• Asset pricing in the Middle East’s equity markets

      Hearn, Bruce; Li, Jing; Mykhayliv, Dariya; Waqas, Muhammad (Elsevier, 2021-05)
      This paper undertakes a comparison between five multifactor variants of the capital asset pricing model. These include additional factors based on size, book to market value, momentum, liquidity and a new investor protection metric based on the product of institutional quality in a country and the proportion of free float shares, which captures the impact of controlling block holders. Using monthly returns of 909 blue chip firms from 18 Middle East & North African equity markets for 16 years, we show that a two factor CAPM augmented with a factor mimicking portfolio based on the investor protection metric yields the highest explanatory power. Analysis of Kalman filter time varying investor protection betas reveals investor protection premiums in Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon and Tunisia and corresponding discounts in Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Dubai and Abu Dhabi.
    • Capital Market Pressures and the Format of Intellectual Capital Disclosure in Intellectual Capital Intensive Firms

      Li, Jing; Mangena, Musa (2014)
      Purpose - A number of studies have examined firms’ intellectual capital (IC) disclosure practices. However, the presentation format of IC disclosure (text, numerical and graphs/pictures) is yet to be examined. In addition, there is little evidence on the impact of capital market pressures on IC disclosure. This study aims to examine the relation between presentation format of IC disclosures and three market factors (market-to-book ratio, share price volatility and multiple listing). Design/methodology/approach - Using content analysis, we examine the level of IC disclosure provided in the annual reports of 100 IC-intensive listed UK firms. A 61-IC-item research instrument is used to measure IC disclosure and regression analysis is employed to examine the relation between disclosure and the market factors, controlling for corporate governance and firm specific variables. Findings - Text is the most commonly used format for IC disclosure, whilst the use of graphs/pictures is very low. The findings of the relation between market factors and IC disclosure are mixed. Market-to-book ratio is significantly related to disclosure in text and numerical, but not to graphs/pictures. Share price volatility is only associated with graphs/pictures, whilst multiple listing is only related to text. Originality/value - Our findings suggest that the impact of capital market pressures on IC disclosure might differ with presentation format. In this context, the study makes a significant contribution to the IC disclosure literature.
    • Disentangling the Effects of Corporate Disclosure on the Cost of Equity Capital: A Study of the Role of Intellectual Capital Disclosure

      Mangena, Musa; Li, Jing; Tauringana, V. (2016-01)
      In this paper, we investigate whether intellectual capital (IC) and financial disclosures jointly affect the firm’s cost of equity capital. In contrast to prior research, we disaggregate disclosures into IC and financial disclosures and examine whether the two disclosure types are jointly related to the cost of equity capital. We also investigate whether IC and financial disclosures have an interaction effect on the cost of equity capital. Using data for a sample of 125 UK firms, we find a negative relationship between the cost of equity capital and IC disclosure. We find that the relationship between financial disclosure and the cost of equity capital is magnified when combined with IC disclosure. Additionally, we find that IC and financial disclosures interact in shaping their effects on the cost of equity capital. Further analyses suggest that the effect of financial disclosure on the cost of equity capital is augmented for firms characterised by a medium level of IC disclosure. These results provide important insights into the relationship between disclosures and cost of equity capital and have policy and practical implications.
    • The effect of audit committee characteristics on intellectual capital disclosure

      Li, Jing; Mangena, Musa; Pike, Richard H. (2012-06)
      This paper, using data from 100 UK listed firms, investigates the relationship between audit committee characteristics and intellectual capital (IC) disclosure. We find that overall IC disclosure is positively associated with audit committee characteristics such as the size and frequency of meetings, and negatively associated with audit committee directors’ shareholding. We find no significant relationship between IC disclosure and audit committee independence and financial expertise. We also observe that the association between audit committee characteristics and IC disclosure varies with the IC components (i.e. human capital, structural capital and relational capital), suggesting that the underlying factors that drive various components of IC disclosure are different. These results have important implications for policy-makers in that they confirm that the effectiveness of audit committees in the corporate reporting processes is a function of certain characteristics.
    • Goal-setting participation and goal commitment: Examining the mediating roles of procedural fairness and interpersonal trust in a UK financial services organisation

