• Building brand value online: exploring relationships between company and city brands

      Trueman, Myfanwy; Cornelius, Nelarine; Wallace, James (2012)
      Purpose: The aim of this research is to investigate how local company web sites can contribute towards the value and characteristics of city brands online, particularly where post-industrial cities are concerned, and to establish a predictive model for this. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews were conducted to gain an understanding of how post-industrial city brands can be influenced by local companies, leading to the notion of a 'constructed' city brand. An overarching brand model was developed based on the works of Christodoulides et al. and Merrilees and Fry and a survey of company web sites conducted. Structural equation modelling was then fitted to these data. Findings: Trustworthiness, responsiveness, online experience and emotional connection were confirmed as dimensions of company online brand value. It was further shown that company brand and constructed city brand are influenced by customer perceptions of brand value. Company brand was not, however, related to constructed city brand for the case study of Bradford, UK, which has a pervading negative reputation. Originality/value: A model incorporating company brand and city brand has been developed and validated for a typical post-industrial city that is in decline. The influence that local companies can exert on these brands via their web sites and behaviours was established. It is further demonstrated that company brands become disassociated from a city if it has a negative brand image.
    • Community development and social regeneration: how the third sector addresses the needs of BME communities in post-industrial cities

      Wallace, James; Cornelius, Nelarine (2010)
      Interest in third sector organisations (TSOs) is growing as their role in addressing social regeneration, especially in urban environments, is regarded as crucial by governmental and supra-governmental organisations. The challenge is increased in multicultural environments, where those from ethnic minorities may struggle to participate in the mainstream economy and society more broadly. There is an assumption that TSOs make a positive contribution to the social good of the diverse communities and client groups that they serve. However, although there have been many studies of ethicality in commercial and public sector organisations, few focus on TSOs. Furthermore, black and minority ethnic (BME) TSOs, in particular face specific pressures, caught between the high expectations of their capacity to engage with diverse communities where the public sector has failed and, in common with all TSOs, the struggle to secure the resources necessary to manage their organisations and deliver front-line services. In this article, we investigate how implicitly ethicality is constructed in TSOs, including those with a primary mission to provide support for and services to BME communities. Building on information obtained for 305 TSOs in a post-industrial city we develop a structural equation model (SEM) in order to evaluate the relationships between elements that we argue comprise ethicality. We then assess the manner in which TSOs generally, and BME TSOs specifically, vary in the manner in which they communicate their ethical purpose and the outcomes of their actions.
    • Corporate social responsibility and the social enterprise

      Cornelius, Nelarine; Todres, M.; Janjuha-Jivraj, S.; Woods, A.; Wallace, James (2008)
      In this article, we contend that due to their size and emphasis upon addressing external social concerns, the corporate relationship between social enterprises, social awareness and action is more complex than whether or not these organisations engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR). This includes organisations that place less emphasis on CSR as well as other organisations that may be very proficient in CSR initiatives, but are less successful in recording practices. In this context, we identify a number of internal CSR markers that may be applied to measuring the extent to which internal CSR practices are being observed. These considerations may be contrasted with the evidence that community based CSR activities is often well developed in private sector small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) (Observatory of European SMEs, 2002), a situation which may be replicated in social enterprises especially those that have grown from micro-enterprises embedded in local communities. We place particular emphasis upon the implications for employee management. Underpinning our position is the Aristotelian-informed capabilities approach, a theory of human development and quality of life, developed by Sen (1992; 1999) and Nussbaum (1999) which has been developed further, in an organisational context, (e.g., Cornelius, 2002); Cornelius and Gagnon, 2004; Gagnon and Cornelius, 1999; Vogt, 2005. We contend that the capabilities approach offers additional insights into CSR in social enterprises in general and internal CSR activity in particular. Our article concludes with proposals for future research initiatives and reflections upon social enterprise development from a capabilities perspective.
    • Corporate Social Responsibility in Pakistan: Corporate Engagements in the Local Community and their Social Impact 

      Jhatial, A.A.; Cornelius, Nelarine; Wallace, James (2014)
      Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a mechanism for aligning company policies and practices within the socio-economic, cultural and environmental challenges facing society and, in particular, communities. Though the majority of empirical research on CSR has been conducted in Western companies, there is growing interest in CSR in transitional and developing economies, as well as Western firms working in developing countries.
    • E-technology and the emergent e-environment: Implications for organizational form and function

