• The Aid paradigm for poverty reduction: Does it make sense?

      Weiss, John A. (Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the ODI, 2008)
      Whilst thinking on economic policy for development has undergone many shifts with the perceived weak results of earlier adjustment reforms a new donor consensus has emerged based around the central themes of economic growth, good governance and social development. This paper examines the logic behind this new Aid paradigm and discusses the empirical evidence to support it. A nuanced story is revealed with country circumstances playing a critical role and particular interventions varying in impact across countries. For example, growth does not always lead to gains for the poor that match the national average; public expenditure needs to be targeted to achieve social development but effective targeting is difficult; governance reform may be critical but there is no simple governance blueprint and the corruption-growth association need not always be negative.
    • Can commercially-oriented microfinance help meet the Millennium Development Goals? Evidence from Pakistan.

      Montgomery, H.; Weiss, John A. (Elsevier, 2011)
      The current emphasis in the microfinance industry is a shift from donor-funded to commercially sustainable operations. This article evaluates the impact of access to microloans from the Khushhali Bank - Pakistan's first and largest microfinance bank which operates on commercial principles. Using primary data from a detailed household survey of nearly 3000 borrower and non-borrower households, a difference in difference approach is used to test for the impact of access to loans. Once the results are disaggregated between rural and urban areas there is a positive impact in rural areas on food expenditure and on some social indicators.
    • DES Working Paper No 2: 'Changing Trade Structure and Its Implications for China'

      Weiss, John A. (Department of Development and Economic Studies, University of Bradford, 2009-02)
      Based on the insight that the type of product an economy exports can have important implications for its economic performance and that goods exported predominantly by rich countries will have different characteristics from those exported by poor countries, Lall et al (2006) put forward a novel means of classifying commodities based on the income levels of a product¿s main exporters. At around the same time Hausmann et al (2006) following a similar approach put forward a slightly different form of product classification and Rodrik (2006) applied this specifically to an analysis of China. This paper highlights the difference between the approaches and its implications for the analysis of China, which appears less `special¿ using the approach of Lall et al.
    • Development in North East People's Republic of China: An Analysis of Enterprise Performance 1995-2002.

      Weiss, John A.; Geng, Xiao (2007)
      Regional disparities within China are now an important policy question. Recently the three provinces of the north-east region have been identified as priority areas for regional development, along with the Western part of the country. The north-east is the old industrial heartland of the country and its economy is based around heavy industry, mineral extraction and state owned enterprises. This paper uses a unique database on medium and large-scale enterprises to establish how far enterprise performance in the north-east differs from the national average and the reasons for any such differences. It finds that even allowing for industrial structure and ownership, performance in the north-east is significantly below that in the rest of the country. This is attributed to aspects of the investment climate in the region.
    • Foreign Direct Investment and Poverty Reduction in the ASEAN Region.

      Jalilian, Hossein; Weiss, John A. (2002)
      This paper represents part of an ongoing study on the topic of foreign direct investment (FDI) and poverty reduction in the ASEAN region. The overall study covers both macro- and microeconomic aspects of this issue, and this paper addresses the macro dimension. Considerable work has been done on the relation between economic growth and poverty reduction, and by now a conventional wisdom is emerging which can be stated simply that while growth is critically important for poverty reduction, the pattern and nature of the growth process in economies also matters. Following this reasoning this study explores the link between FDI and poverty reduction. The broad hypothesis to be tested is that FDI through its growth effect or other means is poverty reducing. While a great deal has been written on a variety of aspects relating to poverty, the precise FDI-poverty link has rarely been addressed directly, and we seek to remedy this gap in the literature. The paper is in four sections. The first discusses briefly the broad dimensions of poverty in the ASEAN region and recent trends in terms of FDI. Having set out these empirical dimensions, the remaining sections consider data analysis and results. The second section sets out the econometric approach and the results from the relevant literature, the third discusses data and some preliminary results. The fourth gives the main results, and finally we draw some conclusions. I. Poverty and FDI in ASEAN Naturally within ASEAN as a region the poverty picture is very varied, as one would expect given the diversity of income levels among the member states. Table 1 summarises the position in terms of income levels and past income growth rates. The inequality in the group can be seen readily with two high-income countries, Singapore and Brunei; three lower-middle income countries, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand; and the remaining members--Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar, Vietnam--all low income.
    • Investment Climate in China: province estimates

      Weiss, John A. (2008)
      This paper uses a large firm-level survey to assess differences in performance across regions. A panel data analysis is conducted to explain both productivity and profitability across firms in terms of firm and industry characteristics. Regional dummies are included to pick up additional location-specific impacts and the size of these dummies is used to rank provinces. Province performance is then examined in terms of geography, infrastructure, the policy environment and aspects of the investment climate with the conclusion that the latter plays a major part in explaining provincial differences in performance.
    • Manufacturing as an engine of growth

      Weiss, John A.; Jalilian, Hossein (2016)
    • People's Republic of China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: Analysis for 1990-2002.

      Weiss, John A.; Oikawa, H.; Lall, S. (2004)
      How have Latin American exporters been affected by the rapid increase in the PRC's exports to the USA and other large markets? Are PRC and Latin American exports complementary or competitive with each other? This paper examines detailed trade data to provide answers to these important questions. It examines the meaning of a "competitive threat" and provides a way of assessing the degree of threat from trade statistics. In general it finds that export structures in PRC and Latin American economies are sufficiently different for trade to be basically complementary with at present only a small portion of Latin American exports under a "direct threat" from PRC exporters. Mexico is the economy that is potentially at greatest risk; but as yet this has not shown up in the data.
    • Poverty Targeting in Asia.

      Weiss, John A. (Edward Elgar, 2009-09-21)