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  • Inclusive governance of partnerships for sustainability: Methodological matters

    Karatas-Ozkan, M.; Baines, L.; Grinevich, Vadim (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023-04)
  • Women’s Informal Entrepreneurship through the Lens of Institutional Voids and Institutional Logics

    Ejaz, L.; Grinevich, Vadim; Karatas-Ozkan, M. (2023)
    In this conceptual paper, we respond to the calls for broader theoretical approaches that can coherently demonstrate a high degree of conceptual sensitivity to multiple combinations of institutional factors influencing women's informal entrepreneurship (WIE) and related agency. We do so by integrating constructs of gender and gender inequality with those of institutional logics and institutional voids. We find that a refined understanding of institutional voids is required to pave the way for a meaningful theoretical integration and empirical application of the related conceptualizations. We offer such a revised definition by placing formal and informal logics (rather than institutions) at the heart of it. In our theorizing, we propose that gender interplaying with formal and informal institutional logics create varying degrees of obscure and unique institutional voids that shape WIE prevalence. The proposed harmonized theoretical lens provides researchers with flexible yet consistent guidance for conducting context-specific empirical work that can coherently advance understanding of underlying logics shaping WIE and related agency.
  • Bringing strategy back in: Corporate sustainability and firm performance

    Park, Sang-Bum (Elsevier, 2023-02)
    Despite the importance of firms' strategy in corporate sustainability (CS), insufficient research has focused on the role of business strategy in the relationship between CS and firm performance. Focusing on generic business strategy, this study examines when and under what conditions CS relates to firm performance. The main argument is that the effects of CS on firm performance are contingent on the firm's business strategy. The findings present that CS strengths are positively related to firm performance when firms pursue a differentiation strategy. Meanwhile, CS concerns are negatively associated with firm performance when firms operate with a differentiation strategy. Empirical evidence is obtained from a sample of U.S. firms and fixed effects panel regression models, which controls for unobservable time-invariant factors that are correlated with covariates. This study contributes to the literature on CS and firm performance by suggesting business strategy as an important moderating condition in the CS-firm performance link.
  • Social and environmental practices and corporate financial performance of multinational corporations in emerging markets: Evidence from 20 oil-rich African countries

    Adams, D.; Adams, Kweku; Attah-Boakye, R.; Ullah, S.; Rodgers, W.; Kimani, D. (2022-09)
    Studies find that oil-rich African countries (OACs) suffer slow socio-economic growth and development. The petroleum operations in these countries are also primarily in the hands of multinational corporations (MNCs). Motivated by their profit maximisation prospects (PMPs), the MNCs face significant corporate social responsibility (CSR) dilemmas with reference to their contribution to the socio-economic growth of these African economies. Even though there are few studies on CSR and corporate financial performance (CFP) within the African context, little or no attention has been paid to how and the extent to which MNCs' PMPs, CSR and CFP interact to affect the socio-economic growth of OACs. Drawing from legitimacy, institutional, and agency theories we employ a panel data approach covering 14 years (2003–2017) to understand the drivers of these PMPs, how PMPs affect corporate ethical considerations, and CFP and their implications on OACs' socio-economic growth. We find that PMPs of MNCs within OACs impede their CSR commitment. There is a significant positive relationship between CSR and CFP; efficient CSR practices impact CFP positively, and MNCs' contribution to OACs' socio-economic growth is significantly constrained by weak institutional environments. We conclude that institutional reforms and strategic investment in CSR could foster rapid socio-economic growth and development within OACs. Our study contributes to policy and knowledge on MNC's PMPs, CSR practices, CFP and literature on business ethics and the natural resource-curse.
  • Enhancing circular economy and sustainable environmental practices: opportunities and challenges of tyre pyrolysis in Africa

    Attah-Boakye, R.; Hernandez-Perdomo, E.; Tooke, M.; Yu, H.; Adams, Kweku (Palgrave Macmillan, 2023)
    Studies estimate that Africa's urban population is expected to triple over 40 years, from 395 million in 2010 to 1.339 billion in 2050. Challenges associated with increasing urbanisation and the rise of large cities in the African sub-region represent critical challenges to the environment and the rich ecosystem. The growing population, particularly in most cities in Africa, has resulted in increasing demand for non-degradable consumable waste products, changes in lifestyle and consumption patterns, and rising demand for transportation and associated solid waste disposal problems, especially tyre waste. However, few studies have examined circular economy practices such as tyre pyrolysis to attenuate Africa's ever-increasing waste disposal challenges. Moreover, most of these studies failed to account for specific risk-based decision-making attributes in an integrated way, such as technology readiness, risk identification, carbon footprint analysis, supply chain and procurement factors, and financial risk quantification. As a result, to the best of our knowledge and understanding, research-based tyre recycling feasibility practices are limited and scattered. We contribute to the literature by providing systematic literature on tyre pyrolysis in Africa from 2008-2022 inclusive, covering 16 African countries. To address tyre waste in Africa, this chapter provides a 10-point strategy on how pyrolysis can be integrated into production plants and associated businesses to minimise tyre waste in Africa.
  • Competence and enterprise of management as drivers of early foreign listing of medium-sized emerging market multinationals (EMNEs) from Africa

