Now showing items 1-20 of 1148

    • Rostow's Stages of Growth

      Arora, Rashmi (Edward Elgar Publishers, 2022)
      In this chapter we lay out a broad outline of Rostow’s Stages growth theory. Rostow in his seminal work identified five different stages of economic growth - the traditional society, the preconditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass consumption. Interest in Rostow’s stages theory was in 1960s and persists even now as researchers are still intrigued by the ideas and notions laid out in Rostow’s theory (Costa et al. 2016 a,b; McCartney 2018; Solivetti 2005). Interestingly in today’s world, the theory is being applied to different contexts and scenarios such as application of theory to environment, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor etc (Kesgingoz, H. and Serkan 2016; McCartney 2018). The stages of growth theory covered a broader spectrum of issues ranging from economic, social and political to US-Russia (the then USSR) cold war and their dominance at the global level. In this chapter we restrict ourselves to economic aspects of stages theory only.
    • Role of Finance in Economic Development

      Arora, Rashmi (Edward Elgar Publishers, 2022)
      A huge body of literature has well acknowledged the crucial role played by financial sector in economic growth. Financial sector enables mobilisation of savings and allocation of credit for production and investment. Among its other functions are supplying transaction and portfolio management services and providing payment services, and source of liquidity for the firms. Financial sector also monitors borrowers, matches illiquid assets with liquid liabilities, and integrates credit and liquidity provision functions (Bossone, 2000). Banks boost economic growth by identifying the entrepreneurs with the best chances of successfully initiating new goods and production processes (King & Levine, 1993) and facilitate long-run investments in the high return projects (Bencivenga & Smith, 1991). In this chapter we examine the role of financial sector in achieving economic growth and development. We also briefly look at the factors determining financial development.
    • Foxes who want to be hedgehogs: Is ethical pluralism possible in psychology's replication crisis?

      Sullivan, Paul W.; Ackroyd, John (Wiley, 2022)
      In this article, we draw attention to public-private dilemmas among psychologists that make sense of the debates around the replication crisis, citation practices and networking practices. We argue that the values of justice and caring map onto the public sphere and private sphere respectively and create the horns of a dilemma for academics. While bureaucratic justice is a publicly revered value of modernity in psychological research that underpins ethics, validity, reliability and equality of opportunity, ‘caring’ is a more subtle value of traditionalism that runs in parallel and is detected only by our psychological practices. In particular, we argue that it is detected by practices such as disputes between the replicated and their replicators in replication studies (understood as a dramatic counter reality) as to who is more ‘careless’ with procedure; citation (including the self-care of self-citation) as thanksgiving and incantation of powerful others in enchantment rituals, and the system of professional indebtedness that accrues in ‘kinship’ networks – where kinship is understood broadly as adoption into a research group and its network. The clashes between these values can lead to a sense of hypocrisy and irony in academic life, as incommensurate values split between private and public expression. From this position, we delve into Isaiah Berlin's work on incommensurate values to suggest that ethical pluralism, involving more public recognition of the equal but different ethical demands of these values can help overcome these everyday dilemmas in the public sphere.
    • Development and Evaluation of Pediatric Versions of the Vanderbilt Fatigue Scale (VFS-Peds) for Children with Hearing Loss

      Hornsby, B.W.Y.; Camarata, S.; Cho, S.-J.; Davis, H.; McGarrigle, Ronan; Bess, F.H. (2022)
      Growing evidence suggests that fatigue associated with listening difficulties is particularly problematic for children with hearing loss (CHL). However, sensitive, reliable, and valid measures of listening-related fatigue do not exist. To address this gap, this paper describes the development, psychometric evaluation, and preliminary validation of a suite of scales designed to assess listening-related fatigue in CHL- the pediatric Vanderbilt Fatigue Scales (VFS-Peds). Test development employed best practices, including operationalizing the construct of listening-related fatigue from the perspective of target respondents (i.e., children, their parents, and teachers). Test items were developed based on input from these groups. Dimensionality was evaluated using exploratory factor analyses. Item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were used to identify high-quality items which were further evaluated and refined to create the final versions of the VFS-Peds. The VFS-Peds is appropriate for use with children aged 6-17 years and consists of a child self-report scale (VFS-C), parent proxy- (VFS-P), and teacher proxy-report (VFS-T) scales. Exploratory factor analyses of child self-report and teacher proxy data suggested listening-related fatigue was unidimensional in nature. In contrast, parent data suggested a multidimensional construct, comprised of mental (cognitive, social, and emotional) and physical domains. IRT analyses suggested items were of good quality, with high information and good discriminability. DIF analyses revealed the scales provided a stable measure of fatigue regardless of the child’s gender, age, or hearing status. Test information was acceptable over a wide range of fatigue severities and all scales yielded acceptable reliability and validity. This paper describes the development, psychometric evaluation, and validation of the VFS-Peds. Results suggest the VFS-Peds provide a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of listening-related fatigue in children that may be appropriate for clinical use. Such scales could be used to identify those children most affected by listening-related fatigue; and given their apparent sensitivity, the scales may also be useful for examining the effectiveness of potential interventions targeting listening-related fatigue in children.
    • Less screen time, more frequent fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity are associated with greater mental wellbeing in adolescents

