• Adoption of online public grievance redressal system in India: Toward developing a unified view

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Williams, M.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2016-06)
      The aim of this research is to develop a unified model of electronic government (e-government) system adoption and validate it using the data gathered from 419 citizens from few selected cities in India. In course of doing so, the research also evaluates the performance of nine well-known alternative theoretical models of information technology (IT) adoption including the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The results indicate that the proposed unified model for e-government adoption by this research has outperformed all other theoretical models by explaining highest 66% variance on behavioral intentions, adequately acceptable levels of fit indices, and significant relationships between each hypothesis. The research also provides its limitations and presents implications for theory and practice toward the end.
    • Advances in social media research: past, present and future

      Kapoor, K.K.; Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Rana, Nripendra P.; Patil, P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Nerur, S. (2018-06)
      Social media comprises communication websites that facilitate relationship forming between users from diverse backgrounds, resulting in a rich social structure. User generated content encourages inquiry and decision-making. Given the relevance of social media to various stakeholders, it has received significant attention from researchers of various fields, including information systems. There exists no comprehensive review that integrates and synthesises the findings of literature on social media. This study discusses the findings of 132 papers (in selected IS journals) on social media and social networking published between 1997 and 2017. Most papers reviewed here examine the behavioural side of social media, investigate the aspect of reviews and recommendations, and study its integration for organizational purposes. Furthermore, many studies have investigated the viability of online communities/social media as a marketing medium, while others have explored various aspects of social media, including the risks associated with its use, the value that it creates, and the negative stigma attached to it within workplaces. The use of social media for information sharing during critical events as well as for seeking and/or rendering help has also been investigated in prior research. Other contexts include political and public administration, and the comparison between traditional and social media. Overall, our study identifies multiple emergent themes in the existing corpus, thereby furthering our understanding of advances in social media research. The integrated view of the extant literature that our study presents can help avoid duplication by future researchers, whilst offering fruitful lines of enquiry to help shape research for this emerging field.
    • Analysis of Challenges for Blockchain Adoption within the Indian Public Sector: An Interpretive Structural Modelling Approach

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Hughes, D.L. (2021)
      Purpose – Blockchain is one of the most significant emerging technologies that is set to transform many aspects of industry and society. However, it has several major technical, social, legal, environmental and ethical complexities that offer significant challenges for mainstream use within the public sector. The Covid-19 pandemic has compelled many public sector employees to work remotely, highlighting a number of challenges to blockchain adoption within the Indian context signifying the pertinence of this research topic in the post-pandemic era. This study offers insight to researchers and policymakers alike on how such challenges are interdependent within this important subject. Design/methodology/approach – We explored 16 unique sets of challenges selected from the literature and gathered data from nine experts from government settings, healthcare and education sectors and academia who have significant knowledge and experience of blockchain implementation and use in their respective organisations. The implementation of Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and MICMAC provided a precise set of driving, linkage and dependent challenges that were used to formulate the framework. Findings – The developed ISM framework is split into six different levels. The results suggest that the bottom level consists of challenges such as ‘Lack of standards (C9)’ and ‘Lack of validation (C10)’ form the foundation of the hierarchical structure of blockchain adoption. However, the topmost level consists of a highly dependent challenge termed ‘adoption of blockchain in the public sector (C16)’. The research filters the selected set of five challenges to develop a parsimonious model and formulated six propositions to examine the impact of ‘lack of standard (C9)’, ‘lack of validation (C10)’ on ‘security issues (C3)’ and ‘privacy concerns (C2)’, which eventually determine individuals’ ‘reluctance to use blockchain technology (C12)’. Originality/Value – This research fills a key gap in exiting research by exploring the key challenges in blockchain adoption within the public sector by developing a valuable framework to model this important topic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to address these challenges and develop a parsimonious model for challenges of blockchain adoption in the public sector settings.
    • Artificial Intelligence (AI): Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Emerging Challenges, Opportunities, and Agenda for Research, Practice and Policy