    Adams, Kweku; Attah-Boakye, R.; Yu, H.; Chu, Irene; Ishaque, M. (2023-03)
    EMNEs from Africa are missing in global places and spaces, and Africapitalism is also meagrely represented within the capillaries of international investments, relative to the opportunities offered by globalisation and Africa’s rich natural resource endowment. Using the Penrosian MNE growth theory, we investigate how African firms' managerial competence and entrepreneurial behaviours can be enhanced by engaging foreign executive directors during pre, early and post-internationalisation. We conduct our analysis by using data from 157 companies domiciled in 17 African countries. Our results show that whilst access to liquidity, foreign managerial know-how, and experience are key drivers of early foreign listing of African EMNEs, these factors have less effect on corporate outcomes during the 3rd and 5th year without the moderating effect of foreign executive directors. We contribute to the international business and international entrepreneurship literature by showing that African EMNEs can succeed in global spaces if they leverage the expertise of foreign executive directors as they bring idiosyncratic industry and market knowledge during early internationalisation. EMNEs intending to internationalise must use a polycentric governing board structure to reflect the intended destination country. Our results imply that early listing on the international stock markets is among the key strategies latecomers use to enter a global game they are just learning to play.
  • A Firm’s Creation of Proprietary Knowledge Linked to the Knowledge Spilled Over from its Research Publications: The Case of Artificial Intelligence

    Jee, Su J.; Sohn, S.Y. (2023)
    This study investigates the mechanism by which knowledge spilled over from a firm’s research publication consequently spills into the focal firm as a form of proprietary knowledge when it is engaged in an emerging science-related technology. We define the knowledge spillover pool (KSP) as an evolving group of papers citing a paper published by a firm. Focusing on the recent development of artificial intelligence, on which firms have published actively, we compare the KSP conditions related to the increase in patents created by the focal firm with those created by external actors. Using a Cox regression and subsequent contrast test, we find that both an increasing KSP and an increasing similarity between the idea published by the focal firm and KSP are positively related to the proprietary knowledge creation of both the focal firm and external actors, with such relations being significantly stronger for the focal firm than for external actors. On the contrary, an increasing proportion of industry papers in the KSP is positively associated with the proprietary knowledge creation not only by the focal firm but also by external actors to a similar degree. We contribute to the literature on selective revealing and to the firms’ publishing strategies.
  • Data-driven subjective performance evaluation: An attentive deep neural networks model based on a call centre case

    Ahmed, Abdelrahman M.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Irani, Zahir; Mahroof, Kamran; Vincent, Charles (2022-10)
    Every contact centre engages in some form of Call Quality Monitoring in order to improve agent performance and customer satisfaction. Call centres have traditionally used a manual process to sort, select, and analyse a representative sample of interactions for evaluation purposes. Unfortunately, such a process is characterised by subjectivity, which in turn creates a skewed picture of agent performance. Detecting and eliminating subjectivity is the study challenge that requires empirical research to address. In this paper, we introduce an evidence-based machine learning-driven framework for the automatic detection of subjective calls. We analyse a corpus of seven hours of recorded calls from a real-estate call centre using a Deep Neural Network (DNN) for a multi-classification problem. The study draws the first baseline for subjectivity detection, achieving an accuracy of 75%, which is close to relevant speech studies in emotional recognition and performance classification. Among other findings, we conclude that in order to achieve the best performance evaluation, subjective calls should be removed from the evaluation process, or subjective scores should be deducted from the overall results.
  • Sexualization of Sharī‘a: Application of Islamic Criminal law (ḥūdūd) in Pakistan