      Davison, J.; Bunting, B.; Connolly, P.; Lloyd, K.; Dunne, L.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara (Springer Nature, 2022-01)
      Wellbeing declines during adolescence, for which the reasons are unclear. This analysis explored associations between wellbeing and multiple lifestyle, socioeconomic and school-level factors in young people. Data were collected as part of the Wellbeing in School (WiSe) survey of adolescent school children in Northern Ireland at age 13-14 years (N=1618; 49% female) and 15-16 years (N=1558; 50.5% female). Wellbeing was assessed using the short-form Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (sWEMWBS), where scores declined between time one (13-14 years) and time two (15-16 years) in both sexes and were significantly lower in females at both timepoints. Multilevel, multivariate modelling was therefore undertaken separately for males and females with sWEMWBS scores as the dependent variable. Physical activity, family affluence, fruit and vegetable intake, social media use, sleep duration, school factors (size and type) and religion were independent variables. More frequent physical activity in both sexes at both timepoints was associated with higher sWEMWBS scores. In females, higher sWEMWBS scores were associated with less social media use at time one (and marginally at time two), greater family affluence at time two, and being Catholic at both timepoints. In males, higher sWEMWBS scores were associated with more frequent fruit and vegetable intake at time one. Mental wellbeing was unrelated to sleep duration or school factors in either sex, at both time points. Efforts to maximize mental wellbeing in adolescents should promote engagement in physical activity and implement sex-specific interventions.
    • Between wellness and fairness: the mediating role of autonomous human choice and social capital in OECD countries

      Di Martino, Salvatore; Scarpa, M.P.; Prilleltensky, I.
      Aims: Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence have been provided in the literature for the role of fairness in wellness. In this paper we explore the role of two potential mediating variables: autonomous human choice and social capital. Methods: Using aggregated panel data across countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) we compared the OECD Social Justice Index with data on life satisfaction to test whether fairness has direct and indirect effects on wellness. Results: Results from a series of Manifest Path Analyses with time as fixed effect, support the hypothesis that the OECD Social Justice Index is directly linked to country-level life satisfaction and also reveal that its indirect effect operates primarily through people’s autonomous choices in life and their country’s level of social capital. Conclusions: Our results contribute to two distinct bodies of knowledge. With respect to community psychology, the findings offer empirical evidence for the synergistic effect of personal, relational, and collective factors in well-being. With respect to the impact of economic inequality on wellness, we extend the literature by using social justice as a more comprehensive measure. Limitation and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
    • Die US-Intervention in Afghanistan: Die Politik der Obama-Regierung

      Bluth, Christoph (DeGruyter, 2022-03)
      This contribution discusses the national security objectives and the political parameters of the Obama administration’s decision to shift towards a counterinsurgency strategy and increase troop levels in Afghanistan. On the basis of the key strategic documents that formed the basis of the interagency process, as well as the political constraints under which the Obama administration was operating, it is possible to understand the key factors that defined the policy. The article also explain the various contradictions between the geopolitical context, the strategic objectives as defined by Obama and means to achieve them. On the basis of such analysis it is clear that the policy could at best achieve a partial success.
    • The effect of strategy game types on inhibition

      Leong, A.Y.C.; Yong, Min Hooi; Lin, M.-H. (2022)
      Past studies have shown evidence of transfer of learning in action video games, less so in other types e.g. strategy games. Further, the transfer of learning from games to inhibitory control has yet to be examined from the perspectives of time constraint and logic contradiction. We examined the effect of strategy games (puzzle, turn-based strategy ‘TBS’, real-time strategy ‘RTS’) on inhibition (response inhibition and distractor inhibition) and cerebral hemispheric activation over four weeks. We predicted that compared to RTS, puzzle and TBS games would (1) improve response and distractor inhibition, and (2) increase cerebral hemispheric activation demonstrating increased inhibitory control. A total of 67 non-habitual video game players (Mage = 21.63 years old, SD = 2.12) played one of three games; puzzle (n = 19), TBS (n = 24) or RTS (n = 24) for four weeks on their smartphones. Participants completed three inhibition tasks, working memory (WM), and had their tympanic membrane temperature (TMT) taken from each ear before and after playing the games. Results showed that only the puzzle game group showed an improved response inhibition while controlling for WM. There were no significant changes in the distractor inhibition tasks. We also found that there was an increase in left TMT while playing RTS, suggesting the presence of increased impulsivity in RTS. Our findings suggest that puzzle games involving logical contradiction could improve response inhibition, showing potential as a tool for inhibition training.
    • The feasibility of patient reported outcome measures for the care of penile cancer

