Now showing items 1-20 of 1069

    • Pedagogical violence

      Matusov, E.; Sullivan, Paul W. (Springer, 2019)
      In this paper, we consider the phenomenon of “pedagogical violence” — infliction of physical, social, emotional, or psychological pains, or threat of such pains that is either the means for or non-accidental by-products of education used on a systematic basis. Pedagogical violence is often used for promoting certain desired learning in students. Alternatively, it can emerge as a violent reaction in students and teachers to particular educational settings directed against other students or teachers. In this paper, we review some of the debates and controversial issues around pedagogical violence, and we use a variety of illustrative examples to explore in more detail what pedagogical violence means in particular contexts. We argue that pedagogical violence is a natural consequence of alienated instrumental education. We will look at teachers’ desire to avoid physical and psychosocial pedagogical violence. We specifically consider diverse forms of psychosocial pedagogical violence and its issues such as: summative assessment, epistemological pedagogical violence, students’ ambivalence around pedagogical violence, rehabilitating/avoiding pedagogical violence through a carnival. We finish with a reflection about what can be done to minimize pedagogical violence. Our analysis heavily relies on the Bakhtinian theoretical framework of critical ontological dialogism.
    • Understanding tradition: marital name change in Britain and Norway

      Duncan, Simon; Ellingsæter, A.L.; Carter, J. (Sage, 2019)
      Marital surname change is a striking example of the survival of tradition. A practice emerging from patriarchal history has become embedded in an age of de-traditionalisation and women’s emancipation. Is the tradition of women’s marital name change just some sort of inertia or drag, which will slowly disappear as modernity progresses, or does this tradition fulfil more contemporary roles? Are women and men just dupes to tradition, or alternatively do they use tradition to further their aims? We examine how different approaches - individualisation theory, new institutionalism and bricolage - might tackle these questions. This examination is set within a comparative analysis of marital surname change in Britain and Norway, using small qualitative samples. We find that while individualisation and new institutionalism offer partial explanations, bricolage offers a more adaptable viewpoint.
    • Hidden, visceral and traumatic: a dramaturgical approach to men talking about their penis after surgery for penile cancer

      Branney, Peter; Witty, K. (Wiley, 2019)
      Drawing upon concepts of expressive equipment and body image, the aim of this study is to explore how men diagnosed and treated for penile cancer construct their penis and its surgical disfigurement (penectomy). Using maximum variation sampling with the intention to acquire the broadest range of experiences of stage of disease and treatment, 27 cisgender men (aged 48-83, x=63) who had surgical treatment consented for their data to be archived for analysis. From a dramaturgical perspective, the constructionist thematic analysis explored direct and indirect talk about the penis after surgery. The analysis showed that through graphic and sequential narratives of dismemberment revealed, participants constructed a post-surgery period in which they both wanted and did-not-want to see their penis. Additionally, participants constructed themselves managing difficult emotions through others and seeing themselves being rejected by a potentially desiring (female) Other. The findings extend research on male genitals by showing how the post-surgery penis can function as something hidden but visceral and traumatic when revealed. Importantly, this paper illustrates body image as expressive equipment where body and identity are formed in the image of manhood, which is an intersubjective (sexual) object between self and other.
    • Post-adoption reunion sibling relationships: Factors facilitating and hindering the development of sensitive relationships following reunion in adulthood

      O'Neill, D.; McAuley, Colette; Loughran, H. (2016-05)
      This paper explores findings from an exploratory study on sibling relationships following adoption reunion in adulthood. The qualitative data was gathered through in‐depth interviews with 33 adopted adults who were reunited with their birth sibling(s) through an adoption agency in the Republic of Ireland. The findings throw light upon the development of the emotional, often complex, relationships which may emerge when siblings meet for the first time in adult life. Factors influential in facilitating or hindering these post‐reunion relationships are discussed. The important insights are then considered in the context of the wider international literature on adoption, search and reunion.
    • Are working-class students and academics avoiding top universities?

      Binns, Carole L. (The Conversation, 2019-10-21)
      When it comes to university choices for both students and academics, it might seem like everyone wants to study and work in the institutions that top the league tables and the world rankings – but research seems to indicate this isn’t the case.
    • Government-donor relations in Sierra Leone: who is in the driving seat?

