• Applicant perspectives during selection: a review addressing "so what?," " what's new?." and "where to next?"

      McCarthy, J.M.; Bauer, T.N.; Truxillo, D.M.; Anderson, Neil; Costa, Ana-Cristina; Ahmed, S.M. (2017-07-01)
      We provide a comprehensive but critical review of research on applicant reactions to selection procedures published since 2000 (n = 145), when the last major review article on applicant reactions appeared in the Journal of Management. We start by addressing the main criticisms levied against the field to determine whether applicant reactions matter to individuals and employers (“So what?”). This is followed by a consideration of “What’s new?” by conducting a comprehensive and detailed review of applicant reaction research centered upon four areas of growth: expansion of the theoretical lens, incorporation of new technology in the selection arena, internationalization of applicant reactions research, and emerging boundary conditions. Our final section focuses on “Where to next?” and offers an updated and integrated conceptual model of applicant reactions, four key challenges, and eight specific future research questions. Our conclusion is that the field demonstrates stronger research designs, with studies incorporating greater control, broader constructs, and multiple time points. There is also solid evidence that applicant reactions have significant and meaningful effects on attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. At the same time, we identify some remaining gaps in the literature and a number of critical questions that remain to be explored, particularly in light of technological and societal changes.
    • A constructively critical review of change and innovation-related concepts: towards conceptual and operational clarity

      Potocnik, K.; Anderson, Neil (2016)
      The aim of this paper is to examine and clarify the nomological network of change and innovation (CI)-related constructs. A literature review in this field revealed a number of interrelated constructs that have emerged over the last decades. We examine several such constructs—innovation, creativity, proactive behaviours, job crafting, voice, taking charge, personal initiative, submitting suggestions, and extra-role behaviours. Our conceptual analysis suggests each one of these constructs represents a specific component of CI-related behaviours. However, we also found that on occasion these concepts have been dysfunctionally operationalized with evidence of three dysfunctional effects: (a) construct confusion, (b) construct drift, and (c) construct contamination. Challenges for future research to enhance conceptual and operational clarity are discussed.
    • Innovation and creativity in organizations: a state-of-the-science review, prospective commentary, and guiding framework

      Anderson, Neil; Potocnik, K.; Zhou, J. (2014-07)
      Creativity and innovation in any organization are vital to its successful performance. The authors review the rapidly growing body of research in this area with particular attention to the period 2002 to 2013, inclusive. Conceiving of both creativity and innovation as being integral parts of essentially the same process, we propose a new, integrative definition. We note that research into creativity has typically examined the stage of idea generation, whereas innovation studies have commonly also included the latter phase of idea implementation. The authors discuss several seminal theories of creativity and innovation and then apply a comprehensive levels-of-analysis framework to review extant research into individual, team, organizational, and multilevel innovation. Key measurement characteristics of the reviewed studies are then noted. In conclusion, we propose a guiding framework for future research comprising 11 major themes and 60 specific questions for future studies.
    • Personnel Selection in the Digital Age: A Review of Validity and Applicant Reactions, and Future Research Challenges

      Woods, S.A.; Ahmed, S.; Nikolaou, I.; Costa, Ana-Cristina; Anderson, Neil (Taylor francis Group, 2019)
      We present a targeted review of recent developments and advances in digital selection procedures (DSPs) with particular attention to advances in internet-based techniques. By reviewing the emergence of DSPs in selection research and practice, we highlight five main categories of methods (online applications, online psychometric testing, digital interviews, gamified assessment and social media). We discuss the evidence base for each of these DSP groups, focusing on construct and criterion validity, and applicant reactions to their use in organizations. Based on the findings of our review, we present a critique of the evidence base for DSPs in industrial, work and organizational psychology and set out an agenda for advancing research. We identify pressing gaps in our understanding of DSPs, and ten key questions to be answered. Given that DSPs are likely to depart further from traditional nondigital selection procedures in the future, a theme in this agenda is the need to establish a distinct and specific literature on DSPs, and to do so at a pace that reflects the speed of the underlying technological advancement. In concluding, we, therefore, issue a call to action for selection researchers in work and organizational psychology to commence a new and rigorous multidisciplinary programme of scientific study of DSPs.
    • Toward a periodic table of personality: mapping personality scales between the five-factor model and the circumplex model

