• Exploring human resource management practices in small and medium sized enterprises

      Nadin, Sara J.; Cassell, C.; Older-Gray, M.T.; Clegg, C. (2002)
      This paper reports on empirical work recently conducted about the use and effectiveness of HRM practices in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). A telephone survey was conducted with 100 senior managers of SMEs to ascertain their use of a range of human resource practices and the extent to which they had found those practices successful in aiding the achievement of company objectives. Additionally in-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers from a further 22 SMEs. Findings suggest that there is considerable diversity amongst SMEs in relation to their use of HR practices. A model is provided that identifies the key criteria that underlie the adoption of HRM practices, and the implications of the model are discussed.
    • How do single parents attribute "meaning" to, "self actualize" and "cope" with "daily time specific episodes" of "work-to-family" conflict. A comparative review of key concepts

      Malik, Fatima; Radcliffe, L.; Cassell, C. (2014)
      Despite higher work-life conflict (WLC) amongst women (Bakker & Karsten, 2013; Minnotte, 2013), work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) experienced by single mothers receives less attention than dual earner couples but more than single fathers (Gatrell, 2001; 2005). This paper presents a review of key concepts, drawn from a variety of WFC debates allowing us to understand how the under-researched single parent attributes meaning to, self-actualises, copes with and facilitates decision-making around daily time specific WFC episodes within the family domain. The paper acknowledges that previous WFC studies examine inter-role effects and levels of influence between work and family-life although time-specific episodic WFC experiences are concealed. A comprehensive understanding of the nature in which work facilitates time specific WFC episodes or events within the family domain of the single parent is also lacking. A new framework is suggested in examining the WFC experiences of the single parent. Future single parent studies underpinning WFC may consider the complex distinctive nature in which work is conceptualised perhaps single mothers and single fathers distinguishing the coping strategies and decision-making criteria underpinning their daily-time specific episodic WFC experiences. Our conceptualisation of the daily time specific nature of WFC perhaps suggests that we revisit our understanding of the implications that single parents present for the workplace. The use of an innovative mixed methods qualitative approach is suggested using qualitative dairies, photo elicitation and convergent interviews to capture rich, in depth and time specific interpretations of the daily episodes of single parents. Extant studies on WFC adopt quantitative methodologies while the use of qualitative methods remains under-developed.
    • Participant responses to photo-elicitation methods in the study of work-life balance

      Cassell, C.; Malik, Fatima; Radcliffe, L. (2015-01)
      This paper explores the responses of 17 participants to using photo-elicitation as part of a project exploring their daily experiences of work-life balance. We explicitly asked participants about their experiences of using the method that involved taking photographs of their work-life balance experiences and interpreting these photographs through participation in semi- structured interviews. Participants took 108 photographs in total. We explore important methodological issues for researchers seeking to use these methods and explain that photograph-elicitation has much to offer management and organizational researchers. A major benefit of the method is the role of photographs as a ‘conversational technology’ in encouraging re-interpretation and reflection of experiences in a manner not always achieved when using other qualitative techniques.
    • Using photo-elicitation to understand experiences of work-life balance

      Cassell, C.; Malik, Fatima; Radcliffe, L.S. (2016-08)
      Within this chapter, we explore the use of participant photo-elicitation methods in studying how people manage their daily episodes or incidences of work-life balance. Participant photo-elicitation methods rely upon research participants taking their own photographs of a subject as guided by the researcher(s). In addressing this particular technique, we explore some important methodological issues for HRM researchers who seek to use these methods and explain how this type pop methodology has much to offer when studying HR issues such as work-life balance. We conclude that one of the major benefits of the method is the role of photographs as a "conversational technology" (Gammack & Stephens, 1994, p. 76) in encouraging participants to talk and reflect.