      Sholihin, Mahfud; Pike, Richard H.; Mangena, Musa; Li, Jing (2011-06)
      This study investigates whether participation in goal-setting within performance measurement and evaluation processes affects goal commitment and if so, whether the effect is mediated by procedural fairness and interpersonal trust. Using a sample of 54 managers within a UK financial services organisation, this study finds that participation in goal-setting is positively associated with goal commitment. Further analysis arising from introducing procedural fairness and interpersonal trust as mediating variables reveals that the association is significantly mediated by procedural fairness. Overall, these findings offer empirical evidence on the importance of procedural fairness on the relationship between participation and goal commitment.
    • Intellectual capital disclosure and corporate governance structure in UK firms

      Li, Jing; Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M. (2008-01)
      This paper investigates the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and corporate governance variables, controlling for other firm-specific characteristics, for a sample of 100 UK listed firms. Intellectual capital disclosure is measured by a disclosure index score, supported by word count and percentage of word count metrics to assess the variety, volume and focus of intellectual capital disclosure respectively. The independent variables comprise various forms of corporate governance structure: board composition, ownership structure, audit committee size and frequency of audit committee meetings, and CEO role duality. Results of the analysis based on the three measures of intellectual capital disclosure indicate significant association with all the governance factors except for role duality. The influence of corporate governance mechanisms on human, structural and relational capital disclosure, based on all three metrics, is also explored.
    • Intellectual Capital Disclosure in Knowledge Rich Firms: The Impact of Market and Corporate Governance Factors

      Li, Jing; Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M. (2007)
      Intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) in corporate annual reports has received growing European attention. To date, few studies have undertaken systematic analysis of the factors influencing the decision to disclose Intellectual Capital (IC) related information in annual reports. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the level of hidden value (market-to-book ratio), share price volatility, listing age, board composition, ownership structure, audit committee size and directors’ shareholding, in addition to other firm specific factors influence ICD in 100 UK listed knowledge-rich firms. The dependent variable is measured by a 183 item index score, supported by word count and percentage of IC word count metrics to assess the extent, volume and focus of ICD respectively. Results of the analysis based on the three measures indicate significant association with hidden value, using market-to-book ratio as a proxy, and listing age. We further find firm size, share price volatility, director shareholding, audit committee size, and ownership concentration to be associated with ICD in a manner consistent with theoretical expectations. The implications of these findings, hitherto largely untested, are explored from a number of theoretical perspectives.
    • Intellectual Capital Disclosures in Corporate Annual Reports: A European Comparison

      Li, Jing; Pike, Richard H.; Haniffa, Roszaini M. (2006)
      The extent of intellectual capital (IC) disclosures in corporate annual reports has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper is an exploratory study that considers the efficacy of various IC disclosure measures. It draws on annual reports of leading firms within the financial services sector in nine Western European countries. Content analysis was employed to produce measures based on disclosure indexes and word count to assess the variety, volume and focus of IC in annual reports. Disclosure scores were computed using three forms of presentation - any form, numerical form (reflecting more ‘objective’ disclosure), and all forms. Generally, we found that the form of disclosure index did not significantly affect IC sample rankings and were broadly in line with the IC word count rankings. However, very different rankings emerged when using the focus measure (IC word count as a percentage of total word count in Annual Report). We argue that this measure of relative importance is an important measure, particularly because firm size is typically positively associated with disclosure. Variation in the form of IC (human, structural, relational) is also explored. The paper then reports the findings of a time series analysis of the IC disclosure practices within a UK bank over a 10-year period. Significant variation in IC disclosure was found, with a strong movement in IC content from human capital to relational capital. These findings are discussed.
    • Large-scale data analysis using the Wigner function

      Earnshaw, Rae A.; Lei, Ci; Li, Jing; Mugassabi, Souad; Vourdas, Apostolos (2012)
      Large-scale data are analysed using the Wigner function. It is shown that the ‘frequency variable’ provides important information, which is lost with other techniques. The method is applied to ‘sentiment analysis’ in data from social networks and also to financial data.