    Abbasi, Muhammad Z. (Islamic Law and Society, 2021)
    In 1979, General Zia ul-Haq promulgated the Hudood Ordinances to provide Islamic punishments for several offenses, but the prosecution for extra-marital sex (zin.) has been disproportionately higher. Based on the analysis of reported judgments, I argue that the higher rate of prosecutions for zin. was a direct result of new laws. Despite carrying the name “Hudood”, these Ordinances specified several ta.z.r offenses with the objective of ensuring prosecutions. By incorporating .add and ta.z.r offenses for zin., the Zina Ordinance blurred the distinction between consensual sex and rape, and thus exposed victim women, who reported rape, to prosecution for consensual sex. The Qazf Ordinance, which might have curbed the filing of false accusations of zin., encouraged them by providing the complainants the defense of good faith. The number of zin. cases has decreased after the reform of the Zina Ordinance and the Qazf Ordinance under the Protection of Women Act, 2006.
  • Financing for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the era of COVID-19 and beyond

    Arora, Rashmi; Sarker, T. (Springer, 2023-02)
    The economic and social impact of covid-19 pandemic both on developing and developed countries has been significant. In addition to the impact of the pandemic, the current Ukraine war has also led to severe supply chain disruptions leading to a sharp increase in food and commodity prices globally. Due to a combination of external shocks and the impact of the pandemic global economic growth is expected to slow down from 6.1% in 2021 to 3.2% in 2022 and further to 2.7% in 2023 (IMF 2022). The above factors have led to a sharp increase in government expenditure constraining both developed and developing countries' fiscal capacity. This has further implications for the achievement of SDGs especially for low-income countries. The challenge for developing countries in the current scenario is to mobilise adequate resources both from domestic and international sources, not just for the achievement of SDGs as such, but also to sustain the livelihoods, health, and welfare of people. This special issue aims to examine some of these issues in the context of developing countries.
  • Typographic design of outdoor signage, restaurant authenticity, and consumers’ willingness to dine: extending semiotic theory

    Song, Hanqun; Ding, Q.S.; Xu, J.B.; Kim, J.; Chang, R.C.Y. (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2022)
    Purpose: Restaurants’ outdoor signage plays an irreplaceable role in attracting potential diners, as it conveys important functional and symbolic meanings of the businesses. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of typographic design elements of outdoor signage on consumers’ perceptions of authenticity. This study also tests the linkage between authenticity and willingness to dine, as well as the moderating effect of frequency of dining in ethnic restaurants on the relationship. Design/methodology/approach: Using a 2 (simplified vs traditional Chinese characters) × 2 (calligraphy vs computer font) × 2 (vertical vs horizontal text flow) between-subject design, the authors did two experiments with 786 Chinese diners. Restaurant authenticity and willingness to dine are dependent variables, and openness to ethnic cuisine is the control variable. Findings: Display characters and text flow significantly affect restaurant authenticity. Furthermore, the results of this study demonstrate that display characters interact with typeface to influence restaurant authenticity. Consumers’ perceived authenticity significantly increases their willingness to dine. The frequency of dining in ethnic restaurants moderates the relationship between restaurant authenticity and willingness to dine. Practical implications: Ethnic restaurateurs should pay attention to the outdoor signage design, as it affects potential consumers’ authenticity perceptions. Specifically, in Mainland China, traditional Chinese characters and vertical text direction increase potential consumers’ authenticity perceptions. Originality/value: This study extends the semiotic theory and applies the cue–judgment–behavior model in the hospitality literature. This study also provides new understanding of authenticity by identifying the influence of typographic design on authenticity, which confirms the semiotic theory that certain semiotic cues affect consumers’ judgments.
  • Configuring political relationships to navigate host-country institutional complexity: Insights from Anglophone sub-Saharan Africa

    Boso, N.; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Essuman, D.; Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Bruce, P.; Hultman, M.; Kutsoati, J.K.; Adeola, O. (2023)
    We examine how ties with multiple host-country political institutions contribute to MNE subsidiary performance in countries with weak formal institutions. We suggest that forging relationships between subsidiaries and host-country government actors, local chieftains, and religious leaders generates regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive political resources. We integrate institutional and configuration theories to argue that similarity to an ideal configuration of the three political resources contributes to MNE subsidiary performance, and that the more dysfunctional host country institutions, the greater the impact on performance. We test our hypotheses using primary and archival data from 604 MNE subsidiaries in 23 Anglophone sub-Saharan African countries and find support for our hypotheses. In our conclusion we discuss the wider theoretical, managerial, and public policy implications of our findings.
  • Firms’ influence on the evolution of published knowledge when a science-related technology emerges: The case of artificial intelligence

