risk aversion.

      Freeman, Mark C. (2001)
      It is demonstrated that small marketable gambles that are unattractive to a Standard Risk Averse investor cannot be made attractive even if certain independent background risks that decrease expected marginal utility are added.
    • The battle of Brain vs. Heart: A literature review and meta-analysis of "hedonic motivation" use in UTAUT2

      Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Rana, Nripendra P.; Prakasam, N.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-06)
      Much of the scholarly debate on the extrinsic-intrinsic motivation dichotomy to date has focused on organisational context. However, the recent upsurge of technology use amongst individuals in non-organisational context has led to consumer-focused research model such as extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2). The objective of this study is to bring back much needed focus on motivation dichotomy from the consumer perspective. This involved a systematic review and meta-analysis of hedonic motivation an affective construct in UTAUT2 studies. The findings from 79 UTAUT2 empirical studies revealed that only 46 studies (58%) utilised hedonic motivation while the remaining 33 studies (42%) omitted the construct. Extrinsic motivation was the major driver of non-hedonic and non-significant hedonic motivation studies with individuals using technologies for utilitarian outcomes. Unlike UTAUT2, moderators association of hedonic motivation were non-significant in determining consumer intention to use technology. The findings also revealed an important association between hedonic motivation and effort expectancy, in addition to fruitful directions for research and practice.
    • Becoming the leader: leadership as material presence

      Ford, Jackie M.; Harding, Nancy H.; Gilmore, S.; Richardson, Sue (2017-11-01)
      This paper seeks to understand leaders as material presences. Leadership theory has traditionally explored leaders as sites of disembodied traits, characteristics and abilities. Our qualitative, mixed method study suggests that managers charged with the tasks of leadership operate within a very different understanding. Their endogenous or lay theory understands leadership as physical, corporeal and visible, and as something made manifest through leaders’ material presence. This theory-in-practice holds that leadership qualities are signified by the leader’s physical appearance: the good leader must look the part. Actors consequently work on their own appearance to present an image of themselves as leader. They thus offer a fundamental challenge to dominant exogenous, or academic, theories of leadership. To understand the unspoken assumptions that underpin the lay theory of leadership as material presence, we interrogate it using the new materialist theory of Karen Barad and the object relations theory of Christopher Bollas. This illuminates the lay theory’s complexities and sophisticated insights. In academic terms it offers a theory of how sentient and non-sentient actors intra-act and performatively constitute leadership through complex entanglements that enact and circulate organizational and leadership norms. The paper’s contribution is thus a theory of leadership micro-dynamics in which the leader is materialised through practices of working on a corporeal self for presentation to both self and others.
    • 'A beginning and not the end’: Work after a diagnosis of dementia

      Williams, Jannine; Richardson, Sue; Draper, E. (2018)
      While there is a growing literature on the experiences of disabled workers, this article presents an account of a work experience not frequently documented: being employed while living with dementia. It does this through the account of Elizabeth Draper, an NHS Hospital Trust manager, who received a diagnosis of dementia while employed. The article offers new ways of conceptualizing the struggles of disabled workers to continue with their project of self-becoming through work. It shows how work practices can enact violence through ‘non-recognition’ and how workers can subvert this violence to create opportunities for future development.
    • Behind film performance in China’s changing institutional context: the impact of signals

      Elliott, C.; Konara, P.; Ling, H.; Wang, Chengang; Wei, Yingqi (2017-03)
      Grounded in signaling theory, this paper investigates the signals reflecting product quality, innovativeness, reputation and cultural background which influence film performance, i.e. film survival (duration on cinema screen) and box office success, in China’s changing institutional context. This market has grown substantially and still possesses potential for further development. However, China’s unique institutional context presents challenges. By examining an expanded range of potential signals, two of which have not previously been examined in the literature, namely imported films and enhanced format film formats such as 3D and IMAX, we develop a conceptual framework and argue that signaling theory needs to be combined with institutional context. Similar to findings for film industries in other countries, we find quality and reputational signals including budget, star power, sequels, and online consumer reviews to be important in China. However, unique results are also revealed. Chinese consumers react to an innovativeness signal in that they are specifically attracted to enhanced format films. Film award nominations and prizes are insignificant reputational signals. Once other signals are taken into account, imported films on average do not perform as well as domestic films. We link these findings to China’s unique institutional setting and offer important implications for management, recognizing the challenges to film companies of competing in an increasingly globalized market. The paper is also of relevance to policymakers given their continued efforts in shaping the development of China’s film industry.
    • Being credited while being censured: Multinationality and sustainability of EMNEs

      Park, Sang-Bum (2018-07-02)
      Based on the liability of origin and the attention-based view of firms, we examine how the international business of emerging economy multinationals (EMNEs) affects their corporate sustainability (CS). We develop a contrasting perspective with respect to the dual impacts of international diversification on CS strengths (“being credited” for sustainability), and CS concerns (“being censured” for sustainability). On the one hand, we contend that international diversification improves CS strengths because the firm managers of EMNEs that rely on foreign sales are highly motivated to adopt CS as a global business norm for overcoming the liability of origin and the legitimacy challenge in foreign markets. On the other hand, we argue that international diversification also increases CS concerns since the firm managers in foreign subsidiaries of EMNEs may be less motivated to internalize CS. The results from a 2SLS instrumental variable approach support our hypotheses. Our results reaffirm that “it is misleading to simply say that international diversification is either good or bad” for corporate social responsibility and sustainability (Strike, Gao, & Bansal, 2006: 859). We contribute to the literature on CS antecedents by empirically showing that firm internationalization is a driver of CS in emerging economies. Our findings present implications for future research on CS and international business.
    • Being disabled, being a manager: ‘glass partitions’ and conditional identities in the contemporary workplace

