• Confrontations with power: Moving beyond the tyranny of safety¿ in participation¿

      Kelly, Ute (Zed Books, 2005)
      Participatory techniques have established themselves in both project implementation in developing countries and community interventions in industrial countries. Recently, participation has been fashionably dismissed as more rhetoric than substance, and subject to manipulation by agents pursuing their own agendas under cover of community consent. In this important new volume, development and other social policy scholars and practitioners seek to rebut this simplistic conclusion. They show how participation can help produce genuine transformation for marginalized communities. This volume is the first comprehensive attempt to evaluate the state of participatory approaches in the aftermath of the "Tyranny" critique. It captures the recent convergence between participatory development and participatory governance. It revisits the question of popular agency, as well as spanning the range of institutional actors involved--the state, civil society and donor agencies. The volume embeds participation within contemporary advances in development theory.
    • An Evaluation of Donor Agencies’ Policies on Participatory Development: the case of Ghana

      Danquah, Joseph K.; Analoui, Farhad; Koomson, Yvonne E.D. (2018-03)
      This paper critically evaluates guidelines concerning participatory development by the World Bank and USAID. It focuses on the different conceptual frameworks adopted in order to examine the differing ways of adopting participation in their development agenda. A literature-based method was adopted and the analysis included evaluation of five documented experiences including the Ghana Secondary Education Improvement Project and Ghana Water Sanitation and Hygiene Project from both the World Bank and USAID. Baum project cycle stages have been taken as activities for project participation. The findings are; the need for better planning; ensuring sustainability; and involving beneficiaries.
    • Participation¿why bother?: The views of Black and Minority Ethnic mental health service users on participation in the NHS in Bradford. Report of a community research process undertaken by the International Centre for Participation Studies, University of Bradford and Sharing Voices (Bradford).

      Blakey, Heather (International Centre for Participation Studies., 2005)
      The International Centre for Participation Studies and Sharing Voices Bradford (for information on these organisations, see Appendices 3 and 4) maintain that participation is an important part of a healthy democracy, with benefits for all. However, participation can be anything from empowering to tokenistic, and must be critically examined if we are to understand how to use it effectively. This paper considers the contribution of participation to improved service delivery in the health service. For beneficiaries, participation can be about ownership and responsibility for the services we use, as well as rights and the chance to express what we want from them. For service providers, participation is widely recognised as an effective way of tailoring services to the needs of the different communities they serve. The NHS and other service providers have made great strides in developing mechanisms for participation by service users. However, these do not always reach all sections of the community. Many individuals feel sceptical about getting involved, unconvinced that their contribution could make a real difference. Through the Participation ¿ Why Bother? workshops, we set out to explore these feelings, to reflect on perceived barriers and identify changes that might help overcome them. The aim was not to look at the substance of service delivery issues, but to try and work out how the process of involving people in decision-making in the NHS could be improved, to make it easier for voices from Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities to be heard.
    • Projects for regeneration: Making them work

      Lyne, Isaac; Franks, Tom R.; Cusworth, John W. (University of Bradford. Department of Development and Economic Studies., 2009-06)
      The study analyses approaches to the management of two projects within the regeneration portfolio of a large UK metropolitan council. Developing a theoretical framework drawing both from mainstream project methodologies and international development, the study highlights a number of key issues which need to be addressed, including entrepreneurship, participation, stakeholder buy-in, project lifecycles and benefit management. Key lessons emerging from the study include the need to foster entrepreneurship within the controlled environment of the project and the importance of setting programme targets which are appropriately orientated to harness the interdependent nature of benefits of regeneration projects in the public sector.
    • Understanding Agency in Collective Action.

      Cleaver, Frances D. (2007)
      Participatory approaches to natural resource management encompass ideas about the desirability of citizens actively engaging in the institutions, policies and discourses that shape their access to resources. Underpinning such approaches are assumptions about the nature of human agency. Purposive individual action is seen as instrumentally desirable as well as potentially radical and transformatory. Through participation in collective resource management it is claimed that people can re-negotiate norms, challenge inequalities, claim their rights and extend their access. This paper draws on insights from theories of structuration, governmentality and gendered empowerment to explore understandings of how individual human agency shapes and is shaped by social relationships and institutions. It outlines six factors that constrain and enable the exercise of agency for different people; cosmologies, complex individual identities, the unequal interdependence of livelihoods, structure and voice, embodiment and emotionality. The paper concludes by considering some of the implications for research and development interventions.
    • Violence, power and participation: Building citizenship in contexts of chronic violence.

      Pearce, Jenny V. (Institute of Development Studies, 2007)
      This paper is about civil society participation in two contexts of chronic violence: Colombia and Guatemala. It explores the extent to which civil society organisations can build citizenship in such contexts and simultaneously address violence. It argues that civil society organisations can play a vital role in building citizenship and confronting violent actors and acts of violence. However, in order to address chronic, perpetuating violence and interrupt its transmission through time and space, it is important to clarify the relationship between power and violence. Conventional forms of dominating power correlate with violence. Loss of such power or a bid to gain it can lead to violence, particularly where social constructions of masculinity are affirmed by such behaviour. The paper asks whether the promotion of non-dominating forms of power are needed if we are to tackle the damaging effects on human relationships and progress of willingness to inflict direct physical hurt on the Other. Non-dominating forms of power focus on enhancing everyone¿s power potential and capacity for action and promoting communication. If non-violence and non-dominating power gradually become the social norm, this might enhance citizenship and participation in ways that tackle other forms of violence, such as structural violence.
    • Women, Gender and Peacebuilding

      Pankhurst, Donna T. (2000)