      Branney, Peter; Walters, Elizabeth R.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Hollyhead, Cyan; Njoku, K.; Vyas, L.; Modica, C.; Kayes, O.; Eardley, I.; Henry, A. (Wiley, 2022)
      When used in routine clinical practice, Patient Reported Outcomes Measures (PROMS) can give patients tacit approval to discuss embarrassing topics, which could be particularly useful for urological nursing. The aim of this study was to assess whether it would be feasible to use two such measures for penile cancer; one for body image (the Male Genital Self-Image Scale; MGSIS-5) and another for lymphedema (the Groin and Lower Limb Lymphedema questionnaire; G3L-20). Study packs were posted to penile cancer patients who had received (i) sentinel node biopsy only, (ii) inguinal node dissection only, and (iii) inguinal node dissection with post-operative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. The two measures (MGSIS-5 and G3L-20) were complemented with those specific to sexual function (IIEF) and cancer (EORTC-QLQ-C30 version 3) and a modified Lymphoedema Genitourinary Cancer Questionnaire (mLGUCQ). Twenty patients returned questionnaires. Validity and reliability analyses are presented but low participant numbers mean that results need treating with caution. Results show sufficient feasibility for the MGSIS-5 and the G3L-20 to warrant another study to attract larger numbers of participants, either over a longer time frame or at multiple sites. In these further studies, we would recommend adding (1) more Likert responses, (2) the timeframe to the MGIS and (3) exploring either the use of sexual desire psychometric measures or the addition of sexual desire items to the MGSIS for this patient group.
    • The effects of bariatric surgery on psychological aspects of eating behaviour and food intake in humans

      Bryant, Eleanor J.; Malik, M.S.; Whitford-Bartle, Thomas; Waters, Gill M. (2020-07-01)
      Bariatric surgery has emerged as an increasingly popular weight loss intervention, with larger and more endurable weight loss compared to pharmacological and behavioural interventions. The degree of weight loss patients experience varies, between individuals, surgeries and over time. An explanation as to why differing weight loss trajectories exist post-surgery could be due to the complex interplay of individual differences in relation to eating behaviours and appetite. Thus the aim of this narrative review is to explore literature between 2008 and 2018, to assess the impact of impact of bariatric surgery on food selection and nutrient status, on eating behaviour traits and on disturbed and disordered eating behaviour, to determine their impact of weight loss success and weight loss trajectories. Immediately post-surgery, up until 1–2 years post-surgery, there is a reliance upon the surgery's alteration of the gastrointestinal tract to control food intake and subsequently lose weight. Energy intake is reduced, dietary adherence is higher, supplement intake is higher, appetite ratings are lower, there is a reduction in psychopathology, and an increase in wellbeing. After this point, patients become more susceptible to weight regain, as this is the point where passive observation of the weight reducing action of surgery, moves into more cognitive effort, on the part of the individual, to control energy intake. There are various factors which influence an individual's ability to successfully regulate their energy intake post-surgery, such as their level of Disinhibition, Restraint, Hunger, Emotional Eating, Uncontrolled Eating, psychopathology and wellbeing. The need for continued psychological and nutritional support post-surgery is necessary to reduce weight regain susceptibility.
    • Mattering Mediates Between Fairness and Well-being

      Scarpa, M.P.; Di Martino, Salvatore; Prilleltensky, I. (2021-11-03)
      Research has suggested a fundamental connection between fairness and well-being at the individual, relational, and societal levels. Mattering is a multidimensional construct consisting of feeling valued by, and adding value to, self and others. Prior studies have attempted to connect mattering to both fairness and a variety of well-being outcomes. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that mattering acts as a mediator between fairness and well-being. This hypothesis was tested through Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modeling (CB-SEM) using multidimensional measures of fairness, mattering, and well-being. Results from a Latent Path Analysis conducted on a representative sample of 1,051U.S. adults provide support to our hypothesis by revealing a strong direct predictive effect of mattering onto well-being and a strong indirect effect of fairness onto well-being through mattering. Results also show that mattering is likely to fully mediate the relationship between fairness and multiple domains of well-being, except in one case, namely, economic well-being. These findings illustrate the value of a focus on mattering to understand the relationship between fairness and well-being and to provide future directions for theory, research, and practice. Theoretical implications for the experience of citizenship and participation, along with cross-cultural considerations, are also discussed.
    • Mongolia's System Transition and Northeast Asia Peace Geopolitics