      Harris, David; Conteh, F.M. (2020)
      Since the cessation of conflict in 2002, Sierra Leone has experienced extraordinary levels of involvement from Western donors. Paradoxically, while relationships are often portrayed on the ground as strong with significant donor influence, our research shows considerable fluidity in individual and institutional relationships. The article disaggregates donor-government relations at various levels over a short but crucial period, 2010-16, asking in each case who occupies the driving seat. In so doing, the article interrogates the concept of ‘extraversion’, investigating to what extent government - and indeed donors - has space in which to manoeuvre and how and why government and donors act as they do in this space. The period 2010-16 is of particular interest due to extreme iron ore price volatility and the Ebola epidemic of 2014–15. The article adds much-needed critique and empirical evidence to the debate on donor influence and ‘extraversion’.
    • Men’s reflections on their body image at different life stages: A thematic analysis of interview accounts from middle-aged men

      Malik, Mohammed; Grogan, S.; Cole, J.; Gough, B. (2019)
      This study investigates how men’s body image develops over time. 14 men aged between 45 and 67 years completed in-depth interviews where they discussed their body image since childhood, prompted in some cases by photographs of themselves at different ages that they brought to the interviews. Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. From the participants’ accounts it was evident that body concerns did not steadily improve or worsen, but waxed and waned over time. Results are discussed in relation to understanding changing body concerns in men’s lives, and the implications of these for future research and practice.
    • Le roi et sa famille: les deux femmes de Louis-Philippe

      Price, Munro (Somogy Editions d'Art, 2018-10)
    • Does the bilingual advantage extend to trilingualism?

      Guðmundsdóttir, Margaret D.; Lesk, Valerie E. (Taylor and Francis, 2019)
      This study examined whether the proposed bilingual advantage in inhibitory control and working memory can be extended to a trilingual advantage, and assessed any age-related effects on a continuum in young adults to older adults. Trilinguals, bilinguals and monolinguals’ performance on the Simon task and a numerical version of the N-back task was compared. On the Simon task, there was no language group difference observed, although the data show an age-related decline in inhibitory control only in trilinguals, but not in bilinguals or monolinguals. No clear language group differences were observed between trilinguals and bilinguals on the N-back task, however an overall trilingual and bilingual disadvantage, compared to monolinguals, was observed. Together the results suggest that managing two or three languages, compared to just one, may have a negative impact on inhibitory control and working memory performance. Importantly, they highlight the need to control for a possible confounding effect of including trilinguals/multilinguals in bilingual cohorts and to ensure that participants in monolingual cohorts speak only one language.
    • Personalised nutrition technologies and innovations: A cross-national survey of registered dietitians

      Abrahams, Mariëtte; Frewer, L.J.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara (2019)
      Background: Commercial technology-enabled personalised nutrition is undergoing 19 rapid growth, yet uptake in dietetics practice remains low. This survey sought the opinions 20 of dietetics practitioners on personalised nutrition and related technologies to understand 21 facilitators and barriers to its application in practice. 22 Method: A cross-section of Registered Dietitians were recruited in the US, UK, 23 Australia, Canada, Israel, Mexico, Portugal, Spain and South Africa. The questionnaire 24 sought views on risk of genetic technology, ethics of genetic testing, usefulness of new 25 personalised nutrition technologies, entrepreneurism and the perceived importance of 26 new technologies to dietetics. Validated scales were included to assess personality (Big 27 5) and self-efficacy (NGSEI). The survey was available in English, Spanish and 28 Portuguese. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with 29 integration of nutrigenetic testing into practice, and to identify factors associated with the 30 perceived importance of bio, information and mobile technologies to dietetic practice. 31 Results: A total of 323 responses (response rate 19.7%) were analysed. Dietetic 32 practitioners who had integrated personalised nutrition technology into practice perceived 33 technologies to be less risky (P=0.02), biotechnology to be more important (P<0.01), and 34 professional skills to be less important (P=0.04) than those who had not. They were also 35 more likely to see themselves as entrepreneurs (P<0.01) and to perceive lower risks to be 36 associated with technology (P<0.01). Practitioners of nutrigenetics were lower on 37 neuroticism (P<0.01) and higher on self-efficacy (P<0.01), extraversion (P<0.01) and 38 agreeableness (P<0.01). Higher perceived importance of biotechnology to dietetic 39 practice was associated with higher perceived usefulness of omics tests (P<0.01). 40 Perceived importance of information technology was associated with perceived 41 importance of biotechnology (P<0.01). Mobile technologies were perceived as important 42 by dietitians with the highest level of education (P=0.02). 43 Conclusions: For dietitians to practice technology-enabled personalised nutrition, 44 training will be required to enhance self-efficacy, address risk perceived to be associated 45 with new technologies and to instil an entrepreneurial mindset.
    • Just Mothers: criminal justice, care ethics and “disabled” offenders