      Tassabehji, Rana; Wallace, James; Cornelius, Nelarine (2007)
      The advent of the Internet and e-commerce in the mid-to-late 20th century, has been instrumental in changing the landscape of the business environment. This has led to new management approaches and practices, mediated by advances in technology that are revolutionizing the workplace and continue to impact organizational structures and strategies. In this paper, we develop a taxonomy for IT and organizational theory from which we identify a pressing need for a conceptualisation of this rapid development in technology and its impact on organizational form. We introduce the concept of the e-environment to define the new and problem domain in which organizations are now operating as a consequence, particularly, of new technologies and the Internet. We explain how as the complexity of the technology increases, the ability to manage and appropriately exploit this e-environment under a traditional organizational form becomes more difficult. Currently, organizations are in the process of re-structuring to address this issue and facilitate continued strategic technological take-up to remain competitive. We posit the need for developing suitable organizational forms comprising both functional and technological specialists. We argue that the resulting forms are best explained by an extended model that can be seen as a composite of the existing forms. Finally, we present an executive reporting structure that will provide long-term top-level support for organizational decision making to manage the dynamic domain that is the e-environment. The advent of the Internet and e-commerce in the mid-to-late 20th century, has been instrumental in changing the landscape of the business environment. This has led to new management approaches and practices, mediated by advances in technology that are revolutionizing the workplace and continue to impact organizational structures and strategies. In this paper, we develop a taxonomy for IT and organizational theory from which we identify a pressing need for a conceptualisation of this rapid development in technology and its impact on organizational form. We introduce the concept of the e-environment to define the new and problem domain in which organizations are now operating as a consequence, particularly, of new technologies and the Internet. We explain how as the complexity of the technology increases, the ability to manage and appropriately exploit this e-environment under a traditional organizational form becomes more difficult. Currently, organizations are in the process of re-structuring to address this issue and facilitate continued strategic technological take-up to remain competitive. We posit the need for developing suitable organizational forms comprising both functional and technological specialists. We argue that the resulting forms are best explained by an extended model that can be seen as a composite of the existing forms. Finally, we present an executive reporting structure that will provide long-term top-level support for organizational decision making to manage the dynamic domain that is the e-environment.
    • Realigning reverse e-auctions for organisational magility.

      Tassabehji, Rana; Wallace, James; Tsoularis, A. (2006)
      With the advent and maturity of the internet, reverse electronic auctions (e-auctions) are now an important mechanism for public and private sector organisations, in the procurement of goods and services. Here, a novel link is made between reverse electronic auctions (e-auctions) and its potential impact on organisational agility, a link not previously developed in the literature. In this paper, we justify this relationship from a theoretical perspective. We investigate how information and internet technology impacts procurement, by an analysis and evaluation of the literature. E-auctions are reviewed and organisational agility defined; the advantages of agile management are also identified and the role that e-auctions can play in achieving this, discussed. Strategies for re-aligning reverse e-auctions in support of organisational agility are proposed and the advantages of this process discussed. Recommendations for future practice that will maximise the chances of realising agile systems management are also presented. Finally, areas for further research are identified.
    • Rhetorics and realities of management practices in Pakistan: Colonial, post-colonial and post-9/11 influences

      Jhatial, A.A.; Cornelius, Nelarine; Wallace, James (2014)
      This study explores how colonial laws and administrative practices shaped the evolution of employment management in Pakistan. It identifies important mechanisms used by the British Raj (the period of British rule of the subcontinent) to institutionalise legal and administrative frameworks: the legacies of these structures continue to influence contemporary management practices in government sector organisations. This article investigates the legacy of the Raj's ¿quota system¿ in the civil services and the doctrine of the ¿martial race¿ in military services, both of which offered enduring structural advantages in the labour market to designated groups. It further considers the implications of the study's findings for international HRM in particular, but also management theory, comparative HRM and comparative management in post-colonial societies.
    • Social Value Creation in Inter-Organizational Collaborations in the Not-for-Profit Sector - Give and Take from a Dyadic Perspective

      Weber, C.; Weidner, K.; Kroeger, A.; Wallace, James (2017-09)
      Organizations in the not-for-profit (NFP) sector are increasingly collaborating with other organizations to mutually raise overall joint value created. However, literature on inter-organizational collaborations in the NFP sector lacks a clear, empirically proven understanding about which factors drive such joint value creation and whether and how these factors and their effects differ for the two parties involved. Based on the relational view and an analysis of 121 partnership dyads, we identify that some factors governing the successful creation of joint value differ for the two partners while others are relevant to both parties. Those latter factors, in turn, differ in their effects on the respective outcome.
    • Stochastic automata and supply chain agility in the time-limited supply industry.

      Wallace, James; Tsoularis, A.; Tassabehji, Rana (2006)
      This paper presents a stochastic automaton approach to stock ordering for retailers of time-limited goods, in the modern supply chain network. The rationale applied is that by ordering in small quantities frequently, overstocking will be reduced, capital liquidity improved and wastage limited. A consequence for the complete supply chain is that such an approach could substantially minimise the reactive bullwhip effect, leading to more efficient utilisation, production and agility throughout the chain. Such agility and flexibility can only be achieved by full integration of stock inventory monitoring technologies (such as RFID) with enterprise integration systems (such as ERP) connected to suppliers, mediated by the internet. We undertake a comparative simulation study of stock ordering using a stochastic automaton and a naive traditional approach. This shows that stochastic ordering, prompted by a stochastic automaton, exhibits characteristic properties that are a prerequisite for reducing the bullwhip effect, thus enabling agile inventory management.
    • The use and impact of human resource information systems on human resource management professionals

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Wallace, James; Cornelius, Nelarine (2007)
      Human resource information systems (HRIS) usage allows the human resource (HR) professional to become a strategic player. With both increasing functionality and affordability, HRIS are being used extensively in organisations of all sizes. Despite this, surprisingly little is know about the current usage, whether disparities exist between companies of different sizes, or about the impact HRIS has on the general professional standing of the HR professional. We developed and administered a survey and gave structured interviews to assess and compare the specific areas of use and to introduce a taxonomy that provides a framework for academic discussion and comparison. We further determined whether HRIS usage was strategic, a perceived value-add for the organisation, and its impact on professional standing for HR professionals. These findings were compared to those for other professions that also use MIS. Our results showed that, on average, few differences exist between SME and large company usage. Moreover, we found that the professional standing of HR professionals has been enhanced by the specific use of HRIS for strategic partnering but that this is not as pronounced as that experienced by those from other professions.