    Jee, Su J.; Sohn, S.Y. (2022-11)
    Firms with the assets complementary to Artificial Intelligence (AI) have actively conducted AI research and selectively published their results since AI has resurged around 2006. Focusing on the recent AI development, we investigate how and to what extent firms’ deep engagement in the publication of emerging science-related technology can influence the evolution of published knowledge. Using bibliometric analyses applied to the papers in major AI conferences and journals, we find that papers with at least one author affiliated to a firm, and particularly papers with only firm-affiliated author(s), have had higher influence on the formation of published knowledge trajectory than other papers. In addition, papers from firm and non-firm (university and public research institution) collaborations show higher novelty and conventionality than other papers. These findings deepen our understanding of the role of firms in the evolution of emerging science-related technology.
  • The Impact of Legacy Systems on Digital Transformation in European Public Administration: Lesson Learned from a Multi Case Analysis

    Irani, Zahir; Abril, R.M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Omar, Amizan; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2023-01-11)
    Legacy systems have continued to pose a major challenge to digital transformation efforts in public administration. A comprehensive review of literature suggests seven levels of complexity in transforming legacy systems, including, being a stand-alone system, being part of a larger system, and data incompatibility, each depicting unique criteria and challenges. Nonetheless, very little is known as to what degree these complexities implicate the implementation of digital transformation efforts in public administration (PA). To address this gap, this research conducted an analysis on four cases of digital transformation in three European PA settings (i.e., Denmark, the Netherlands, and the UK). The findings revealed complexities that pose the key challenges to systems interoperability and integrability, which are crucial in any digital transformation project. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of the systems to be transformed, the policies which they are serving, and the broader PA setting in which they are implemented were deemed central to succeeding in digital transformation efforts.
  • Mediating Role of Social Commerce Trust in Behavioral Intention and Use

    Jeyaraj, A.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Jadil, Y.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Hughes, L.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2023)
    While the importance of s-commerce is implicitly recognized, inconsistencies in extant empirical research pose significant challenges. Based on perspectives from trust, social presence, and socio-technical theories, this study develops an integrated model of the factors that influence intention and use behavior, with particular attention to the role of trust in s-commerce. The model is tested using meta-analytic structural equation modeling techniques on 201 observations from 83 s-commerce studies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
  • Identity, immigration and subjective well-being: Why are natives so sharply divided on immigration issues?

    Howley, P.; Waqas, Muhammad (2022)
    We put forward differences in the form of national identity across natives as a key mechanism explaining the sharp public divide on immigration issues. We show that inflows of migrants into local areas can be harmful for the self-reported well-being of natives, but this is only true for natives who self-identify with an ethnic form of national identity. On the other hand, we provide some evidence to suggest that immigration may be utility enhancing for natives with a civic form of national identity. We also show how differences in national identity significantly predicts voting preferences in the UK referendum on EU membership where concern with immigration issues was a salient factor. Drawing on identity economics, our proposed explanation is that for natives with an ethnic form of national identity, any positive economic benefits associated with immigration may not be enough to outweigh losses in identity based utility.
  • The role of power-based behaviours in pharmaceutical supply chain resilience