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Hughes, L.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Aarts, G.; Coombs, C.; Crick, T.; Duan, Y.; Dwivedi, R.; Edwards, J.; Eirug, A.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-04)
      As far back as the industrial revolution, significant development in technical innovation has succeeded in transforming numerous manual tasks and processes that had been in existence for decades where humans had reached the limits of physical capacity. Artificial Intelligence (AI) offers this same transformative potential for the augmentation and potential replacement of human tasks and activities within a wide range of industrial, intellectual and social applications. The pace of change for this new AI technological age is staggering, with new breakthroughs in algorithmic machine learning and autonomous decision-making, engendering new opportunities for continued innovation. The impact of AI could be significant, with industries ranging from: finance, healthcare, manufacturing, retail, supply chain, logistics and utilities, all potentially disrupted by the onset of AI technologies. The study brings together the collective insight from a number of leading expert contributors to highlight the significant opportunities, realistic assessment of impact, challenges and potential research agenda posed by the rapid emergence of AI within a number of domains: business and management, government, public sector, and science and technology. This research offers significant and timely insight to AI technology and its impact on the future of industry and society in general, whilst recognising the societal and industrial influence on pace and direction of AI development.
    • Assessing consumers’ co-production and future participation on value co-creation and business benefit: An F-P-C-B model perspective

      Chatterjee, S.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2021)
      Co-production and active participation of the consumers are considered to have enhanced the value co-creation activities that would ensure business benefits of a firm. The marketing literature available does not explicitly explain the philosophy that would motivate the consumers to help to increase values for co-creation activities. In this context, attempts have been made to identify the factors that would impact on co-production and consumers’ participation to co-create values. By studying literature and theories such as theory of co-creation, theory of value creation, information processing theory, marketing theory and expectancy value theory, a conceptual model called F-P-C-B (Future Participation (F) - Co-production (P) - Co-creation (C) - Business Benefit (B)) has been developed along with nine hypotheses. The data was from 362 respondents in India and the model was tested using PLS based analysis. The study shows that it is important for the firms to shift from product-oriented activities to customer-related strategies. It is also found that for obtaining more profitability and better business results, customers should be involved in business activities by way of involving in co-design, idea generation, and other relevant activities of the firms. Moreover, the study highlights that knowledge sharing between the customers and the firm authorities ensures better business values.
    • Attention-based LSTM network for rumor veracity estimation of tweets

      Singh, J.P.; Kumar, A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (Springer, 2020-08)
      Twitter has become a fertile place for rumors, as information can spread to a large number of people immediately. Rumors can mislead public opinion, weaken social order, decrease the legitimacy of government, and lead to a significant threat to social stability. Therefore, timely detection and debunking rumor are urgently needed. In this work, we proposed an Attention-based Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) network that uses tweet text with thirteen different linguistic and user features to distinguish rumor and non-rumor tweets. The performance of the proposed Attention-based LSTM model is compared with several conventional machine and deep learning models. The proposed Attention-based LSTM model achieved an F1-score of 0.88 in classifying rumor and non-rumor tweets, which is better than the state-of-the-art results. The proposed system can reduce the impact of rumors on society and weaken the loss of life, money, and build the firm trust of users with social media platforms.
    • Barriers to effective circular supply chain management in a developing country context

      Mangla, S.K.; Luthra, S.; Mishra, N.; Singh, A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dora, M.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2018)
      Circular supply chain (CSC) emphasises surge in application of reuse, recycling, remanufacturing and thereby promotes transformation from linear to circular model of flow of products. Supply chains of manufacturing industries have become global over the years. Products manufactured in developing nations are being sent to developed nations for mass consumption. Developed nations have regulatory policies, technological knowhow and modern infrastructure to adopt CSC model. Their counterpart is trailing in these aspects. In literature, limited work has been performed on identifying challenges of implementing CSC in developing nations. Therefore, employing literature review and feedback received from experts, 16 important barriers were identified to CSC adoption in India. These barriers were analysed using integrated Interpretive Structural Modelling ? MICMAC approach. The findings will contribute in transforming supply chains thereby bringing economic prosperity, addressing global warming and generating employment opportunities. Finally, crucial policy measures and recommendations are proposed to assist managers and government bodies.
    • Barriers to the adoption of blockchain technology in business supply chains: a total interpretive structural modelling (TISM) approach

