• Budget participation, goal interdependence and controversy: a study of a Chinese public utility

      Pike, Richard H.; Tjosvold, D.; Poon, M. (2001)
      The extensive literature on participative budgeting has paid little attention to the interaction among managers as they discuss and resolve budget-related issues. This study employs goal interdependence theory to explore the impact of team dynamics on budgeting. How managers believe their goals are related affects the dynamics and outcomes of participation. In a large utility in Hong Kong, 64 managers were interviewed on specific budget participation incidents. Results of structural equation analyses found support for the study¿s three main hypotheses. Budget team members who had cooperative goals were found to engage in more open-minded discussion in conflict situations. This resulted in improved group productivity and strengthened relationships which, in turn, led to higher-quality budgets. Results were interpreted as suggesting that the benefits of budget participation depends upon establishing strongly cooperative goals among team members and developing the skills to discuss opposing views open-mindedly. The antecedents of goal interdependence are also explored.
    • Credit management: an examination of policy choice, practices and late payment in UK companies

      Pike, Richard H.; Cheng, N.S. (2003)
      A central element in developing credit management policy involves design choices on the extent to which credit activities are best managed internally or through specialist market intermediaries. This paper draws on the findings of a survey on the credit management practices and policies of large UK companies to: (1) Examine the type of firm most likely to enter into specialist external credit management structural arrangements; and (2) Identify contextual and credit policy choices influencing the credit period taken and late payment of debts. The study found that specialist intermediaries are not particularly common in large firms. The paper also identifies a number of contextual and policy variables that help explain variation in debtor days and late payment by customers.
    • The effect of audit committee characteristics on intellectual capital disclosure

      Li, Jing; Mangena, Musa; Pike, Richard H. (2012-06)
      This paper, using data from 100 UK listed firms, investigates the relationship between audit committee characteristics and intellectual capital (IC) disclosure. We find that overall IC disclosure is positively associated with audit committee characteristics such as the size and frequency of meetings, and negatively associated with audit committee directors’ shareholding. We find no significant relationship between IC disclosure and audit committee independence and financial expertise. We also observe that the association between audit committee characteristics and IC disclosure varies with the IC components (i.e. human capital, structural capital and relational capital), suggesting that the underlying factors that drive various components of IC disclosure are different. These results have important implications for policy-makers in that they confirm that the effectiveness of audit committees in the corporate reporting processes is a function of certain characteristics.
    • The effect of audit committee shareholding, financial expertise and size on interim financial disclosures.

      Mangena, Musa; Pike, Richard H. (2005)
      In recent years, corporate failures and accounting irregularities have led to concerns about the effectiveness of audit committees in the financial reporting process. In response, corporate governance committees in different countries have made specific recommendations designed to enhance the role of the audit committee in executing its financial reporting oversight duties. We investigate in this study, the effect of some of the recommendations by empirically examining the relationship between selected audit committee characteristics and the level of disclosure in interim reports of a sample of 262 UK listed companies. Specifically, the audit committee characteristics examined are shareholding of audit committee members (as a proxy for audit committee independence), audit committee size and audit committee financial expertise. Employing both a weighted and unweighted index to measure interim disclosure, the results indicate a significant negative association between shareholding of audit committee members and interim disclosure. Our results provide evidence of a significant positive association between interim disclosure and audit committee financial expertise. We find no significant relationship between audit committee size and the extent of disclosure in interim reports. Overall, however, our results suggest that audit committee characteristics have an impact on its monitoring effectiveness of the financial reporting process. These results have important implications for corporate governance policy-makers who have a responsibility to prescribe appropriate corporate governance structures to ensure that shareholders are protected
    • Fairness in performance evaluation and its behavioural consequences

