• Child sexual abuse amongst Asian communities: developing materials to raise awareness in Bradford.

      Gilligan, Philip A.; Akhtar, Shamim (2005)
      This article starts from recognition that child sexual abuse is perpetrated in all communities, but appears to be under-reported to varying degrees in different communities. It acknowledges that children who have been sexually abused will usually benefit from services designed to assist them in moving on from this experience and to provide future protection from perpetrators. It notes, in particular, the apparent disproportionately low take-up of relevant services by members of Asian communities in Britain. It places this in the context of reported responses to child sexual abuse in Pakistan, India and Bangladesh and explores the likely impact of factors arising from cultural norms in relation to family structure and role relationships. It reports on work begun within Asian communities in Bradford to increase awareness of and appropriate responses to child sexual abuse which hopefully address issues which are or relevance elsewhere. In particular, it discusses responses to a preliminary questionnaire, discussions with community groups, a consultation event held in April 2003, and a multilingual information booklet produced as a result. It urges respectful dialogue with women, men, children and young people in Asian communities as being essential to progress regarding appropriate responses to child sexual abuse
    • Cultural barriers to the disclosure of child sexual abuse in Asian communities: Listening to what women say.

      Gilligan, Philip A.; Akhtar, Shamim (Oxford University Press, 2006-12)
      There is apparent under-reporting of child sexual abuse in Britain¿s Asian communities and a varied capacity amongst professionals to respond with cultural competence. Professional approaches originate in cultural contexts, which are often different from those of most British Asians. If the proportion of children and non-abusing carers from Asian communities who access relevant services is to increase, professionals need to develop better understandings of cultural imperatives which determine behaviour in those communities. Consultations with Asian women in Bradford reinforce the view that culturally competent practice and respectful dialogue are essential to the protection of children. They also highlight a number of recurring themes. Members of Asian communities are aware of child sexual abuse, they recognize that the issue needs to be addressed by all communities and they report that many of those affected within their own communities have found it difficult to access relevant services. These consultations, like reports of similar work elsewhere, indicate that difficulties, which appear to arise from Asian women¿s fears about how agencies will respond, are frequently compounded by the impact of cultural imperatives arising from izzat (honour/respect), haya (modesty) and sharam (shame/embarrassment), which have a considerable influence on how many will behave.