• A framework for analysing blockchain technology adoption: Integrating institutional, market and technical factors

      Janssen, M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Irani, Zahir (2020-02)
      The adoption of blockchain technologies require the consideration of a broad range of factors, over and above the predominantly technology focus of most current work. Whilst scholarly literature on blockchain technology is only beginning to emerge, majority are focused on the technicalities of the technology and tend to ignore the organizational complexities of adopting the technology. Drawing from a focused review of literature, this paper proposed a conceptual framework for adoption of blockchain technology capturing the complex relationships between institutional, market and technical factors. The framework highlights that varying outcomes are possible, and the change process is focal as this shapes the form blockchain applications take. Factors presented in the framework (institutional, market and technical) interact and mutually influence each other. The proposed framework can be used by organisations as a reference point for adopting blockchain applications and by scholars to expand, refine and evaluate research into blockchain technology.
    • Achieving superior organizational performance via big data predictive analytics: A dynamic capability view

      Gupta, S.; Drave, V.A.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Baabdullah, A.M.; Ismagilova, Elvira (2020)
      The art of unwinding voluminous data expects the expertise in analyzing meaningful decisions out of the acquired information. To encounter new age challenges, practitioners are trying hard to shatter the constraints and work edge-to-edge to achieve higher performance (Market, Financial and Operational performance). It is evident that organizations desire to exploit maximum of their injected resources, but often fail to reap their actual potential. Developing resource-based capabilities stands out to be the most concerned aspect for the firms in recent times, and the same is studied by the previous scholars. In the dearth of literature, it is challenging to find out evidence which marks up the effect of strategic resources in the development of dynamic organizational capability. This study is a two-fold attempt to examine the relationship between organizational capabilities, i.e. big data predictive analytics while achieving superior organizational performance; also, examining the effect of control variables on superior organizational of performance. We tested our research hypotheses using cross-sectional data of 209 responses collected using pre-tested single-informant questionnaire. The results underpin criticality human factor while developing analytical capabilities dynamic in nature in the process of achieving superior performance.
    • Artificial Intelligence (AI): Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Emerging Challenges, Opportunities, and Agenda for Research, Practice and Policy

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Hughes, L.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Aarts, G.; Coombs, C.; Crick, T.; Duan, Y.; Dwivedi, R.; Edwards, J.; Eirug, A.; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-04)
      As far back as the industrial revolution, significant development in technical innovation has succeeded in transforming numerous manual tasks and processes that had been in existence for decades where humans had reached the limits of physical capacity. Artificial Intelligence (AI) offers this same transformative potential for the augmentation and potential replacement of human tasks and activities within a wide range of industrial, intellectual and social applications. The pace of change for this new AI technological age is staggering, with new breakthroughs in algorithmic machine learning and autonomous decision-making, engendering new opportunities for continued innovation. The impact of AI could be significant, with industries ranging from: finance, healthcare, manufacturing, retail, supply chain, logistics and utilities, all potentially disrupted by the onset of AI technologies. The study brings together the collective insight from a number of leading expert contributors to highlight the significant opportunities, realistic assessment of impact, challenges and potential research agenda posed by the rapid emergence of AI within a number of domains: business and management, government, public sector, and science and technology. This research offers significant and timely insight to AI technology and its impact on the future of industry and society in general, whilst recognising the societal and industrial influence on pace and direction of AI development.
    • B2B brands on Twitter: Engaging users with a varying combination of social media content objectives, strategies, and tactics

      Juntunen, M.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Oikarinen, E.-L. (2020-08)
      The objective of this research is to increase understanding about B2B company-led user engagement on social media content. Building on hierarchy-of-effects (HoE) theory, we explore how the world’s leading B2B companies use content objectives (why), strategies (how), and tactics (what) on Twitter. We first integrate B2B advertising and social media research on companies’ content objectives, strategies, and tactics. Then, using qualitative analyses, we examine the existence of objectives, strategies, and tactics in the most engaging tweets (N=365) of the worlds’ ten leading B2B brands, covering five industries, in 2017. Finally, we quantitatively examine how the use of diverse objectives and strategies differs between the most engaging tweets (N=318) and least engaging tweets (N=229) of the companies in 2018. The companies use objectives, strategies and tactics that relate to creating awareness, knowledge and trust, interest, and liking in the majority of their most and least engaging tweets, and express preference, conviction and purchase aspects much less. Differences exist in general, industry-wise, and company-wise. The study is a rare attempt to integrate the extant B2B advertising and social media research, and compare the most and least engaging B2B social media content.
    • Citizens' continuous use of eGovernment services: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and satisfaction