      Bluth, Christoph (Seoul National University Press, 2021-10)
      An analysis of the geopolitics of Mongolia between the Great Powers of the Asia-Pacific.
    • Metamorphosis from exalted person to cultural symbol: A case study of the GOAT in tennis

      Intezar, Hannah; Sullivan, Paul W. (Culture & Psychology, 2021-07)
      In this article, we suggest that our semiotic understanding of embodiment could be expanded to include a socially exalted individual who embodies a symbol. To illustrate this argument, we draw on an ongoing research project that examines fandom rhetoric and debates around the ‘Greatest of all time’ or the GOAT symbol in Tennis. Grounding Bakhtin’s tri-distinctions of identity, I-for-myself, I-for-other, other-for-me, in a Kantian hermeneutic tradition, we perform a theoretically informed analysis of the GOAT debate. Neither of the three components exists in isolation, rather, they interact in a reflexive dialogue which continually shapes and re-shapes individual consciousness and experiences of embodiment. We apply a ‘Romanticism aesthetic activity’ analytical framework to the tri-distinctions of identity, that consists of ‘creative’ and ‘critical’ rhetoric, within which we found genres of ‘myth,’ ‘art,’ and ‘science.’ Each genre functions, through disparate means to exalt or metamorphise an individual (our focus is on Roger Federer) into a cultural symbol, and that the symbolic form of GOAT reflexively organises the emotional field and identities for those fans deeply invested in it. This paper contributes to the current cultural psychological literature on understanding the mediation of people to symbols in a new digital age.
    • Improving evidence-based practice through preregistration of applied research: barriers and recommendations

      Evans, T.R.; Branney, Peter; Clements, A.; Hatton, E. (2021)
      Preregistration is the practice of publicly publishing plans on central components of the research process before access to, or collection, of data. Within the context of the replication crisis, open science practices like preregistration have been pivotal in facilitating greater transparency in research. However, such practices have been applied nearly exclusively to basic academic research, with rare consideration of the relevance to applied and consultancy-based research. This is particularly problematic as such research is typically reported with very low levels of transparency and accountability despite being disseminated as influential grey literature to inform practice. Evidence-based practice is best served by an appreciation of multiple sources of quality evidence, thus the current review considers the potential of preregistration to improve both the accessibility and credibility of applied research towards more rigorous evidence-based practice. The current three-part review outlines, first, the opportunities of preregistration for applied research, and second, three barriers - practical challenges, stakeholder roles, and the suitability of preregistration. Last, this review makes four recommendations to overcome these barriers and maximise the opportunities of preregistration for academics, industry, and the structures they are held within - changes to preregistration templates, new types of templates, education and training, and recognition and structural changes.
    • Global Security in the Post-Cold War Era and the Relevance of Nuclear Weapons

      Bluth, Christoph (2021-06)
      Are nuclear weapons still relevant to global security? Compared with the nuclear confrontation in the depths of the Cold War, nuclear weapons and deterrence appear to have lost their salience. Considering the conflicts in which the major powers engaged, the focus in strategic studies changed to counterinsurgency, counterterrorism, and subconventional conflict.2 Only recently, with the conflict in Ukraine and the increasingly confrontational relationship between the United States and China has this narrative come into question. The general perception on international security exhibits a strange paradox. On the one hand the US-led military interventions in Afghanistan, Iraq and other parts, the conflicts in the Middle East and Africa, the nuclearization of North Korea and the conflict between India and Pakistan among other regional security issues have given rise to a view that the modern world is less secure than ever, and we live in a world of chaos riven by unpredictable patterns of violence. By contrast, Steven Pinker has demonstrated the casualties from armed conflict are at their lowest point in human history, and interstate warfare has virtually ceased to exist as a phenomenon.3 The imminence of a global nuclear war in which at a minimum hundreds of millions of people would die appears to have dissipated. In some respects, it appears that war has become almost a phenomenon of the past. Most of the recent literature on nuclear weapons has focused on regional crises areas, such as South Asia (India and Pakistan) or the Korean peninsula.4 However, the modernization of arsenals by the nuclear powers, the integration of strategic conventional and nuclear weapons in strategic doctrines and the more confrontational dynamics in Great Power politics is cited as evidence that the risk of nuclear use is increasing. This paper contests the emerging narratives on an increased threat of nuclear conflict and considers the sources of insecurity in the contemporary period and in particular the risks of armed conflict between the United States, Russia, and China in order to assess the role of nuclear weapons in contemporary security.
    • Brazil’s Maria da Penha domestic violence police patrols: A second-response innovation in preventing re-victimization