      Mathivathanan, D.; Mathiyazhagan, K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Khorana, S.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2021)
      Blockchain is an emerging technology with a wide array of potential applications. This technology, which underpins cryptocurrency, provides an immutable, decentralised, and transparent distributed database of digital assets for use by firms in supply chains. However, not all firms are appropriately suited to adopt blockchain in the existing supply chain primarily due to their lack of knowledge on the benefits of this technology. Using Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) and Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC), this paper identifies the adoption barriers, examines the interrelationships between them to the adoption of blockchain technology, which has the potential to revolutionise supply chains. The TISM technique supports developing a contextual relationship based structural model to identify the influential barriers. MICMAC classifies the barriers in blockchain adoption based on their strength and dependence. The results of this research indicate that the lack of business awareness and familiarity with blockchain technology on what it can deliver for future supply chains, are the most influential barriers that impede blockchain adoption. These barriers hinder and impact businesses decision to establish a blockchain-enabled supply chain and that other barriers act as secondary and linked variables in the adoption process.
    • Barriers to the development of smart cities in Indian context

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Luthra, S.; Mangla, S.K.; Islam, R.; Roderick, S.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-06)
      Smart city development is gaining considerable recognition in the systematic literature and international policies throughout the world. The study aims to identify the key barriers of smart cities from a review of existing literature and views of experts in this area. This work further makes an attempt on the prioritisation of barriers to recognise the most important barrier category and ranking of specific barriers within the categories to the development of smart cities in India. Through the existing literature, this work explored 31 barriers of smart cities development and divided them into six categories. This research work employed fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to prioritise the selected barriers. Findings reveal that ‘Governance’ is documented as the most significant category of barriers for smart city development followed by ‘Economic; ‘Technology’; ‘Social’; ‘Environmental’ and ‘Legal and Ethical’. In this work, authors also performed sensitivity analysis to validate the findings of study. This research is useful to the government and policymakers for eradicating the potential interferences in smart city development initiatives in developing countries like India.
    • The battle of Brain vs. Heart: A literature review and meta-analysis of "hedonic motivation" use in UTAUT2

      Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Rana, Nripendra P.; Prakasam, N.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-06)
      Much of the scholarly debate on the extrinsic-intrinsic motivation dichotomy to date has focused on organisational context. However, the recent upsurge of technology use amongst individuals in non-organisational context has led to consumer-focused research model such as extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2). The objective of this study is to bring back much needed focus on motivation dichotomy from the consumer perspective. This involved a systematic review and meta-analysis of hedonic motivation an affective construct in UTAUT2 studies. The findings from 79 UTAUT2 empirical studies revealed that only 46 studies (58%) utilised hedonic motivation while the remaining 33 studies (42%) omitted the construct. Extrinsic motivation was the major driver of non-hedonic and non-significant hedonic motivation studies with individuals using technologies for utilitarian outcomes. Unlike UTAUT2, moderators association of hedonic motivation were non-significant in determining consumer intention to use technology. The findings also revealed an important association between hedonic motivation and effort expectancy, in addition to fruitful directions for research and practice.
    • Bilingual Cyber-aggression Detection on Social Media using LSTM Autoencoder

      Kumari, K.; Singh, J.P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021-07)
      Cyber-aggression is an offensive behaviour attacking people based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, and other traits. It has become a major issue plaguing the online social media. In this research, we have developed a deep learning-based model to identify different levels of aggression (direct, indirect and no aggression) in a social media post in a bilingual scenario. The model is an autoencoder built using the LSTM network and trained with non-aggressive comments only. Any aggressive comment (direct or indirect) will be regarded as an anomaly to the system and will be marked as Overtly (direct) or Covertly (indirect) aggressive comment depending on the reconstruction loss by the autoencoder. The validation results on the dataset from two popular social media sites: Facebook and Twitter with bilingual (English and Hindi) data outperformed the current state-of-the-art models with improvements of more than 11% on the test sets of the English dataset and more than 6% on the test sets of the Hindi dataset.
    • Blockchain research, practice and policy: Applications, benefits, limitations, emerging research themes and research agenda

      Hughes, L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Misra, S.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Raghavan, V.; Akella, V. (2019-12)
      The blockchain has received significant attention from technology focussed researchers, highlighting its perceived impact and emerging disruption potential, but has been slow to engender any significant momentum within the Information Systems (IS) and Information Management (IM) literature. This study approaches the subject through an IS/IM lens developing the key themes from the blockchain based research via a comprehensive review. This analysis of the body of literature highlights that although few commercial grade blockchain applications currently exist, the technology demonstrates significant potential to benefit a number of industry wide use cases. This study expands on this point articulating through each of the key themes to develop a detailed narrative on the numerous potential blockchain applications and future direction of the technology, whilst discussing the many barriers to adoption. The study asserts that blockchain technology has the potential to contribute to a number of the UN Sustainability Development Goals and engender widespread change within a number of established industries and practices.
    • Can clicking promote learning? measuring student learning performance using clickers in the undergraduate information systems class

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2017-11-06)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of factors such as attention, preparation, participation, feedback and engagement on the student learning performance. Design/methodology/approach Students of an undergraduate business course of a British university took part in the survey. The survey questionnaire was distributed to students during the revision week of the course and a total of 61 valid responses were gathered from them. The linear regression analysis using statistical package for the social sciences was performed to analyse the data. Findings The results indicated the significant relationships for all six hypotheses. The model explains variance of 43.2 per cent in learning performance, which indicates that independent constructs contribute significantly on the research model's performance. Research limitations/implications First, the sample only provides the students' views about the use of clickers in the classroom setting. Second, the sample size for the gathered data is small. Third, the variance explained by the research model is reasonably moderate and hence can be improved further. Originality/value This is the first study to explore the impact of factors such as attention, preparation, participation, feedback and engagement on the student learning performance in the UK educational setting.
    • Challenges for adopting and implementing IoT in smart cities: An integrated MICMAC-ISM approach

      Janssen, M.; Luthra, S.; Mangla, S.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-12)
      The wider use of Internet of Things (IoT) makes it possible to create smart cities. The purpose of this paper is to identify key IoT challenges and understand the relationship between these challenges to support the development of smart cities. Design/methodology/approach: Challenges were identified using literature review, and prioritised and elaborated by experts. The contextual interactions between the identified challenges and their importance were determined using Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM). To interrelate the identified challenges and promote IoT in the context of smart cities, the dynamics of interactions of these challenges were analysed using an integrated Matrice d’Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliqués à un Classement (MICMAC)-ISM approach. MICMAC is a structured approach to categorise variables according to their driving power and dependence. Findings: Security and privacy, business models, data quality, scalability, complexity and governance were found to have strong driving power and so are key challenges to be addressed in sustainable cities projects. The main driving challenges are complexity and lack of IoT governance. IoT adoption and implementation should therefore focus on breaking down complexity in manageable parts, supported by a governance structure. Practical implications: This research can help smart city developers in addressing challenges in a phase-wise approach by first ensuring solid foundations and thereafter developing other aspects. Originality/value: A contribution originates from the integrated MICMAC-ISM approach. ISM is a technique used to identify contextual relationships among definite elements, whereas MICMAC facilitates the classification of challenges based on their driving and dependence power. The other contribution originates from creating an overview of challenges and theorising the contextual relationships and dependencies among the challenges.
    • Challenges of common service centers (CSCs) in delivering e-government services to citizens in rural India

      Sharma, S.K.; Metri, B.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021-04)
      Many developing countries across the world are allocating a significant share of their budgets for e-government initiatives. Common service centers (CSCs) are e-government initiatives that aim to increase access to public services and promote easy and direct interaction with the government. These e-government initiatives are largely underutilised, especially in rural areas in developing countries. This study attempts to identify the key challenges facing CSCs and determine their hierarchical relationships in the context of rural India. A set of 15 challenges was identified through a rigorous literature review and by surveying experts and CSC owners. Data were collected on the identified challenges and were analysed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM)-MICMAC-fuzzy MICMAC analysis. Subsequently, we developed a hierarchical model of challenges. The findings revealed that “longer travel time and transaction cost”, “low digital literacy”, and “low awareness” of e-government services are among the key challenges CSCs face in rural India. This study suggests several recommendations to all the stakeholders involved in the management of CSCs to improve the delivery of e-government services in rural India.
    • The changing landscape of IS project failure: an examination of the key factors