      Alruwaie, M.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Ismagilova, Elvira (2020-07)
      The continuous use of eGovernment services is a de facto for its prosperity and success. A generalised sense of citizens' self-efficacy, expectations, and satisfaction offer opportunities for governments to further retain needed engagements. This study examines the factors influencing citizens' continuance use of eGovernment services. Through the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Expectation Confirmation Theory, DeLone and McLean IS success model, and E-S-QUAL, a survey of 471 citizens in the UK, engaging in online public services, found that prior experience, social influence, information quality, and service quality, personal outcome expectation, and satisfaction, are significant predictors of citizens' intention to use eGovernment, when they are regulated, through citizens' self-efficacy. The present study extends the roles of pre-adoption and post-adoption by offering a self-regulating process. Therefore, it demonstrates how critical it is for the government's leaders to understand the patterns of the long-term process for electronic systems continually.
    • The effect of characteristics of source credibility on consumer behaviour: a meta-analysis

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020-03)
      The aim of this research is to synthesise findings from existing studies on the characteristics of source credibility of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) communications in a single model by using meta-analysis. Findings from 20 research papers show that source expertise, trustworthiness, and homophily significantly influence perceived eWOM usefulness and credibility, intention to purchase, and information adoption. The results of this study add to existing knowledge of the influence of source characteristics on consumer behaviour, which will advance our understanding of information processing. Marketers can use the findings of this meta-analysis to enhance their marketing activities.
    • The effect of electronic word of mouth communications on intention to buy: A meta-analysis

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      The aim of this research is to synthesise findings from previous studies by employing weight and meta-analysis to reconcile conflicting evidence and draw a “big picture” of eWOM factors influencing consumers’ intention to buy. By using the findings from 69 studies, this research identified best (e.g. argument quality, valence, eWOM usefulness, trust in message), promising (e.g. eWOM credibility, emotional trust, attitude towards website) and least effective (e.g. volume, existing eWOM, source credibility) predictors of intention to buy in eWOM research. Additionally, the effect size of each predictor was calculated by performing meta-analysis. For academics, understanding what influences consumers’ intention to buy will help set the agenda for future research directions; for practitioners, it will provide benefit in terms of practical guidance based on detailed analysis of specific factors influencing consumers’ intention to buy, which could enhance their marketing activities.
    • Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) in the marketing context: A state of the art analysis and future directions

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Slade, E.; Williams, M. (Springer International Publishing, 2017)
      This SpringerBrief offers a state of the art analysis of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communications and its role in marketing. The book begins with an overview of traditional word-of-mouth (WOM) and its evolution to eWOM. It discusses the differences between traditional and online WOM. The book examines why people engage in eWOM communications, but also how consumers evaluate its persuasiveness. It also looks at the effects of eWOM. The book identifies current gaps in the eWOM research, but also highlights future directions for this growing field. eWOM is an important marketing technique in brand communications, and it plays an important role in modern e-commerce. Marketers become extremely interested in enhancing the power of eWOM developing loyalty programs and building brands. Studying the effect of eWOM can be beneficial for companies. This book should be a good resource for scholars and practitioners that need to understand the pervasive effects of eWOM.
    • A meta-analytic structural equation model for understanding social commerce adoption

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Sarker, P.; Jeyaraj, A.; Jadil, Y.; Hughes, L. (2021)
      Social commerce (s-commerce) has gained prominence with advances in social media and social networking technologies over the last decade. Prior research has employed diverse theoretical perspectives to understand and explain consumer behavior within s-commerce but has also produced inconsistent results. This study integrates different theoretical perspectives including trust, social support, and social presence. The research portrays an integrated research model involving factors that impact behavioral intention and use behavior of s-commerce consumers whilst synthesizing prior empirical findings. A meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) method was used to synthesize 189 findings reported in 68 s-commerce studies and to analyze the structural model. Our findings show that trust and informational support have positive effects on behavioral intention while trust and emotional support have positive effects on use behavior. Furthermore, our findings highlight that behavioral intention influences use behavior and mediates the effect of trust and informational support on use behavior. The implications for research and practice are discussed in detail.
    • Perceived helpfulness of eWOM: emotions, fairness and rationality

