• Modernizing Irrigated Agriculture: Capacity-building and Institutional Development.

      Franks, Tom R. (2006-03)
      The context for irrigation modernization in Syria reflects global drivers for change in irrigated agriculture. Two drivers are identified as being of particular importance, increasing stress on water resources, and the trend towards irrigation management transfer to the farmer level. Within these broad categories a number of specific challenges are likely to be of importance in the modernization process in Syria. Capacity-building to meet these challenges is required at three levels, policy, institutions and the individual. This paper focuses on institutional development, as being the most difficult level at which to undertake effective capacity-building. It discusses the institutional framework for irrigation management and goes on to describe current approaches, based round the concept of design principles. Constraints and limitations of the design principles approach are discussed. The paper concludes by proposing an agenda for preliminary action on capacity-building for irrigation modernization. This agenda comprises an institutional mapping exercise, an assessment of the roles and responsibilities of water sector entities, and the development of a strategy for supporting farmer-level institutions. Integration with other capacity-building initiatives (policy reform, human resource development) is necessary if it is to make an effective contribution to the overall modernization programme.
    • Water governance and poverty: a framework for analysis

      Cleaver, Frances D.; Franks, Tom R. (University of Bradford. Bradford Centre for International Development., 2005-12)
      In this paper we present a framework for understanding water governance, through which we critique some of the assumptions underlying the current consensus on good governance. Specifically, we suggest that current approaches are based on incomplete or partial understandings of the concepts of governance. We question the idea that governance can be identified as an abstract set of principles, without the need for contextualisation and localisation. In particular, we suggest that there is a general lack of understanding of the way local interactions shape and influence governance processes. Finally, and with specific reference to the MDGs and the water sector, we question the implicit assumption that `good¿ governance is necessarily pro-poor governance. The paper addresses these issues through a critical discussion of governance, from which we develop a framework for conceptualising water governance. The framework draws on theories of governance, institutions and structuration, but is also informed by recent empirical research and experiences from the field. We apply the framework to a specific case in Southwestern Tanzania and raise a number of issues and challenges for further research.
    • Water governance and poverty: a framework for analysis.

      Franks, Tom R.; Cleaver, Frances D. (2007)
      This paper engages with policy on meeting development goals for water through interventions which promote good governance. Addressing an under-researched area, we propose a new analytical framework for understanding water governance, not as a set of abstract principles, but as interlinked processes with variable practical outcomes for poor people. The framework is informed by theories of governance, institutions and structuration, empirical research and field insights. We apply the framework to a case in Southwestern Tanzania, and we identify a range of issues for further research, particularly relating to water access for the poor.
    • Water governance ¿ what is the consensus?

      Franks, Tom R. (2004)
      The concept of water governance is a firmly established part of the consensus on international water development, and has become a constant theme in the policy processes we are discussing in this seminar. Originating in its present format at about the time of the second World Water Forum in 2002, it was specifically restated at the International Conference on Freshwater in Bonn, 2001 (¿the essential key is stronger, better performing governance arrangements¿), and it featured prominently in the outputs from the Third World Water Forum in Kyoto, 2003. In the Alternative Water Forum, held here in Bradford just after the Kyoto event, we encouraged participants to analyse and critically debate the underlying ideas, In this paper I want to encourage this continuing analysis and debate. Like many of the issues we shall be discussing over the next couple of days, I believe it repays closer consideration, and that it encompasses a set of important ideas which must not be lost in constant re-iteration of a general theme.
    • Water governance: a solution to all problems

      Franks, Tom R. (University of Bradford, Department for International Development., 2006)
      Water governance is a widely-used but ill-defined term. Our objective throughout this seminar series has been to analyse what it does mean and to question the consensus that seems to attach to it. In this paper for the final seminar I discuss what governance is not, I suggest what it is and I consider some propositions and issues that seem to have emerged from our meetings. In doing this, I appreciate that governance can mean different things to different people, but I suggest that, used in a specific way, it is a concept with particular value and significance for water development.