• The development of a new transformational leadership questionnaire.

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2001)
      This study sought to investigate the characteristics of 'nearby' leaders by eliciting the constructs of male and female top, senior, and middle-level managers and professionals working in organizations in two large UK public sectors (local government and the National Health Service). An instrument, the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ-LGV), was developed and piloted on a national sample of 1464 managers working for local government organizations. Analysis of the data, presented here, revealed the existence of nine highly robust scales with high reliabilities (.85) and with convergent validity (range r = .46 to .85). These findings are discussed, together with suggestions for subsequent research.
    • The development of the private sector version of the (Engaging) Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (ESQ)

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2007)
      Notions of leadership change over time. The last two decades have been dominated by US models of ¿heroic¿ leadership, based largely on predominately male-biased samples, which have been focused on studies of ¿distant¿ leaders, but these are being challenged by the findings from more recent studies which question the potential dangers of adulating the few ¿gifted¿ ¿charismatic¿ individuals, not least of which because of the disasters they may cause. In addition, there is a growing interest by organisations of identifying how they can increase ¿engagement¿ amongst their employees, since this process appears to contribute significantly to organisational success. This study seeks to replicate an earlier study of ¿nearby¿ leadership in UK public sector organisations.
    • Leadership: Time for a new direction?

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2005)
      After reviewing the literature on leadership that culminated in what has been described as the `New Paradigm¿, this article discusses the research which has led to the development of what might be regarded as a `New New Paradigm¿ model. The research was based on a gender-inclusive and black and minority ethnic-inclusive sample of over 3,500 managers and professionals, at different levels (chief executives, top, senior and middle managers), working in the UK National Health Service and local government. The model that emerged, which led to the development of a diagnostic 360-degree feedback instrument, the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire, has been found to be sufficiently robust as to generalize to private sector and other public sector organizations. Apart from having been inclusive at all stages of its development, the model is new in that it is based on a `nearby¿ rather than `distant¿ or `heroic¿ approach to leadership, using a Grounded Theory methodology. It leads to an understanding of leadership that goes beyond transformational models and, recognizing the significance of Greenleaf¿s concept of `servant leadership¿, focuses on the development of the individual, in an organizational context.
    • More (good) leaders for the public sector

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2006)
      This paper aims to describe the development of a wholly new model of transformational leadership and its applications in practice. The paper provides a description of a wholly new, inclusive model of transformational leadership and the way in which it can be applied in practice, in the context of embedding good leadership within the culture of an organisation and ensuring "best practice" in 360-degree feedback. The paper finds that the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ)¿, which is both gender- and ethnicity-inclusive measure of "nearby" leadership, differs fundamentally from the kind of "heroic" models that have emanated from the USA and which have dominated the literature. Comparative data are presented of the mean scores on the TLQ, based on direct reports' ratings of their line manager, across a wide range of public sector organisations, including local government, the NHS, schools, and two central government agencies. Patterns emerge in areas of strength and developmental need, and the implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the impact of leadership behaviour and its effect on the psychological safety and well-being at work of staff. The following needs are identified: - to adopt a model of leadership that is relevant to the needs of organisations in the twenty-first century; to embed good leadership practices at all levels; to ensure that, when 360-degree feedback is given, it is done so in a way that conforms to the principles of 'best practice'. The following model of "nearby" leadership that is described is relevant to leaders at all levels in public and private sector organisations. It points to the consequences of poor leadership behaviour, and the need for the adoption of a model of leadership that is relevant to the needs of the twenty-first century.