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Slade, E. (2020-03)
      Consumers use online reviews to help make informed purchase decisions. This paper extends existing research by examining how content of online reviews influences perceptions of helpfulness by demonstrating how different emotions can influence helpfulness of both product and service online reviews beyond a valence-based approach using cognitive appraisal theory and attribution theory. This research contributes to existing knowledge regarding the theory of information processing, attribution theory, and cognitive appraisal theory of emotions. Using findings from this study, practitioners can make review websites more user-friendly which will help readers avoid information overload and make more informed purchase decisions.
    • Persuasiveness of eWOM communications: Literature review and suggestions for future research

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.; Williams, M. (2016)
      Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) plays an important part in consumer purchase decision. The way consumers perceive the persuasiveness of eWOM message can affect their attitude, and purchase intention, and hence sales. Thus, the topic of persuasiveness of eWOM communications has received much attention from scholars. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief review of the existing literature related to the effectiveness of eWOM communications and offer an overview of the determinants of eWOM persuasiveness. This paper contributes to the existing eWOM literature by reviewing the existing studies on eWOM communications, identifying gaps in the current research and providing directions for future research.
    • Return on Investment in Social Media Marketing: Literature Review and Suggestions for Future Research

      Lal, B.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Kwayu, S. (Springer, 2020)
      Social media facilitates and enhances communication between businesses and customers. Nowadays, although it is commonly recognised that companies implement social media into their marketing activities, it is also acknowledged that companies struggle to calculate the return on investment (ROI) from social media marketing efforts as most of them focus only on certain tangible outcomes such as the impact on sales and purchases. Attempts have been made by researchers to identify how to measure key impacts of social media in relation to marketing; however, there remains a lack of empirical data and no comprehensive overview of what “ROI” can mean for an organisation seeking returns on their social media adoption. By knowing how to measure ROI from social media, companies can produce valuable insights which can help enhance marketing strategies in promoting their products/services. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to provide a review of ROI in social media marketing with a particular focus on intangible outcomes such as brand awareness, customer engagement/relationship and eWOM.
    • Role of Smart Cities in Creating Sustainable Cities and Communities: A Systematic Literature Review

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, Laurie; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-01)
      Smart cities can help in achieving UN SDG. This research carries out a comprehensive analysis of the role of smart cities on creating sustainable cities and communities, which is one of 17 UN sustainable goals. Current research focuses on number of aspect of sustainable environment such as renewable and green energy, energy efficiency, environmental monitoring, air quality, and water quality. This study provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature on smart cities by analysing and discussing the key findings from existing research on issues of smart cities in creating sustainable cities and communities. The findings of this study can provide an informative framework for research on smart cities for academics and practitioners.
    • Security, Privacy and Risks Within Smart Cities: Literature Review and Development of a Smart City Interaction Framework

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      The complex and interdependent nature of smart cities raises significant political, technical, and socioeconomic challenges for designers, integrators and organisations involved in administrating these new entities. An increasing number of studies focus on the security, privacy and risks within smart cities, highlighting the threats relating to information security and challenges for smart city infrastructure in the management and processing of personal data. This study analyses many of these challenges, offers a valuable synthesis of the relevant key literature, and develops a smart city interaction framework. The study is organised around a number of key themes within smart cities research: privacy and security of mobile devices and services; smart city infrastructure, power systems, healthcare, frameworks, algorithms and protocols to improve security and privacy, operational threats for smart cities, use and adoption of smart services by citizens, use of blockchain and use of social media. This comprehensive review provides a useful perspective on many of the key issues and offers key direction for future studies. The findings of this study can provide an informative research framework and reference point for academics and practitioners.
    • Setting the future of digital and social media marketing research: Perspectives and research propositions