      Woods, S.A.; Anderson, Neil (2016-04)
      In this study we examine the structures of ten personality inventories widely used for personnel assessment, by mapping the scales of personality inventories (PIs) to the lexical Big Five circumplex model resulting in a ‘Periodic Table of Personality’. Correlations between 273 scales from ten internationally popular PIs with independent markers of the lexical Big Five are reported, based on data from samples in two countries (UK N = 286; USA N = 1,046), permitting us to map these scales onto the AB5C framework. Emerging from our findings we propose a common facet framework derived from the scales of the PIs in our study. These results provide important insights into the literature on criterion-related validity of personality traits, and enable researchers and practitioners to understand how different PI scales converge and diverge and how compound PI scales may be constructed or replicated. Implications for research and practice are considered.
    • Trust in work teams: an integrative review, multilevel model, and future directions

      Costa, Ana-Cristina; Fulmer, C.A.; Anderson, Neil (2018-02)
      This article presents an integrative review of the rapidly growing body of research on trust in work teams. We start by analyzing prominent definitions of trust and their theoretical foundations, followed by different conceptualizations of trust in teams emphasizing its multilevel, dynamic, and emergent nature. We then review the empirical research and its underlying theoretical perspectives concerning the emergence and development of trust in teams. Based on this review, we propose an integrated conceptual framework that organizes the field and can advance knowledge of the multilevel nature of trust in teams. Our conclusion is that trust in teams resides at multiple levels of analysis simultaneously, is subject to factors across levels in organizations, and impacts performance and other relevant outcomes both at the individual and team levels. We argue that research should not only differentiate between interpersonal trust between members from collective trust at the team level, but also emphasize the interplay within and between these levels by considering cross-level influences and dynamics. We conclude by proposing four major directions for future research and three critical methodological recommendations for study designs derived from our review and framework.
    • Validity of interpretation: a user validity perspective beyond the test score

      MacIver, R.; Anderson, Neil; Costa, Ana-Cristina; Evers, A. (2014-06)
      This paper introduces the concept of user validity and provides a new perspective on the validity of interpretations from tests. Test interpretation is based on outputs such as test scores, profiles, reports, spread-sheets of multiple candidates’ scores, etc. The user validity perspective focuses on the interpretations a test user makes given the purpose of the test and the information provided in the test output. This innovative perspective focuses on how user validity can be extended to content, criterion and to some extent construct-related validity. It provides a basis for researching the validity of interpretations and an improved understanding of the appropriateness of different approaches to score interpretation, as well as how to design test outputs and assessments which are pragmatic and optimal.
    • The validity of ipsative and quasi-ipsative forced-choice personality inventories for different occupational groups: a comprehensive meta-analysis

      Salgado, J.F.; Anderson, Neil; Tauriz, G. (2015-12)
      A comprehensive meta‐analysis of two types of forced‐choice (FC) personality inventories (ipsative and quasi‐ipsative) across nine occupational groups (Clerical, Customer Service, Health Care, Managerial, Military, Police, Sales, Skilled Manual, and Supervisory) is reported. Quasi‐ipsative measures showed substantially higher operational validity coefficients and validity generalization across all occupations than ipsative measures. Results also showed that, compared with the findings of previous meta‐analyses, quasi‐ipsative personality inventories are better predictors of job performance than previously thought and that operational validities for ipsative measures are notably congruent with past findings. We conclude that quasi‐ipsative scale formats are superior for predicting job performance for all occupational groups. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings for personnel selection are discussed in 4.4.