      Macaulay, Fiona (Sage, 2021)
      This article examines an innovative domestic violence intervention: some 300 ‘second-response’ police patrols set up since 2015 by military police forces and municipal guards in cities around Brazil. They enforce court-issued protection orders by paying repeat visits to women at high risk, referring them to support services, and ensuring abusers stay away. Drawing on interviews with officers who founded or now lead these patrols, and on local-level police data and studies, the article analyses their origins and modus operandi, and evaluates their impacts on victims, abusers, the community, and internal police force culture. Available evidence shows that victims enrolled in these programmes are much less likely to suffer repeated assault or feminicide than those who are not. The article examines how this intervention fits with the other elements of local protection networks and compares these patrols to second-response police interventions developed elsewhere
    • ‘’I feel like I’m in poverty. I don’t do much outside of work other than survive": In-work poverty and multiple employment in the UK

      McBride, J.; Smith, Andrew J. (2021)
      This paper argues for the need to reconsider the changing nature of in-work poverty (IWP). In doing so, we present evidence not included in current debates or statistics, of people working in more than one job, yet still experiencing IWP. Using the dynamic theory of poverty and a qualitative approach, we identify various structural constraints that sustain cycles of IWP. This highlights the multi-dimensionalities of poverty, incorporating the temporalities, types and depths of IWP. Our evidence demonstrates how poverty is experienced and individualised and also how it is created and sustained through paid work, rather than being challenged by it.
    • A learning development-faculty collaborative exploration of postgraduate research student mental health in a UK university

      Delderfield, Russell; Ndoma-Egba, Mathias; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Boyne, J. (2020-10)
      Mental ill-health is an escalating problem in higher education. Not only does this impact students’ ability to learn, it can lead to poor completion, with learners opting to withdraw from studies, even if attainment has been satisfactory. The aim of this study was to gain insight about perceptions of poor mental health from postgraduate research students in a diverse UK university and canvas opinion regarding how the University could improve this. A short, pragmatic survey with basic quantitative and qualitative responses was distributed. This was analysed by a team comprising the learning developer responsible for postgraduate researcher learning development, academics and a doctoral student. The study found that poor mental health was evident, with over three quarters of respondents reporting some experience of mental ill-health. We identified five areas in need of attention: University Systems, Supervisor Training, Well-being Monitoring, Building Networks, and Finance. Sources of University-based stress were finance, administrative support, and an environment where a perception that poor mental health was an expectation rather than a problem was experienced. Students preferred to access support outside the academic environment. This is the first study of its kind at a diverse, plate-glass UK university, to consider research student mental ill-health, with a staff-student team working with data, and the learning developer spear-heading changes across postgraduate research. These findings have already influenced university strategy, staff training, and induction practices. The synthesis of the five areas could be used to visualise where further work is needed to improve mental health in these learners.
    • Associations of observer’s gender, Body Mass Index and internalization of societal beauty ideals to visual body processing

      Cazzato, V.; Walters, Elizabeth R.; Urgesi, C. (Springer, 2021-01)
      We examined whether visual processing mechanisms of the body of conspecifics are different in women and men and whether these rely on westernised socio-cultural ideals and body image concerns. Twenty-four women and 24 men performed a visual discrimination task of upright or inverted images of female or male bodies and faces (Experiment 1) and objects (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, both groups of women and men showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of upright and inverted bodies and faces. However, the gender of the human stimuli yielded different effects on participants’ performance, so that female faces, and male bodies appeared to be processed less configurally than female bodies and male faces, respectively. Interestingly, the reduction of configural processing for male bodies was significantly predicted by participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) and their level of internalization of muscularity. Our findings suggest that configural visual processing of bodies and faces in women and men may be linked to a selective attention to detail needed for discriminating salient physical (perhaps sexual) cues of conspecifics. Importantly, BMI and muscularity internalization of beauty ideals may also play a crucial role in this mechanism.
    • Designing expert hearings: how to use deliberative research methods for public health evidence

      South, J.; Woodall, J.; Gamsu, M.; Branney, Peter; Bagnall, A-M.; Newton, R. (2019-09)