      Rogers, Chrissie (2019)
      Research with prisoners’ families is limited in the context of learning difficulties/disabilities (LD) and autism spectrum. Life-story interviews with mothers reveal an extended period of emotional and practical care labour, as the continuous engagement with their son’s education and experiences of physical and emotional abuse are explored. Prior to their son’s incarceration, mothers spoke of stigma and barriers to support throughout their childrearing, as well as limited or absent preventative/positive care practices. Subsequently prisons and locked wards seem to feature as a progression. Mothers have experienced abuse; physical and/or emotional, as well as lives that convey accounts of failure. Not their failure, but that of the systems. A care ethics model of disability assists an analysis of the narratives where care-less spaces are identified. Interrelated experiences merging emotional responses to extended mothering, the external forces of disabilism and destructive systems, lead to proposing a rehumanising of care practices within for example, education and the criminal justice system.
    • Male eating disorders: experiences of food, body and self

      Delderfield, Russell (2018-12)
      This book takes a novel approach to the study of male eating disorders – an area that is often dominated by clinical discourses. The study of eating disorders in men has purportedly suffered from a lack of dedicated attention to personal and socio-cultural aspects. Delderfield tackles this deficiency by spotlighting a set of personal accounts written by a group of men who have experiences of disordered eating. The text presents critical interpretations that aim to situate these experiences in the social and cultural context in which these disorders occur. This discursive work is underpinned by an eclectic scholarly engagement with social psychology and sociology literature around masculinities, embodiment and fatness, belonging, punishment, stigma, and control; leading to understandings about relationships with food, body and self. This is undertaken with a reflexive element, as the personal intersects with the professional. This text will appeal to students, scholars and clinicians in social sciences, humanities, and healthcare studies, including public health.
    • Reflective practice: writing and professional development

      Bolton, G.; Delderfield, Russell (2018-02)
      Reflecting thoughtfully on your work is vital for improving your own self-awareness, effectiveness and professional development. This newly updated fifth edition of Gillie Bolton’s bestselling book explores reflective writing as a creative and dynamic process for this critical enquiry. New to this edition: An expanded range of exercises and activities A new emphasis on using e-portfolios Further guidance on reflective writing assignments Enhanced discussion of reflection as a key employability skill Additional online resources This popular book has been used worldwide in various disciplines including education, social work, business and management, medicine and healthcare and is essential reading for students and professionals seeking to enhance their reflective writing skills and to examine their own practice in greater critical depth.
    • The person-centred approach in maths skills development: examining a case of good practice

      Delderfield, Russell; McHattie, Helen (2018-04)
      The development of students’ mathematics skills in higher education is often the topic of professional debate in learning development circles. Less prevalent are discussions taking place around the interpersonal dynamics that occur during one-to-one (tutorial) sessions. This case study explores these dynamics. It arose from the continuing professional development activities of an adviser (learning developer) at a UK university. As a result of recording one-to-one mathematics sessions it was found that the adviser was unconsciously competent and that, although she was adept at identifying her areas for development, she struggled to articulate the considerable strengths of her practice. We wanted to find a way of describing, analysing and evaluating her competence, and alighted upon the person-centred approach. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to present the synthesis of maths skills practice with this approach in the hope of stimulating further research and professional conversation in the learning development community. The report offers novel idiographic findings through the application of person-centred theory to one practitioner’s experience of delivering maths skills development. We conclude by suggesting that focusing on the relationship between adviser and student can help to create conditions conducive to successful one-to-one education.
    • India and Pakistan: An Analysis of the Conventional Military Strategic Relationship

