• Attitudes, beliefs and impulsivity in online gambling addiction

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2018)
      Gambling research often refers to attitude and belief measurements to distinguish between problem and non-problem gamblers. Past studies also indicated that problem gamblers have a tendency to steeply discount rewards. We join both research streams and investigate the relationships between attitudes and beliefs on gambling addiction with the moderating effects of delay discounting using a novel methodological approach of double-hurdle model. We hereby differentiate the five subdimensions of the Gambling Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS): emotions, chasing, luck, attitudes and strategies. Findings show that emotional predispositions and chasing tendencies are positively related to the severity of online gambling addiction, independent of gamblers´ impulsivity. In contrast hereto, gambling attitudes act as inhibitor for gamblers willing to wait for some time to receive higher reward. Findings show that money-related impulsiveness influences the relationship between sub-dimensions of GABS and gambling addiction: Gambling attitudes and beliefs do not necessarily harm online gamblers but that their positive or negative relationship to addiction depends on online gamblers’ impulsivity.
    • Consumer Reactions to Animal And Human Models in Print Ads: How Animals and People in Ads Influence the Purchase-Decision Journey

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2021)
      For decades, animals have been widely used in advertisements, and yet little is known about the effects on consumer reactions along the entire purchase decision process. This study disentangles the effects of using animal stimuli in isolation or jointly with a human model in print advertisements. Empirical evidence is derived from 126,220 consumer evaluations of 302 actual print advertisements across 18 product categories. Animals do not only support a positive attitude change, they also influence how products integrate into consumers´ relevant set and the purchase intention by itself. By comparison, female consumers react more pronounced than their male counterparts on animal stimuli. However, it should be avoided to combine an animal stimulus with a human model to preserve a better influence over consumer reaction.
    • Consumer reactions to nudity in print advertising: Comparing same-gender and opposite-gender effects

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2021-01)
      It is often assumed that exposure to nude stimuli in advertising influences consumer behavior positively. However, the empirical evidence concerning the effects of nudity on consumer reactions is inconclusive. The goal of this study is to disentangle the effects of opposite-gender and same-gender nudity on female and male consumers' reactions. This study, thereby, offers a framework for the appropriate choice of seminude or fully clothed human stimuli based on advertisers' objectives and consumer–model gender interactions. The empirical data were derived from a large-scale market research initiative from Germany with 61,399 consumer evaluations of 147 real ads from 16 product categories. Female consumers show positive same-gender results for both seminude and fully clothed female models, indicating strong homophily, but nonsignificant opposite-gender effects on information search, positive attitude change, integration of brand into consideration set, and purchase intentions. In contrast, male consumers demonstrate a significantly positive and equally strong influence of opposite-gender and same-gender seminude stimuli on all of the four variables.
    • The effect of ad smiles on consumer attitudes and intentions: influence of model gender and consumer gender

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2019-06)
      Firms widely use smiling models to create a positive background setting for advertisements. This study assesses the various effects of smiling in print advertisements across different stages of consumer decision-making, while also considering interaction effects between the genders of models and viewers. Empirical evidence comes from 175,647 consumer evaluations of 421 real advertisements across a broad spectrum of product categories (22). Beyond gender, a smiling model not only effects a positive attitude change but also influences a product's integration into a relevant set and a consumer's purchase intention. For female consumers, a smiling model of the same gender exerts a greater influence on positive brand attitude change and on purchase intention. Advertisers should avoid using non-smiling male models when targeting female consumers. In contrast, smiling models of both genders can positively influence male consumer reaction, while use of a female model should be avoided during the early stages.
    • Effectiveness of pull-based print advertising with QR codes Role of consumer involvement and advertisement appeal

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T.; Hardeck, D. (2019-12-12)
      Despite quick response (QR) codes’ prominence, little is known about their embedding in pullbased communications. This study aims to measure QR code effects in print advertising along five different stages of consumer decision making, using advertisement appeals with moderating effects of product category involvement. Data were derived from a German market research initiative with 326,212 consumer evaluations for 792 real print advertisements from 26 product categories. Multinomial logit models were used to investigate the effects of QR code presence on consumer reactions. QR codes steer purchase intention in a low-involvement product category if used alongside an emotional appeal. Advertisements for high-involvement products benefit if QR codes are combined with an overall informational appeal. QR codes do not enhance the persuasive effects of advertisements’ informational appeals in a low-involvement product category. The effects of QR codes on consumers’ responses cannot be analysed in isolation but depend on advertisement context. They interact with advertisements’ informational and emotional appeals and product category involvement. Marketers should not use QR codes indiscriminately but should carefully consider advertisement context. QR codes should be used alongside an emotional appeal if the marketer’s objective is to induce purchase intention in low-involvement settings. Advertisements for high-involvement products need to combine QR codes with an informational appeal. This study highlights the interplay of effects in print advertisements, which are typically considered push-based when they are combined with QR codes as pull-based communications in the digital marketing area.
    • How to Implement Informational and Emotional Appeals in Print Advertisements: A Framework for Choosing Ad Appeals Based on Advertisers' Objectives and Targeted Demographics

      Teichert, T.; Hardeck, D.; Liu, Y.; Trivedi, Rohitkumar (2018-09-01)
      Advertising nudges consumers along several steps to purchase, and each step necessitates that advertisers set different objectives and message strategy. This study offers a framework for the appropriate choice of advertising appeals based on advertisers’ objectives and target group demographics. The study differentiates magazine advertisements’ effects for five marketing objectives along the hierarchy-of-effect model, while accounting for moderating effects of age and gender. Results show that emotional appeals are superior to informational appeals for most marketing objectives, but not for achieving integration into the evoked set. Consumers’ age and gender significantly influence the effects of advertising appeals and reveal interaction effects.
    • The Janus-Faced Role of Gambling Flow in Addiction Issues

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2017-03-01)
      Flow experience has been widely investigated in experiential activities such as sports, the performing arts, gaming and Internet usage. Most studies focus on the positive aspects of flow experience and its effect on performance. In stark contrast, gambling research focusing on the negative side of addiction lacks an in-depth investigation of gamblers’ (positive) flow encounters. This separation of research lines seems out of place given that recent research indicates connections between flow and addiction. Joining both constructs in a causal effects model helps to gain a better understanding of their relationship and its contingencies. This paper empirically investigates whether and how it is possible to observe a “Janus face” of flow with its various sub-dimensions in online gambling. Empirical data was collected from 500 online gamblers by applying a structured questionnaire with established scales. The data was analyzed with a confirmatory factor analysis and a double-hurdle model to separate casual gamblers who are unsusceptible to any addiction issues from gamblers affected by initiatory addiction issues. The findings indicate that online gambling addiction is negatively influenced by two sub-dimensions of flow experience, namely a sense of control and concentration on the task at hand, while enhanced by a transformation of time and autotelic experience.