• Exploring sustainable livelihoods approaches in relation to two interventions in Tanzania.

      Toner, Anna L. (2003)
      Whilst sustainable livelihoods thinking is potentially valuable in advancing our understanding of the complexity and socially embedded nature of people's lives, sustainable livelihoods frameworks and principles are too eager to codify this complexity and to produce toolboxes and techniques to change the internal management of development interventions. Drawing on research in Tanzania, this paper offers an analysis of two interventions that apply aspects of sustainable livelihoods approaches (SLA). Whilst both interventions demonstrate much good practice, both are fundamentally limited in their potential for sustainable impact. This paper demonstrates the importance of the external context within which an intervention exists and explores some of the limitations faced by development agencies in trying to manage sustainability.
    • Goodbye to Projects? - A livelihoods-grounded audit of the Sustainable Management of the Usangu Wetland and its Catchment (SMUWC) project in Tanzania

      Franks, Tom R. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2003-08)
      Approaches to projects and development have undergone considerable change in the last decade with significant policy shifts on governance, gender, poverty eradication, and environmental issues. Most recently this has led to the adoption and promotion of the sustainable livelihood (SL) approach. The adoption of the SL approach presents challenges to development interventions including: the future of projects and programmes, and sector wide approaches (SWAPs) and direct budgetary support.This paper `A livelihoods-grounded audit of the Sustainable Management of the Usangu Wetland Catchment (SMUWC) project in Tanzania¿ is the eighth in the series of project working papers.
    • Goodbye to Projects? - Review of development interventions in Tanzania: From projects to livelihoods approaches

      Kamuzora, Faustin; Toner, Anna L. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2002-02)
      Approaches to projects and development have undergone considerable change in the last decade with significant policy shifts on governance, gender, poverty eradication, and environmental issues. Most recently this has led to the adoption and promotion of the sustainable livelihood (SL) approach. The adoption of the SL approach presents challenges to development interventions including: the future of projects and programmes, and sector wide approaches (SWAPs) and direct budgetary support. This paper `A Review of Approaches to Development Interventions in Tanzania: From Projects to Livelihood Approaches¿ is the third in the series of the project working papers. This is the output of a literature review and semi-structured interviewing in Tanzania.
    • Goodbye to Projects? ¿ A livelihoods-grounded audit of the Magu District Livelihoods and Food Security Project (MDLFSP) in Tanzania

      Kamuzora, Faustin (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2003-08)
      Approaches to projects and development have undergone considerable change in the last decade with significant policy shifts on governance, gender, poverty eradication, and environmental issues. Most recently this has led to the adoption and promotion of the sustainable livelihood (SL) approach. The adoption of the SL approach presents challenges to development interventions including: the future of projects and programmes, and sector wide approaches (SWAPs) and direct budgetary support. This paper `A livelihoods-grounded audit of the Magu District Livelihoods and Food Security Project¿ is the ninth in the series of project working papers.
    • Goodbye to Projects? ¿ A livelihoods-grounded audit of the Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS) in Tanzania

      Kamuzora, Faustin (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2003-08)
      Approaches to projects and development have undergone considerable change in the last decade with significant policy shifts on governance, gender, poverty eradication, and environmental issues. Most recently this has led to the adoption and promotion of the sustainable livelihood (SL) approach. The adoption of the SL approach presents challenges to development interventions including: the future of projects and programmes, and sector wide approaches (SWAPs) and direct budgetary support.This paper `A livelihoods-grounded audit of Agricultural Sector Programme Support (ASPS) ¿ Tanzania¿ is the seventh in the series of project working papers.
    • HIV/AIDS and Community Action: Now I know my Rights!

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Otieno, Paul; Thorley, Lisa (2012-01)
      This briefing presents research on a small project on the use of a rights-based approach by groups of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Northern Tanzania. It concludes that with support the groups were able to use the 2008 HIV/AIDS act to claim their rights to tackle stigma and access ARV medication. However, the fulfillment of these rights is limited by chronic poverty and structural weakness of the state.
    • How institutions elude design: river basin management and sustainable livelihoods.

      Cleaver, Frances D.; Franks, Tom R. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2005-12)
      This paper challenges ideas that it is possible to `get the institutions right¿ in the management of natural resources. It engages with the literature and policy specifying `design principles¿ for robust institutions and uses data from a river basin management project in Usangu, Tanzania, to illustrate the complexity of institutional evolution. The paper draws on emerging `post-institutionalist¿ perspectives to reject over-formalised managerial approaches in favour of those that accept the dynamic nature of institutional formation, and accommodate a variety of partial and contingent solutions. Data from Usangu suggests that external `crafting¿ is inevitably problematic because, to a certain extent, institutions elude design.
    • The Inequality of Social Capital and the Reproduction of Chronic Poverty.