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, D.L.; Carlson, J.; Filieri, R.; Jacobson, J.; Jain, V.; Karjaluoto, H.; Kefi, H.; Krishen, A.S.; et al. (2020)
      The use of the internet and social media have changed consumer behavior and the ways in which companies conduct their business. Social and digital marketing offers significant opportunities to organizations through lower costs, improved brand awareness and increased sales. However, significant challenges exist from negative electronic word-of-mouth as well as intrusive and irritating online brand presence. This article brings together the collective insight from several leading experts on issues relating to digital and social media marketing. The experts’ perspectives offer a detailed narrative on key aspects of this important topic as well as perspectives on more specific issues including artificial intelligence, augmented reality marketing, digital content management, mobile marketing and advertising, B2B marketing, electronic word of mouth and ethical issues therein. This research offers a significant and timely contribution to both researchers and practitioners in the form of challenges and opportunities where we highlight the limitations within the current research, outline the research gaps and develop the questions and propositions that can help advance knowledge within the domain of digital and social marketing.
    • Smart cities: Advances in research—An information systems perspective

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Raman, K.R. (2019)
      Smart cities employ information and communication technologies to improve: the quality of life for its citizens, the local economy, transport, traffic management, environment, and interaction with government. Due to the relevance of smart cities (also referred using other related terms such as Digital City, Information City, Intelligent City, Knowledge-based City, Ubiquitous City, Wired City) to various stakeholders and the benefits and challenges associated with its implementation, the concept of smart cities has attracted significant attention from researchers within multiple fields, including information systems. This study provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature by analysing and discussing the key findings from existing research on issues related to smart cities from an Information Systems perspective. The research analysed and discussed in this study focuses on number of aspects of smart cities: smart mobility, smart living, smart environment, smart citizens, smart government, and smart architecture as well as related technologies and concepts. The discussion also focusses on the alignment of smart cities with the UN sustainable development goals. This comprehensive review offers critical insight to the key underlying research themes within smart cities, highlighting the limitations of current developments and potential future directions.
    • Social media adoption, usage and impact in business-to-business (B2B) context: A state-of-the-art literature review

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Rana, Nripendra P.; Raman, R. (2021)
      Social media plays an important part in the digital transformation of businesses. This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of social media by business-to-business (B2B) companies. The current study focuses on the number of aspects of social media such as the effect of social media, social media tools, social media use, adoption of social media use and its barriers, social media strategies, and measuring the effectiveness of use of social media. This research provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature on social media in B2B context by analysing, performing weight analysis and discussing the key findings from existing research on social media. The findings of this study can be used as an informative framework on social media for both, academic and practitioners.
    • Unanticipated consequences of interactive marketing: systematic literature review and directions for future research

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2020-05)
      Internet and social media have created new opportunities and challenges for marketing practices. This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the unanticipated consequences of interactive marketing. The current study focuses on a number of aspects of interactive marketing research such as consumer-to-consumer and consumer-to-company communications, consumer brand engagement, impact of social influencers and online buzz, impact of online advertisement, companies adoption and use of new technologies by companies, consumer empowerment by digital technologies, complain handling, impact of mobile advertising, co-creation, and impact of social media marketing. This research provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature. The findings of this study could be used as an informative framework for both academics and practitioners.
    • Use of social media by b2b companies: systematic literature review and suggestions for future research

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Rana, Nripendra P.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2019-08)
      Social media plays an important role in the digital transformation of businesses. This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of social media by b2b companies. The current study focuses on a number of aspects of social media such as: the effect of social media; social media tools; social media use; adoption of social media use and its barriers; social media strategies; and measuring the effectiveness of the use of social media. This research provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature on social media in the b2b context by analysing and discussing the key findings from existing research on social media. The findings of this study can be used as an informative framework on social media for both academics and practitioners.
    • Weight Analysis of the Factors Affecting eWOM Providing Behavior

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2020)
      Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) significantly affects the consumer decision-making process. A number of studies investigated why consumers provide eWOM communications. Existing literature has contradicting factors regarding factors affect eWOM providing behaviour. This study aims to evaluate factors affecting eWOM providing behaviour by performing a systematic review and weight analysis of existing research outputs. Based on the result of weight analysis it was found that the best predictors of eWOM providing behaviour are involvement, self-enhancement, and trust in web eWOM services. Scholars can use the results of this study when making decisions regarding the inclusion of factors in their research. Practitioners can pay more attention to the best predictors.