• Entrepreneurs' Passion, Home Country's Institutional Voids and Small Firm Internationalization

      Adomako, Samuel; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Chu, Irene (2020-10)
      The international entrepreneurship literature has revealed that entrepreneurs’ psychological characteristics drive a firm’s degree of internationalization. However, drivers that relate to entrepreneurs’ passion are not well developed in the international entrepreneurship literature. To fill this gap, this study uses a sample of 233 small firms to examine how entrepreneurs’ passion is related to small firms’ degree of internationalization and it also investigates whether this relationship is affected by levels of the home country’s institutional voids. The results show that passion is positively related to firms’ degree of internationalization and this relationship is positively moderated by levels of institutional voids. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    • From harmony to conflict: MacIntyrean virtue ethics in a Confucian tradition

      Chu, Irene; Moore, G. (2020)
      This paper explores whether MacIntyrean virtue ethics concepts are applicable in non-Western business contexts, specifically in SMEs in Taiwan a country strongly influenced by the Confucian tradition. It also explores what differences exist between different polities in this respect, and specifically interprets observed differences between the Taiwanese study and previous studies conducted in Europe and Asia. Based on case study research, the findings support the generalizability of the MacIntyrean framework. Drawing on the institutional logics perspective and synthesizing this with MacIntyrean concepts, the paper explains the differences between the studies largely by reference to the Confucian tradition operating at both the micro-level within firms and at the macro-level as a means of harmonizing the potentially competing institutional logics to which firms are subject. The recent weakening of this tradition, however, suggests that increased conflict may characterize the future.
    • Institutional Voids, Economic Adversity, and Inter-firm Cooperation in an Emerging Market: The Mediating Role of Government R&D Support

      Adomako, Samuel; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Debrah, Y.; Khan, Z.; Robinson, C.; Chu, Irene (Wiley, 2020)
      This article examines the mediating mechanism of the relationship between institutional voids (IVs) and inter-firm cooperation and the moderating role of economic adversity in the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) based in emerging markets. The hypotheses are tested using time-lagged survey data from 214 SMEs from Ghana. The findings provide support for the hypotheses by showing that (1) IVs positively influence the use of government research and development (R&D) support, (2) the use of government R&D support mediates the relationship between IVs and inter-firm cooperation, and (3) economic adversity positively moderates the relationship between IVs and the use of government R&D support. The findings contribute to understanding the role of IVs in inter-firm cooperation. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    • The nature of the self, self‑regulation and moral action: implications from the Confucian relational self and Buddhist non‑self

      Chu, Irene; Vu, M.C. (Springer, 2021-05)
      The concept of the self and its relation to moral action is complex and subject to varying interpretations, not only between different academic disciplines but also across time and space. This paper presents empirical evidence from a cross-cultural study on the Buddhist and Confucian notions of self in SMEs in Vietnam and Taiwan. The study employs Hwang’s Mandala Model of the Self, and its extension into Shiah’s non-self-model, to interpret how these two Eastern philosophical representations of the self, the Confucian relational self and Buddhist non-self, can lead to moral action. By demonstrating the strengths of the model, emphasizing how social and cultural influences constrain the individual self and promote the social person leading to moral action, the paper extends understanding of the self with empirical evidence of the mechanisms involved in organizational contexts
    • Technological innovation, organizational innovation and international performance of SMEs: The moderating role of domestic institutional environment

      Donbesuur, F.; Ampong, G.O.A.; Owusu-Yirenkyi, D.; Chu, Irene (2020-12)
      Despite the growing research on the performance implications of technological and organizational innovation, our understanding of how they impact SMEs’ international performance is limited. Drawing from the dynamic capability and the institutional theories, this study argues that technological and organizational innovation has a synergistic effect on international performance and that this effect is contingent on unique domestic institutional factors. We test this model using structural equation modeling on a sample of 204 internationalized SMEs operating in Ghana. The findings from the analysis show that high levels of organizational and technological innovation jointly improve SMEs’ international performance. In addition, the results show that institutional environment specificity and institutional environment enforceability enhance the complementary effect of organizational and technological innovation on the international performance of SMEs. The theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.