      Cleaver, Frances D. (2009-10-21)
      This paper draws on ethnographic research in Tanzania to question ideas inherent to mainstream development policy that building social capital can be readily created, used, or substituted for other missing assets, and thereby overcome poverty. The poorest experience clusters of interlocking disadvantage that make it highly unlikely that they can draw on social capital to ameliorate their poverty, or that increased association and participation at community level is necessarily beneficial to them. Moreover, social relationships, collective action, and local institutions may structurally reproduce the exclusion of the poorest. As such, a politically neutral and undersocialized policy focus on strengthening associational life and public participation of the poor is unlikely to lead to their greater inclusion, nor to significant poverty alleviation.
    • Managing Water Amongst Competing Uses: The Usangu Wetland in Tanzania

      Franks, Tom R.; Lankford, B.; Mdemu, M. (2004)
      Demand for water in the Usangu Basin is driven by a number of competing uses. These include domestic supplies, irrigated agriculture, livestock, fishing, maintenance of the Usangu wetland, a National Park and major hydroelectric system downstream. As a result of a number of driving forces including the growing population, the water resources of the basin are becoming increasingly stressed, and downstream flows have now reduced to zero during the dry season. The paper is based on recent work to study to situation and work with local stakeholders to develop a sustainable management plan for the basin. Irrigated rice is by far the biggest user of water in the basin. The paper traces the successful development of irrigation there since the 1950s, based both on state-managed mechanised farms and on smallholder production. However, the expansion of irrigation has been a major factor in the change in water availability downstream, particularly as the cropping calendar expands into the dry season, when river flows are at their lowest. A number of initiatives are under way to try to reduce the impact of irrigation on the basin's water resources. These include projects to increase irrigation efficiency in smallholder systems, and improvements to water management institutions and processes. The aim is to restore dry season flows for downstream users by the year 2010.
    • Policy Reform and the Economic Development of Tanzania.

      Potts, David J. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2005-12)
      This paper reviews the long-term economic performance of Tanzania since independence using long-term series of key economic and social indicators constructed from a variety of sources. The disastrous export performance for most of the period under consideration can be attributed partly to domestic policy failures and partly to a hostile external environment. However inconsistent donor support to a highly aid dependent economy at times exacerbated the constraints imposed by persistent foreign exchange shortages. Greater stability in funding and a more flexible policy dialogue are needed. The extent to which a small and poor economy with a weak indigenous private sector can rely on foreign private investment to finance investment in the early stages of adjustment is questioned. Investment in human capital beyond primary school level is also needed if growth is to be sustained.
    • Precarious future: Community volunteers and HIV/AIDS in a Tanzanian roadside town.

      Boesten, Jelke (International Centre for Participation, 2007)
      This study focuses on a widely promoted belief that community-driven and community-based interventions for development are not only cost-effective, but also just and democratic. In particular, this study examines community-based initiatives with regard to HIV/AIDS in one Tanzanian roadside town. The interventions I discuss suggest that increased community participation does not automatically lead to more equitable access to services, to the empowerment of the poor, or even to the planned service delivery at all. Dependence on local volunteers with multiple motives and interests can hamper the relationship between provider and beneficiary. A concern for minimal state involvement and maximum decentralisation can easily lead to institutional abandonment, and trust in an undefined `community¿ can prevent rather than encourage coordination at community-level. As I discuss below, such factors can result not only in a service not being delivered, but can also readily lead to increased local conflict over scarce resources, increasing unfulfilled expectations, affirmation of inequalities, and government neglect. In the absence of a strong institutional framework such as the state, community structures and social relationships ¿ unquantifiable and often particular to specific locations ¿ seem central to the functioning of community-based development interventions, including those of AIDS related prevention and care.
    • Water Governance and Poverty: A Framework for Analysis

      Franks, Tom R.; Cleaver, Frances D. (2007)
      This paper engages with policy on meeting development goals for water through interventions, which promote good governance. Addressing an under-researched area, we propose a new analytical framework for understanding water governance, not as a set of abstract principles, but as interlinked processes with variable practical outcomes for poor people. The framework is informed by theories of governance, institutions and structuration, empirical research and field insights. We apply the framework to a case in south-western Tanzania, and we identify a range of issues for further research, particularly relating to water access for the poor.