      Hughes, D.L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Simintiras, A.C. (2017)
      Information systems (IS) project failure has been a recurring problem for decades. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to examine the key factors that influence project failure and an analysis of the major areas that can have a significant impact on success; and second, to explore some of the key aspects that have an impact on project management performance from the practitioner perspective and discusses the problems faced by organizations in the closer integration of change and project management. Design/methodology/approach: This study critically reviews the IS failure literature developing a synthesized view of the key issues and common reasons for projects to fail. The approach taken in this study is one that focuses on a number of key questions that pull together the relevant themes in this genre of research whilst highlighting many of the implications for practitioners and organizations alike. Findings: Key questions remain on the underlying causes of instances of poor project management as an IS failure factor. The literature has omitted to develop a deeper analysis of the associations between failure factors and the potential causal relationships between these factors. The realization of project benefits relies on the success of both change and project management yet the formal integration of these two disciplines is constrained by separate standards bodies and an immature body of research. Research limitations/implications: This study is limited by its theoretical nature lacking an empirical element to provide a deeper analysis of IS failure factors and their interrelationships. This specific area is a recommendation for future research, where causal relationships between failure factors could be developed via a mathematic-based method such as interpretive structural modeling. Practical implications: With failure rates of IS projects still unacceptably high after decades of attempts to significantly change outcomes, a deeper analysis of this topic is required. The research gaps and recommendations for practitioners highlighted in this study have the potential to provide valuable contributions to this topic of research. Originality/value: The intent of this study is to present a new perspective of this genre of IS research that develops the main arguments and gaps in the literature from the practitioner viewpoint.
    • Citizen's adoption of an e-government system: Validating extended social cognitive theory (SCT)

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2015-04)
      By employing an extended social cognitive theory, this study examines factors (such as outcome expectation, affect, anxiety, self-efficacy and social influence) influencing intention to adopt an electronic government system called online public grievance redressal system (OPGRS) in context of India. The extended social cognitive theory (SCT) was validated using 419 responses collected from eight selected cities in India. The empirical outcomes of the proposed model indicated the significant relationships of seven hypothesised relationships between six constructs. This is the first study, which has used the SCT model to understand the adoption of an e-government system. The policy implication provided in this research can help the government to improve upon the effectiveness and quality of the system and the level of social impact on the users by employing the project champions. It also helps in enhancing their positive feelings toward adopting this system and fully utilise the potential of the OPGRS as a useful tool toward a transparent and corruption free society.
    • Citizen's adoption of an e-government system: Validating the extended theory of reasoned action (TRA)

      Alryalat, M.A.A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2015-10)
      The study explores the adoption of an electronic government (e-government) system called online PAN card registration system (OPCRS) in context of India. The study validates the extended theory of reasoned action (TRA) to understand the impact of some of its factors on the citizen's intention to adopt this system. The proposed research model is extended with the variables including perceived usefulness, perceived trust, and self-efficacy as antecedents of attitude and subjective norm, which are the core constructs of the TRA. The eight hypotheses were formulated between six constructs of the proposed extended TRA. The proposed research model is validated using the usable sample of data gathered from 377 respondents. The data was analysed using AMOS 22.0. The empirical findings of the proposed research model indicated the significant relationships of all proposed hypotheses. The study also provides its limitations, future research directions, and implications for theory and practice toward the end.
    • Citizens’ adoption of an electronic government system: towards a unified view

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Lal, B.; Williams, M.D.; Clement, M. (2017-06)
      Sluggish adoption of emerging electronic government (eGov) applications continues to be a problem across developed and developing countries. This research tested the nine alternative theoretical models of technology adoption in the context of an eGov system using data collected from citizens of four selected districts in the state of Bihar in India. Analysis of the models indicates that their performance is not up to the expected level in terms of path coefficients, variance in behavioural intention, or the fit indices of the models. In response to the underperformance of the alternative theoretical models to explain the adoption of an eGov system, this research develops a unified model of electronic government adoption and tests it using the same data. The results indicate that the proposed research model outperforms all alternative models of technology adoption by explaining 77 % of variance in behavioural intention, with acceptable values of fit indices and significant relationships between each pair of hypothesised factors.
    • Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: A meta-analytic evaluation of UTAUT2

      Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2021-08)
      Despite being regarded as the most comprehensive theory in understanding individual technology adoption – UTAUT2 theory with growing number of citations and impetus beyond IS domain face strong criticism on usage of the model in its entirety. This study located UTAUT2 based empirical studies in the Scopus and Web of Science bibliographic database through citied reference search in order to evaluate appropriate usage of UTAUT2 constructs. The meta-analysis results spanning across 60 studies with more than 122,000 cumulative observations found BI→UB as the strongest path with all significant values. PE→BI emerged as the most utilized path with most significant values underscoring the emphasis placed by consumers on utilitarian value. Meanwhile, with most non-significant path values the future usage of EE→BI path is been cautioned and questioned. Finally, trust, personal innovativeness, perceived risk, attitude, and self-efficacy were found as the five topmost UTAUT2 extensions.