• Article III: Further Building Blocks

      Pearson, Graham S. (1998-10)
    • Article III: Some Building Blocks

      Pearson, Graham S. (1998-10)
    • Article IV: Confidentiality Provisions

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (2000)
    • Article IX: The Organization

      Kenyon, I.R.; Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (2000)
    • Article X: Further Building Blocks

      Pearson, Graham S. (1998-03)
      The Ad Hoc Group (AHG) of the States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) has the consideration of measures to implement Article X of the Convention as an element of its mandate agreed by the Special Conference in September 1994. The AHG has considered how to address this at each of its substantive meetings with a Friend of the Chair, initially Ambassador Jorge Berguno of Chile and subsequently, Carlos Duarte of Brazil carrying out this responsibility. As progress is being made on the development of the rolling text for the Protocol to strengthen the Convention, it is timely to consider how the implementation of Article X might contribute to the strengthening of the effectiveness of the Convention. Briefing Paper No 6 considered some of the developments that have occurred nationally, regionally and internationally in respect of the use of bacteriological (biological) agents and toxins for peaceful purposes. It noted that there is increasing awareness world-wide because of public health and environmental concerns of the need to control the handling, use, storage and transfer of such biological agents. That paper examined some of the current controls and regulations for biosafety and the international initiatives that are ongoing to strengthen biosafety around the world. These were seen as building blocks which might be considered from a point of view of strengthening the BTWC as well as contributing to the implementation of Article X although care will need to be taken in the Protocol for the AHG to avoid unnecessary duplication with other international activities. This Briefing Paper is complementary to Briefing Paper No 6 as it considers the national regulations in the UK, the EEC and in the United States as well as some other countries in respect of micro-organisms with the aim of providing some further building blocks to be considered in the strengthening of the BTWC and the implementation of Article X of the Convention. The challenging goal continues to be to identify how these other national, regional and international activities can be utilised to contribute to the strengthening of the BTWC.
    • Article X: National Implementation Measures

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (1999)
    • Article X: Some Building Blocks

      Pearson, Graham S. (1998-03)
      The Ad Hoc Group (AHG) of the States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) has the consideration of measures to implement Article X of the Convention as an element of its mandate agreed by the Special Conference in September 1994. The AHG has considered how to address this at each of its substantive meetings with a Friend of the Chair, initially Ambassador Jorge Berguno of Chile and subsequently, Carlos Duarte of Brazil carrying out this responsibility. As progress is being made on the development of the rolling text for the Protocol to strengthen the Convention, it is timely to consider how the implementation of Article X might contribute to the strengthening of the effectiveness of the Convention. This Briefing Paper considers some of the developments that have occurred nationally, regionally and internationally in respect of the use of bacteriological (biological) agents and toxins for peaceful purposes. It has become apparent that there is increasing awareness world-wide because of public health and environmental concerns of the need to control the handling, use, storage and transfer of such biological agents. This paper examines some of the current controls and regulations for biological agents and the international initiatives that are ongoing to strengthen biosafety around the world. These are seen as building blocks which might be considered from a point of view of strengthening the BTWC as well as contributing to the implementation of Article X although care will need to be taken in the Protocol for the AHG to avoid unnecessary duplication with other international activities. The challenging goal is to identify how these other national, regional and international activities can be utilised to contribute to the strengthening of the BTWC.
    • Article XIII: Review of the Protocol

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (1999)
    • Article XIV: Amendments

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (2000)
    • Article XX: Entry into Force

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (1999)
    • Article XXI: Reservations

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (1999)
    • Article XXII: Depositary/ies

      Pearson, Graham S.; Sims, N.A. (1999)
    • The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and Protocol Negotiations

      Pearson, Graham S.; Whitby, Simon M. (2000)
      Professor Graham S. Pearson discusses the scope of the international legal prohibition against biological warfare and provides an overview of the status of negotiations, currently in the end-game phase, to agree a legally-binding verification Protocol to the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.