      Roulstone, A. (2014)
      This article critically explores the working lives and views of disabled senior staff working in UK organisations. The qualitative research at the core of the article establishes that some disabled people are confounding established notions of disabled people only working in peripheral employment roles by exploring the working lives and perceptions of disabled managers. The findings do, however, point to continued barriers to what disabled staff in senior positions can be seen to do and be organisationally. Here both practical and ontological risk inheres in organisationally induced change, openness about impairment and risky identities. Such ideas, it is argued, present limits to further promotion and workplace inclusion for some disabled managers.
    • Beyond planning: Strategies for successfully implementing strategic decidions.

      Miller, Susan J.; Wilson, D.C.; Hickson, David J. (2004)
      This article brings strategy back to managers and their organizations. It argues and demonstrates empirically that what managers do, and the kind of organization they lead, matter in terms of achieving stated objectives. Managerial action involves a set of activities from assessing the problem to prioritising action, and takes place within an organizational context which has two important elements for decision-making. First, organizations have an accumulated stock of experience, and the more managers can access and utilise this experience base the better. Secondly, the culture and structure of an organization may exhibit more or less readiness for the changes that decisions bring about, and contexts less ready for change pose problems for managers in the implementation of decisions. This long-term study of 55 decisions in UK firms shows that careful managerial planning does not of itself guarantee successful outcomes: the organizational context is crucial in framing actions and influencing achievement, and decisions may send a firm on a trajectory beyond the point at which it can plan with confidence. Where experience and readiness are strong, decisions achieve stated objectives¿where both are lacking, decisions tend to fail. But, as examination of two illustrative cases indicates, strength in either domain may be enough: sound experience may win out in comparatively unreceptive situations, and decisions may still succeed where experience is lacking but the organization is ready for change. The article closes with some implications for managers.
    • Big Data Analytics and Business Failures in Data-Rich Environments: An Organizing Framework

      Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Adomako, Samuel (2019-02)
      In view of the burgeoning scholarly works on big data and big data analytical capabilities, there remains limited research on how different access to big data and different big data analytic capabilities possessed by firms can generate diverse conditions leading to business failure. To fill this gap in the existing literature, an integrated framework was developed that entailed two approaches to big data as an asset (i.e. threshold resource and distinctive resource) and two types of competences in big data analytics (i.e. threshold competence and distinctive/core competence). The analysis provides insights into how ordinary big data analytic capability and mere possession of big data are more likely to create conditions for business failure. The study extends the existing streams of research by shedding light on decisions and processes in facilitating or hampering firms’ ability to harness big data to mitigate the cause of business failures. The analysis led to the categorization of a number of fruitful avenues for research on data-driven approaches to business failure.
    • Big Data Analytics-enabled Sensing Capability and Organizational Outcomes: Assessing the Mediating Effects of Business Analytics Culture

      Fosso Wamba, S.; Queiroz, M.M.; Wu, L.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2020)
      With the emergence of information and communication technologies, organizations worldwide have been putting in meaningful efforts towards developing and gaining business insights by combining technology capability, management capability and personnel capability to explore data potential, which is known as big data analytics (BDA) capability. In this context, variables such as sensing capability—which is related to the organization’s ability to explore the market and develop opportunities—and analytics culture—which refers to the organization’s practices and behavior patterns of its analytical principles—play a fundamental role in BDA initiatives. However, there is a considerable literature gap concerning the effects of BDA-enabled sensing capability and analytics culture on organizational outcomes (i.e., customer linking capability, financial performance, market performance, and strategic business value) and on how important the organization’s analytics culture is as a mediator in the relationship between BDA-enabled sensing capability and organizational outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to investigate these relationships. And to attain this goal, we developed a conceptual model supported by dynamics capabilities, BDA, and analytics culture. We then validated our model by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling. The findings showed not only the positive effect of the BDA-enabled sensing capability and analytics culture on organizational outcomes but also the mediation effect of the analytics culture. Such results bring valuable theoretical implications and contributions to managers and practitioners.
    • Big data in an HR context: Exploring organizational change readiness, employee attitudes and behaviors

      Shah, N.; Irani, Zahir; Sharif, Amir M. (2017-01)
      This research highlights a contextual application for big data within a HR case study setting. This is achieved through the development of a normative conceptual model that seeks to envelop employee behaviors and attitudes in the context of organizational change readiness. This empirical application considers a data sample from a large public sector organization and through applying Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) identifies salary, job promotion, organizational loyalty and organizational identity influences on employee job satisfaction (suggesting and mediating employee readiness for organizational change). However in considering this specific context, the authors highlight how, where and why such a normative approach to employee factors may be limited and thus, proposes through a framework which brings together big data principles, implementation approaches and management commitment requirements can be applied and harnessed more effectively in order to assess employee attitudes and behaviors as part of wider HR predictive analytics (HRPA) approaches. The researchers conclude with a discussion on these research elements and a set of practical, conceptual and management implications of the findings along with recommendations for future research in the area.