• Factors affecting group decision making: an insight on information practices by investigating decision making process among tactical commanders

      Mishra, Jyoti L. (2014-12)
      Introduction. Decision making though an important information use has not been vigorously researched in information practices research. By studying how decision makers make decision in groups, we can learn about several underlying issues in information practices. Method. T20 middle-level (tactical) Commanders from blue light services in the UK were interviewed to share their experience on how and where they seek information from and how they make decisions while managing major incidents. Analysis. Activity theory was used as an overarching framework to design interview questions and as an analysis framework. Results. Information need and information practices such as information sharing and information use are investigated. A model of group decision making process and factors affecting group decision making is proposed. Conclusions. By understanding factors affecting decision making, decision support system designers and policy makers can readdress the underlying issue. Moreover, this paper reiterates the need of studying decision making to understand information practices.
    • Information seeking, use, and decision making

      Mishra, Jyoti L.; Allen, D.K.; Pearman, A.D. (2015-04)
      In this paper we explored three areas: decision making and information seeking, the relationship between information seeking and uncertainty, and the role of expertise in influencing information use. This was undertaken in the context of a qualitative study into decision making in the initial stages of emergency response to major incidents. The research took an interpretive approach in which activity theory is used as an analytical framework. The research provides further evidence that the context of the activity and individual differences influence the choice of decision mode and associated information behavior. We also established that information is often not used to resolve uncertainty in decision making and indeed information is often sought and used after the decision is made to justify the decision. Finally, we point to the significance of both expertise and confidence in understanding information behavior. The contribution of the research to existing theoretical frameworks is discussed and a modified version of Wilson's problem-solving model is proposed.
    • Knowledge sharing for innovation performance improvement in Micro/SMEs: an insight from the creative sector

      Tassabehji, Rana; Mishra, Jyoti L.; Dominguez-Pery, C. (2019)
      As the economy becomes more reliant on innovative, knowledge-intensive firms, understanding the interaction between knowledge and improving innovation performance is increasingly important. Despite the majority of UK businesses being micro, small or medium-sized enterprises (micro/SMEs), knowledge management research has tended to focus on large companies, and the findings may not be applicable to micro/SMEs, especially in the creative sector. Moreover, the important role played by knowledge sharing in innovation can be critical to successful performance for smaller players in the creative sector where resources are limited. Our study presents an insight from micro/SMEs operating in a highly knowledge-intensive and innovative creative industry - games/entertainment software development. Using a mixed method approach, we investigate knowledge sharing and its contribution to firm innovation performance improvements. Our findings suggest that micro/SMEs are at the forefront in the creative sector precisely because of their smaller size. Our study reveals evidence of knowledge donation but limited evidence of knowledge collection in the knowledge sharing process in micro/SMEs. We develop a knowledge sharing model for innovation performance improvement in micro/SMEs. This highlights the importance of industry context, individual knowledge and organisational size in the role of knowledge sharing in innovation performance.
    • Rethinking communication in risk interpretation and action

      Khan, S.; Mishra, Jyoti L.; Kuna-hui, E.L.; Doyle, E.E.H. (2017)
      Communication is fundamental to the transfer of information between individuals, agencies and organizations, and therefore, it is crucial to planning and decision-making particularly in cases of uncertainty and risk. This paper brings forth some critical aspects of communication that need to be acknowledged and considered while managing risks. Most of the previous studies and theories on natural hazards and disaster management have limited perspective on communication, and hence, its implication is limited to awareness, warnings and emergency response to some selected events. This paper exposes the role of communication as a moderator of not just risk interpretation and action but also various factors responsible for shaping overall response, such as individual decision-making under uncertainty, heuristics, past experiences, learning, trust, complexity, scale and the social context. It suggests that communication is a process that influences decision-making in multiple ways, and therefore, it plays a critical role in shaping local responses to various risks. It opens up the scope for using communication beyond its current use as a tool to manage emergency situations. An in-depth understanding of ongoing communication and its implications can help to plan risk management more effectively over time rather than as a short-term response.
    • Understanding decision making during emergencies: a key contributor to resilience

      Mishra, Jyoti L.; Allen, D.K.; Pearman, A.D. (2015-11)
      The resilience of systems derives from many inputs, relating both to design and to operational planning. In the latter context the role and effective functioning of the ‘blue light’ emergency services is often critical. The judgements and decisions that have to be made are complex and time-constrained, often undertaken before all the critical information that might be wanted is available. Recent developments in decision research, notably the on-going dual process debate, suggest that the process of decision making adopted is often more complex than had previously been appreciated and strongly linked to both context and individual factors, notably expertise. In the light of such developments, this paper presents an empirical study of emergency responders working in realistic, non-laboratory conditions. It argues that recent moves to recognise the need to support, through the way in which information is provided, more intuitive as well as analytic modes of thinking in decision support are timely and that an important research agenda exists linking decision support design with a fuller understanding of exactly how individuals make their decisions in emergency conditions.
    • Value Creation from Circular Economy led Closed Loop Supply Chains: A Case Study of Fast Moving Consumer Goods

      Mishra, Jyoti L.; Hopkinson, Peter G.; Tidridge, G. (2017)
      The role of closed loop supply chains (CLSC) for creating and recovering value is widely acknowledged in supply chain management and there are many examples, mainly in the business-to-business sector, of successful OEM remanufacturing. The integration of value creation and recovery activities into retail customer value propositions is, however, under researched and raises many challenges, especially in Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) retail where few real world examples have been published. The recent emergence of the term ‘circular economy’ has initiated further debate about closed loop value propositions and closed loop supply chain implications. This paper selects four circular economy-led closed loop product case examples from a major European FMCG company, and assesses, at a high level, how these cases created value, for whom value was created, and key challenges in their implementation. The findings highlight that each case is different. Closing loops and creating successful value propositions is complex and requires simultaneous reconfiguration of key building blocks to ensure customer acceptance and business viability. The paper proposes the term ‘circular supply chain’ for cases where circular economy principles are explicitly incorporated in CLSC for value creation.