      Bluth, Christoph; Lee, U.R. (International Conference on Economics and Security 2019, 2019-06-27)
    • Alcohol, empathy, and morality: acute effects of alcohol consumption on affective empathy and moral decision-making

      Francis, Kathryn B.; Gummerum, M.; Ganis, G.; Howard, I.S.; Terbeck, S. (Springer, 2019)
      Rationale: Hypothetical moral dilemmas, pitting characteristically utilitarian and non-utilitarian outcomes against each other, have played a central role in investigations of moral decision-making. Preferences for utilitarian over non-utilitarian responses have been explained by two contrasting hypotheses; one implicating increased deliberative reasoning, and the other implicating diminished harm aversion. In recent field experiments, these hypotheses have been investigated using alcohol intoxication to impair both social and cognitive functioning. These studies have found increased utilitarian responding, arguably as a result of alcohol impairing affective empathy. Objectives: The present research expands existing investigations by examining the acute effects of alcohol on affective empathy and subsequent moral judgments in traditional vignettes and moral actions in virtual reality, as well as physiological responses in moral dilemmas. Methods: Participants (N = 48) were administered either a placebo or alcohol in one of two dosages; low or moderate. Both pre- and post intervention, participants completed a moral action and moral judgment task alongside behavioural measures of affective empathy. Results: Higher dosages of alcohol consumption resulted in inappropriate empathic responses to facial displays of emotion, mirroring responses of individuals high in trait psychopathy, but empathy for pain was unaffected. Whilst affective empathy was influenced by alcohol consumption in a facial responding task, both moral judgments and moral actions were unaffected. Conclusions: These results suggest that facets, beyond or in addition to deficits in affective empathy, might influence the relationship between alcohol consumption and utilitarian endorsements.
    • The experimental psychology of moral enhancement: We should if we could, but we can't

      Terbeck, S.; Francis, Kathryn B. (2018-10-16)
      In this chapter we will review experimental evidence related to pharmacological moral enhancement. Firstly, we will present our recent study in which we found that a drug called propranolol could change moral judgements. Further research, which also investigated this, found similar results. Secondly, we will discuss the limitations of such approaches, when it comes to the idea of general “human enhancement”. Whilst promising effects on certain moral concepts might be beneficial to the development of theoretical moral psychology, enhancement of human moral behaviour in general – to our current understanding – has more side-effects than intended effects, making it potentially harmful. We give an overview of misconceptions when taking experimental findings beyond the laboratory and discuss the problems and solutions associated with the psychological assessment of moral behaviour. Indeed, how is morality “measured” in psychology, and are those measures reliable?
    • Virtual morality in the helping professions: Simulated action and resilience

      Francis, Kathryn B.; Gummerum, M.; Ganis, G.; Howard, I.S.; Terbeck, S. (2018-08)
      Recent advances in virtual technologies have allowed the investigation of simulated moral actions in aversive moral dilemmas. Previous studies have employed diverse populations to explore these actions, with little research considering the significance of occupation on moral decision‐making. For the first time, in this study we have investigated simulated moral actions in virtual reality made by professionally trained paramedics and fire service incident commanders who are frequently faced with and must respond to moral dilemmas. We found that specially trained individuals showed distinct empathic and related personality trait scores and that these declined with years of experience working in the profession. Supporting the theory that these professionals develop resilience in moral conflict, reduced emotional arousal was observed during virtual simulations of a distressing dilemma. Furthermore, trained professionals demonstrated less regret following the execution of a moral action in virtual reality when compared to untrained control populations. We showed that, contrary to previous research, trained individuals made the same moral judgements and moral actions as untrained individuals, though showing less arousal and regret. In the face of increasing concerns regarding empathy decline in health care professionals, we suggest that the nature of this decline is complex and likely reflects the development of a necessary emotional resilience to distressing events.