      Sholihin, Mahfud; Pike, Richard H. (2009)
      A recent paper in Accounting and Business Research by Lau et al. (2008) offers systematic evidence to explain whether managers’ perceptions on fairness of performance evaluation procedures affect attitudes such as job satisfaction; and if it does, the different behavioural processes involved. Our paper re‐examines Lau et al.’s model and hypotheses to assess the external validity of their findings, based on a very different sample of managers. Drawing on recent organisational justice literature, it further develops the model and examines the potential interaction effects of fairness of performance evaluation procedures and other variables on job satisfaction. Finally, it extends the outcome variable to include manager performance. Using survey responses from 165 managers, supported by 24 interviews, drawn from three major organisations in the manufacturing and financial services sectors, we find that Lau et al.’s results on the indirect effects of fairness of performance evaluation procedures on job satisfaction are generalisable to other organisational settings and managerial levels. However, using their model we do not find support for the outcome‐based effects through distributive fairness. Developing a revised model we observe that the effects of distributive fairness on job satisfaction are indirect via organisational commitment. When the model is further developed to incorporate performance as the outcome variable, we observe similar findings.
    • Goal-setting participation and goal commitment: Examining the mediating roles of procedural fairness and interpersonal trust in a UK financial services organisation

      Sholihin, Mahfud; Pike, Richard H.; Mangena, Musa; Li, Jing (2011-06)
      This study investigates whether participation in goal-setting within performance measurement and evaluation processes affects goal commitment and if so, whether the effect is mediated by procedural fairness and interpersonal trust. Using a sample of 54 managers within a UK financial services organisation, this study finds that participation in goal-setting is positively associated with goal commitment. Further analysis arising from introducing procedural fairness and interpersonal trust as mediating variables reveals that the association is significantly mediated by procedural fairness. Overall, these findings offer empirical evidence on the importance of procedural fairness on the relationship between participation and goal commitment.
    • Intellectual capital disclosure and corporate governance structure in UK firms

      Li, Jing; Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M. (2008-01)
      This paper investigates the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and corporate governance variables, controlling for other firm-specific characteristics, for a sample of 100 UK listed firms. Intellectual capital disclosure is measured by a disclosure index score, supported by word count and percentage of word count metrics to assess the variety, volume and focus of intellectual capital disclosure respectively. The independent variables comprise various forms of corporate governance structure: board composition, ownership structure, audit committee size and frequency of audit committee meetings, and CEO role duality. Results of the analysis based on the three measures of intellectual capital disclosure indicate significant association with all the governance factors except for role duality. The influence of corporate governance mechanisms on human, structural and relational capital disclosure, based on all three metrics, is also explored.
    • Intellectual Capital Disclosure in Knowledge Rich Firms: The Impact of Market and Corporate Governance Factors

      Li, Jing; Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M. (2007)
      Intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) in corporate annual reports has received growing European attention. To date, few studies have undertaken systematic analysis of the factors influencing the decision to disclose Intellectual Capital (IC) related information in annual reports. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the level of hidden value (market-to-book ratio), share price volatility, listing age, board composition, ownership structure, audit committee size and directors’ shareholding, in addition to other firm specific factors influence ICD in 100 UK listed knowledge-rich firms. The dependent variable is measured by a 183 item index score, supported by word count and percentage of IC word count metrics to assess the extent, volume and focus of ICD respectively. Results of the analysis based on the three measures indicate significant association with hidden value, using market-to-book ratio as a proxy, and listing age. We further find firm size, share price volatility, director shareholding, audit committee size, and ownership concentration to be associated with ICD in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations. The implications of these findings, hitherto largely untested, are explored from a number of theoretical perspectives.
    • Intellectual Capital Disclosures in Corporate Annual Reports: A European Comparison