    Yaroson, Emilia V.; Breen, Liz; Hou, Jiachen; Sowter, Julie (2023)
    Purpose This study explored the effect of power-based behaviours on pharmaceutical supply chain (PSC) resilience. Design/methodology/approach This study used a mixed-method approach to explore the role of power-based behaviours in PSC resilience. Qualitative interviews from 23 key PSC stakeholders, followed by thematic analysis, revealed the underlying perceptions regarding PSC resilience. Quantitative propositions were then developed based on the themes adopted from PSC resilience literature and the qualitative findings. These were tested via a survey questionnaire administered to 106 key stakeholders across the various levels in the PSC. Structural equation modelling with partial least squares was used to analyse the data. Findings The data analysed identified proactive and reactive strategies as resilience strategies in the PSC. However, power-based behaviours represented by quota systems, information and price control influenced these resilience strategies. From a complex adaptive system (CAS) perspective, we found that when power-based behaviours were exhibited, the interactions between PSC actors were mixed. There was a negative influence on reactive strategies and a positive influence on proactive strategies. Our analysis also showed that PSC complexities measured by (stringent regulations, long lead times and complex production) moderated the effect of power-based behaviour on reactive strategies. Thus, the negative impact of power-based behaviours on reactive strategies stemmed from PSC complexities. Research implications Our research particularly reveals the role of power-based behaviours in building PSC resilience. By evaluating the nexus from a CAS perspective, the analysis considered powerbased behaviours and the moderating role of PSC complexities in developing resilience strategies. The study considers the interactions of PSC actors. It shows that power asymmetry is a relational concept that inhibits the efficacy of reactive strategies. This study thus advocates the importance of power in achieving a more resilient PSC from a holistic perspective by highlighting the importance of the decision-making process among supply chain partners. Our findings are particularly relevant if PSC resilience is viewed as a complex adaptive system (CAS). All the interactions and decision-making processes affect outcomes due to their inherent complexities. Although this study focused on the PSC, its implications could be extended to other SCs (supply chains). Practical implications We identified that power-based behaviours influenced resilience strategies. It was detrimental to reactive strategies due to the complexities of the PSC but beneficial to proactive strategies through resource-sharing. PSC actors are therefore encouraged to pursue proactive strategies as this may aid in mitigating the impact of disruptions. However, power-based behaviours bred partner dissatisfaction. This dissatisfaction may occur even within strategic alliances indicating that power could be detrimental to proactive strategies. Therefore, it is pertinent to identify conditions that lead to dissatisfaction when pursuing strategic partnerships. This study provides insight into actual behaviours influencing resilience and quantifies their effects on the PSC. These insights will be valuable for all supply chain partners wanting to improve their resilience strategies. Originality/value Previous PSC management and resilience studies have not examined the role of power in building resilience in the PSC. This paper thus provides a unique contribution by identifying the role of power in PSC resilience, offers empirical evidence and a novel theoretical perspective for future practice and research in building PSC resilience strategies.
  • Democracy under God: Constitutions, Islam and Human Rights in the Muslim World

    Ahmed, D.; Abbasi, Muhammad Z. (Cambridge University Press, 2023-02)
    The place of Islam in constitutions invites fierce debate from scholars and politicians alike. Many of these debates assume an inherent conflict between constitutional Islam and 'secular' values of liberal democracy and human rights. Using case studies from several Muslim-majority states, this book surveys the history and role of Islam in constitutions. Tracing the origins of constitutional Islam, Dawood Ahmed and Muhammad Zubair Abbasi argue that colonial history and political bargaining were pivotal factors in determining whether a country adopted Islam, and not secularism, in its constitution. Contrary to the common contention that the constitutional incorporation of Islam is generally antithetical to human rights, Ahmed and Abbasi show not only that Islam has been popularly demanded and introduced into constitutions during periods of 'democratization' and 'modernization' but also that constitutional Islamization has frequently been accompanied by an expansion in constitutional human rights.
  • How privacy practices affect customer commitment in the sharing economy: A study of Airbnb through an institutional perspective

    Chen, S.; Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Tran, K.T.; Waseem, Donia; Weerakkody, Visanth J.P. (Elsevier Inc., 2022-11)
    Privacy is an emerging issue for home-sharing platforms such as Airbnb. Home-sharing providers (business customers) are subject to both digital privacy risks (e.g., data breaches and unauthorized data access) and physical privacy risks (e.g., property damage and invasion of their personal space). Therefore, platforms need to strengthen their institutions of privacy management to protect the interests of providers and maintain their commitment. By applying the micro-level psychological aspect of institutional theory, our research investigates how providers decide their level of commitment to a platform by evaluating the institutions of the platform’s privacy management. Our survey recruited 380 Airbnb providers from the Prolific panel. Structural equation modeling analysis shows that both physical and digital privacy practices strengthen providers’ legitimacy judgment of the platform’s privacy management and subsequently increase their commitment to the platform. Our theoretical contribution lies in revealing the effects of physical and digital privacy practices on B2B relationships from an institutional perspective. Our research is among the first to provide an integrative framework illustrating providers’ psychological process of legitimacy judgement. It also has practical implications for sharing economy platforms to manage privacy.
  • A dynamic performance evaluation of distress prediction models

    Mousavi, Mohammad M.; Ouenniche, J.; Tone, K. (2022)
    So far, the dominant comparative studies of competing distress prediction models (DPMs) have been restricted to the use of static evaluation frameworks and as such overlooked their performance over time. This study fills this gap by proposing a Malmquist Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)-based multi-period performance evaluation framework for assessing competing static and dynamic statistical DPMs and using it to address a variety of research questions. Our findings suggest that (1) dynamic models developed under duration-dependent frameworks outperform both dynamic models developed under duration-independent frameworks and static models; (2) models fed with financial accounting (FA), market variables (MV), and macroeconomic information (MI) features outperform those fed with either MVMI or FA, regardless of the frameworks under which they are developed; (3) shorter training horizons seem to enhance the aggregate performance of both static and dynamic models.

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