Browsing Management and Law by Author "Iqbal, M.Z."
Effectiveness of performance appraisal: An integrated frameworkIqbal, M.Z.; Akbar, Saeed; Budhwar, P. (2015-10)Based on a robust analysis of the existing literature on performance appraisal (PA), this paper makes a case for an integrated framework of effectiveness of performance appraisal (EPA). To achieve this, it draws on the expanded view of measurement criteria of EPA, i.e. purposefulness, fairness and accuracy, and identifies their relationships with ratee reactions. The analysis reveals that the expanded view of purposefulness includes more theoretical anchors for the purposes of PA and relates to various aspects of human resource functions, e.g. feedback and goal orientation. The expansion in the PA fairness criterion suggests certain newly established nomological networks, which were ignored in the past, e.g. the relationship between distributive fairness and organization‐referenced outcomes. Further, refinements in PA accuracy reveal a more comprehensive categorization of rating biases. Coherence among measurement criteria has resulted in a ratee reactions‐based integrated framework, which should be useful for both researchers and practitioners.
Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Evidence on the Utilization CriteriaIqbal, M.Z.; Akbar, Saeed; Budhwar, P.; Shah, S.Z.A. (2019-08)This study examines the relationships between performance appraisal (PA) purposes and immediate and ultimate outcomes. Drawing upon expectancy theory and Greenberg's taxonomy, we explore the roles of multiple mediators as sets of person- and organization-referenced ratee reactions and reveal the multiple why-related aspects of the relationships between PA purposes and PA effectiveness. Our research is based on a questionnaire survey of 563 employees from the telecommunications sector of Pakistan. The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggest that individual-focused PA better serves the employee perspective, whereas position- and organization-focused PA better serves the organizational perspective. These findings indicate that inclusion of role definition and strategic purposes in the PA system is likely to render PA more effective and practical. The findings also corroborate that ratee reactions mediate the relationship between PA purposes and PA effectiveness, albeit to varying degrees. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications.