• HIV/AIDS and Community Action: Now I know my Rights!

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Otieno, Paul; Thorley, Lisa (2012-01)
      This briefing presents research on a small project on the use of a rights-based approach by groups of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Northern Tanzania. It concludes that with support the groups were able to use the 2008 HIV/AIDS act to claim their rights to tackle stigma and access ARV medication. However, the fulfillment of these rights is limited by chronic poverty and structural weakness of the state.
    • How does it make a difference? Towards 'accreditation' of the development impact of volunteer tourism.

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Fee, Liam (14/12/2010)
      Whilst some argue that volunteer tourism is nothing more than neo-colonialism, we propose that it can (under certain conditions) make a positive contribution to local communities in developing countries and can also contribute to a ¿globalising, humanising civil society¿. We also argue that an increase in volunteer tourism is likely to be an unstoppable trend as international travel and easy global communication make ¿Do-it-Yourself¿ development activities ever more possible. In this chapter, we consider further the conditions required for volunteers to have a positive rather than a negative or neutral impact.
    • Meeting the capacity challenge? The potentials and pitfalls of International University Partnerships in Higher Education in Africa. A literature review.

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Akuni, B.A. Job; Thorley, Lisa (2012-01)
      The central aim of the paper is to examine the nature and function of higher education in Africa, and to explore the potential for partnerships between institutions in the Global North and South to assist in meeting the current capacity challenge. The paper starts with a critical exploration of the contemporary shifts taking place in higher education around the world and how this is transforming academic and professional identities. Following this is an analysis of the rationales that drive the process of ¿internationalisation¿ of higher education. We argue that internationalisation and globalisation present both a challenge and an opportunity for the rapidly expanding systems of higher education in Africa. We then go on to consider how international partnerships might support the development of Higher Education institutions in Africa and we present a critical analysis of the pitfalls and potentials of such collaborations. We also reflect on a long-term collaborative relationship between the Universities of Bradford (UK) and Mzumbe (Tanzania). From this we take the view that robust and strategic long-term partnerships can avoid neo-colonial relationships and offer potential for both partners, but this requires institutional commitment at all levels. This literature review serves as a foundational study, which will feed into further papers reflecting on the evolution and practice of the partnerships in place between JEFCAS (University of Bradford) and HE institutions in Africa.
    • Putting livelihoods thinking into practice: implications for development management.

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Franks, Tom R. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2005-08)
      The failure of `blueprint¿ development interventions to deliver substantive improvements in poverty reduction has been well recognised over the last twenty years. Process approaches seek to overcome the rigidity and top-down operation of much aid-funded intervention. Sustainable livelihoods approaches (SLA) are one of the latest additions to this family of approaches. As a theoretical framework and as a set of principles for guiding intervention, sustainable livelihoods thinking has implications for development management. Drawing on research exploring the application of sustainable livelihoods principles in ten development interventions, this paper considers how these principles have evolved from continuing debates surrounding process and people-centred (bottom-up) approaches to development management. This research suggests that whilst these principles can improve the impact made by interventions, the effective application of sustainable livelihoods and other process approaches are fundamentally restricted by unbalanced power relationships between development partners.
    • Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches - Can they transform development?

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2002-12)
      This paper critically examines the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) in the context of broader development debates, using a literature review as a tool to explore the origins, concepts and uses of the `approach¿. Whilst the concept of sustainable livelihoods is valuable in advancing our understanding the complexity and embedded nature of people¿s lives, sustainable livelihoods frameworks and principles are too simplistic to offer many answers. This paper argues that the idea of net sustainable livelihoods has much to offer the current discourse on rights and governance but that this is in danger of being diluted by its conceptualisation as a new `approach¿ to managing development interventions.