      Li, Jing; Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M. (2006)
      The extent of intellectual capital (IC) disclosures in corporate annual reports has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper is an exploratory study that considers the efficacy of various IC disclosure measures. It draws on annual reports of leading firms within the financial services sector in nine Western European countries. Content analysis was employed to produce measures based on disclosure indexes and word count to assess the variety, volume and focus of IC in annual reports. Disclosure scores were computed using three forms of presentation - any form, numerical form (reflecting more ‘objective’ disclosure), and all forms. Generally, we found that the form of disclosure index did not significantly affect IC sample rankings and were broadly in line with the IC word count rankings. However, very different rankings emerged when using the focus measure (IC word count as a percentage of total word count in Annual Report). We argue that this measure of relative importance is an important measure, particularly because firm size is typically positively associated with disclosure. Variation in the form of IC (human, structural, relational) is also explored. The paper then reports the findings of a time series analysis of the IC disclosure practices within a UK bank over a 10-year period. Significant variation in IC disclosure was found, with a strong movement in IC content from human capital to relational capital. These findings are discussed.
    • Intellectual capital, management accounting practices and corporate performance: Perceptions of managers.

      Tayles, Mike E.; Pike, Richard H.; Sofian, S. (2007)
      Purpose ¿ The purpose of the paper was to examine whether, and in what way, managers perceive that the level and shape of intellectual capital (IC) within firms influences management accounting practice, specifically, performance measurement, planning and control, capital budgeting, and risk management. It also explores whether such firms are better able to respond to unanticipated economic and market changes and achieve relatively higher performance within their sector. Design/methodology/approach ¿ The paper is based on the results of a study conducted in Malaysia through a questionnaire survey in 119 large companies with varying levels of IC and selected interviews with both accounting and non-accounting executives in a subset of them. Findings ¿ The findings in the paper suggest some evolution in management accounting practices for firms investing heavily in IC. The findings are discussed and further explored through interviews in some of the firms analysed. Research limitations/implications ¿ The limitations of survey research in this paper are acknowledged, however these are ameliorated by confirmatory insights from the interviews. Further research could be carried out using more extensive case studies in companies, perhaps longitudinally, or undertaken using sector focused surveys. Practical implications ¿ It is important to show in the paper that management accounting systems reflect the strategic orientation of the companies concerned. Where a greater focus on intangibles and intellectual capital occurs it may require a different emphasis on management accounting practices compared to companies where they do not feature strongly. It is important that management recognise and act on this in order to improve corporate performance. Originality/value ¿ The paper shows that it is widely recognised that (IC), whether in the form of knowledge, experience, professional skill, good relationships, or technological capacity is a major source of corporate competitive advantage. Whilst the literature places considerable attention on the valuation, measurement and reporting of IC for external reporting purposes, far less attention has so far been given to the implications of IC for managerial accounting practice. This paper addresses this omission.
    • Organisational commitment in the police service: exploring the effects of performance measures, procedural justice and interpersonal trust

      Sholihin, Mahfud; Pike, Richard H. (2010)
      This study aims to investigate whether, and how, the use of performance measures, procedural justice, and interpersonal trust interact to affect organisational commitment of police officers. Drawing on a survey based on a sample of 57 senior officers within a single police force, we find that the use of performance measures, procedural justice, and interpersonal trust are positively associated with organisational commitment. Further analysis reveals that trust between officer and superior mediates the relationship between the use of non-financial measures and organisational commitment, but procedural justice does not have a mediating effect on commitment. These findings are further explored through selected interviews with respondents.
    • Trade credit terms: asymmetric information and price discrimination evidence from three continents

      Pike, Richard H.; Lamminmäki, D.; Cravens, K.; Cheng, N.S. (2005)
      Trade credit terms offer firms contractual solutions to informational asymmetries between buyers and sellers. The credit period permits buyers to reduce uncertainty concerning product quality prior to payment, while the seller can reduce uncertainty concerning buyer payment intentions by prescribing payment before/on delivery or through two¿part payment terms and other mechanisms. Variation in trade credit terms also offers firms price discriminating opportunities. This study, drawing on the responses of 700 large firms in the US, UK and Australia, explores trade credit terms through the twin objectives of reducing information asymmetries and discriminatory pricing. Support is found for both theories.