• Analysing Water Governance: A Tool for Sustainability

      Franks, Tom R.; Cleaver, Frances D. (Institution of Civil Engineers / Thomas Telford, 2009)
      Managing global water resources and providing water services to the world¿s people raises a continuing series of challenges, driven by increasing expectations, and a growing competition for water, which will be exacerbated by climate change. This paper explores how concepts of water governance and sustainability may help us to meet those challenges. Water governance is often equated with the role of government or management in the provision of water services. By contrast, we see governance as the system of actors, resources, mechanisms and processes, which mediate society¿s access to water. A broad conceptual framework is presented for the analysis of water governance, based on linkages between the resources available to society, the mechanisms that shape access to water and the outcomes of those mechanisms, both for people and the ecosystem. These linkages are mediated both by stakeholders and by management processes. It is argued that this conceptual framework offers a robust analytical tool for planning for sustainability as it is able to account for the complexities of water governance (of contexts, stakeholders, arrangements and uses). The paper concludes with observations about the ways in which the framework can be used to understand how different water governance arrangements produce variable outcomes in terms of sustainability.
    • Going Along to get Along: Victimization inc.

      Solas, John (2016)
      It has long been recognized that "when bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall, one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle" (Burke 1770, p. 146). In order words, all that is needed for evil to triumph is for good people to do nothing. Edmond Burke made the peril of inaction and dissociation in the midst of wrongdoing clear. When the need to act against victimisation arises, resistance is essential, and should not befall a brave few, for as Burke contended, there is safety in numbers. Despite Burke's advice, social psychological research (most notably by Latané and Darley 1970; Milgam 1974; Zimbardo, Banks and Jaffe 1973) has demonstrated the unreliability of unsolicited prosocial intervention into even the most glaring atrocities. Simply put, the numbers needed to ensure safety may not be there. While the reasons for inaction are both complex and manifold, they invariably point to a lack of supererogation and fiduciary responsibility. People look on rather than intervene either because they do not consider the fate of others their responsibility or business (Zimbardo 2007). Hence, are those who witness rather than contest victimisation innocent bystanders or accomplices? The answer has particular consequences for employees made victims of unscrupulous corporate supervisors, leaders, managers, and, most notably, their followers. This paper examines the moral question that inaction against victimisation in the corporate realm raises.
    • Goodbye to Projects? Briefing Paper 1: An Overview: Projects and Principles.

      Toner, Anna L.; Franks, Tom R.; Goldman, I.; Howlett, David; Kamuzora, Faustin; Muhumuza, F.; Tamasane, T. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2004-03)
      This briefing paper reports on research exploring ten detailed case studies of livelihoods-oriented interventions operating in Tanzania, Lesotho, South Africa and Uganda. Analysing these interventions through an audit of sustainable livelihood `principles¿ (as a proxy for best practice) revealed general lessons both about the practical opportunities and challenges for employing sustainable livelihoods approaches to the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development interventions and also about the changing format of development interventions.
    • Managing Water Amongst Competing Uses: The Usangu Wetland in Tanzania

      Franks, Tom R.; Lankford, B.; Mdemu, M. (2004)
      Demand for water in the Usangu Basin is driven by a number of competing uses. These include domestic supplies, irrigated agriculture, livestock, fishing, maintenance of the Usangu wetland, a National Park and major hydroelectric system downstream. As a result of a number of driving forces including the growing population, the water resources of the basin are becoming increasingly stressed, and downstream flows have now reduced to zero during the dry season. The paper is based on recent work to study to situation and work with local stakeholders to develop a sustainable management plan for the basin. Irrigated rice is by far the biggest user of water in the basin. The paper traces the successful development of irrigation there since the 1950s, based both on state-managed mechanised farms and on smallholder production. However, the expansion of irrigation has been a major factor in the change in water availability downstream, particularly as the cropping calendar expands into the dry season, when river flows are at their lowest. A number of initiatives are under way to try to reduce the impact of irrigation on the basin's water resources. These include projects to increase irrigation efficiency in smallholder systems, and improvements to water management institutions and processes. The aim is to restore dry season flows for downstream users by the year 2010.
    • Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches - Can they transform development?

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2002-12)
      This paper critically examines the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) in the context of broader development debates, using a literature review as a tool to explore the origins, concepts and uses of the `approach¿. Whilst the concept of sustainable livelihoods is valuable in advancing our understanding the complexity and embedded nature of people¿s lives, sustainable livelihoods frameworks and principles are too simplistic to offer many answers. This paper argues that the idea of net sustainable livelihoods has much to offer the current discourse on rights and governance but that this is in danger of being diluted by its conceptualisation as a new `approach¿ to managing development interventions.